Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism. Catabolism (exergonic) is the breakdown of complex organic compounds into simpler ones. Anabolism (endergonic) is the building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones.
Write the equation for respiration and fermentation. Know which uses oxygen.
_____ C6H12O6+O2-->CO2+H2O+ATP. Oxygen is used.
_____ glucose --> ethanol+CO2+ATP.
_____ uses oxygen_____ does not use oxygen, but could if necessary.
Describe the function of an enzyme and be able to write an equation and draw a diagram showing how it works.
The crucial function of enzymes is to speed up biochemical reactions at a temperature that is compatible with the normal functioning of the cell.
Thermophiles: Grow best btw 50-60dC. Min temp maybe <45dC
Hyperthermophiles: 80d C or >
Classify Microbes According To Oxygen Use
Obligate Aerobes: require oxygen
Microaerophiles: Require oxygen in lower percentages.
Facultative anaerobes: Prefers oxygen, but can survive without it
Aerotolerant: Don't use oxygen
Obligate Anaerobes: Killed by oxygen
Identify How and Why the pH of culture media is controlled
Microbes have an ideal pH range. Bacteria grow best btw 6.5 and 7.5 moles while yeast and molds best btw 6 and 7 moles. Media outside the range will have little or no growth. Buffers are added to culture media to maintain a specific culture media pH.
Explain The Importance of Osmotic Pressure to Microbial Growth
Microbes can be as much as 70% H20. Osmotic pressure helps ensure microbes are able to obtain enough H2O for cellular processes to continue.
Uses For Common Elements Used In Large Amounts For Microbial Growth
Carbon: Needed to synthesize all organic compounds
Nitrogen: Synthesize amino acids, proteins, and ATP
Sulfur: Synthesize amino acids, proteins, and vitamins
Phosphorus: Synthesize DNA, RNA, ATP, and membranes
Chemically Defined Media vs Complex Media
Chemically defined media are growth media with an exact and known composition. Used for experiments and growing autotrophic bacteria. Conversely, complex media is made of multiple organic extracts and may vary from batch to batch.
A population of cells arising from a single cell or spore or a group of attached cells. Often called CFU (____ _____ ____).
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