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Jim Bosley is a corporate manager for a large corporation. He has the authority to approve projects of the organization's subsidiaries. He knows that his PRIMARY source of power is his _______.
control over resources
_______ them is also crucial.
Managers use all of the following political tactics to increase their individual power
Tap the sources of functional and divisional power
Recognize who has power
Control the agenda
Bring in an outside expert
recognize who holds power
control the agenda
If a supervisor wants to gain credibility for his idea to shift work hours to an earlier time in order to increase productivity, it would be BEST for him to _______.
bring in an outside expert to back up his ideas
As the vice president for production at Acme Products, Bruce Bishop has learned that he can gain support to accomplish his goals by agreeing to support projects advocated by other executives at Acme. This process of trading support for the interests of various individuals or functions can lead to formation of ________.
political coalitions and alliances.
improved efficiency and is unavoidable
The potential for conflict ______ as the interdependence of functions or divisions _______.
According to Pondy's model, ________ begins when one party becomes aware that its goals are being thwarted by the actions of another party.
According to Pondy's model, during the ________ stage, conflict escalates as functions start to battle over the cause of the problem.
According to Pondy's model, as the parties in the ________ stage assert their views, the significance of the disputed issue is likely to be blown out of proportion.
A ________ takes an independent stance and allows the parties to find their own solution toa problem.
During management-union negotiations, ________ is the process by which the parties decide who will get what and how much.
Real communication occurs when ________.
Good communication serves the following functions in an organization ________.
Provides knowledge (info needed to perform job effectively)
Motivates organizational members
Controls and coordinates group activities
To provide knowledge - to clearly demonstrate what is expected of them
Give examples of how managers should use communication to motivate employees.
determine what outcomes subordinates are trying to obtain from their jobs
make sure employees perceive that obtaining these outcomes is contingent on performing at high level (make sure instrumentalities are high)
Encoding is MOST necessary to communication because it ________.
Communication is complete after ________.
A message is clear ONLY when ________.
Effective communication requires that the sender translate the message into a form that ________.
The communication process is complete when both parties ________.
Jill asked Jack to go to the store and pick up apples, milk, and bread. Jack was watching tv and did not look up at Jill when she spoke to him. He assured her that he heard her and would take care of her requests. When Jill left, Jack did not at all remember what Jill had said to him. Jill did not communicate with Jack due to _______.
To counter the effect of increasing diversity as a barrier to effective communication, many large organizations are ________.
-tone of voice
-use of questions and jokes
-willingness to take credit for others’ ideas
-use of pauses
-choice of words
A manager has been told by upper management to communicate a message to several of his employees. The manager needs to convey the message quickly and does not want to have a lengthy discussion about the message. His BEST option would be ________.
What determines the persuasiveness of a written message?
Characteristics of the sender
Content of the message
Method of communication (medium or channel)
Organizational members are engaged in ________ when they choose how to respond to new problems or novel opportunities.
Nonprogrammed decisions can become programmed decisions if they ________.
NEED TO BE MADE REPEATEDLY
HAVE TO SEARCH FOR INFORMATION
One of the assumptions of the classical model of decision making is that ________.
Decision makers have all the information needed to make optimal decisions
The administrative decision-making model is BEST described as ________.
Pack warm clothes and blankets for every future vacation no matter the destination or time of year.
Anchoring and adjustment heuristic.
The ________heuristic reflects the tendency to determine the frequency of an event and its causes by how easy these events and causes are to remember.
escalation of commitment by the buyer
List the advantages of group decision.
Availability and diversity of members skills and knowledge
Enhanced memory for facts
Capability of error detection
A devil's advocate is significant in groupthink because a devil's advocate will ________.
Not be afraid to find flaws and prevent groupthink
Group decision making is time consuming and burdened by conflict.
________ occurs when the group as a whole rather than any one individual is accountable for the decision.
________ can become dysfunctional when individual members become more concerned about winning the battle than in making a good decision.
Because the ________ allows group members to brainstorm privately, it avoids the problem of production blocking.
The Delphi technique
Total quality management includes the two group decision-making techniques of ________.
According to Peter Senge, what are the principles for creating a learning organization?
Complex mental models
Describe how an organization's workforce that is highly skilled would be structured.
A tax software company has many clients from a variety of bases. Some of the clients are individuals that need software for their personal expenses, and some of the clients are large corporations. The company should use a ________ structure.
An advantage of a product structure is that it allows a company to increase its division of labor so that it can ________.
Amos is an engineer on a team developing a new video game system. He is frustrated that one of his supervisors is impressed with the team's work while his other supervisor complains that Amos interacts with some of the team members too much. This supervisor feels that to be effective and develop a good product, Amos can't spend a lot of time working on being cordial and developing relationships. This role ambiguity caused by feedback from two different bosses could be seen as a disadvantage of the ________ structure.
Matrix structure (RW)
Matrix Structure (RW)
Why would an organization choose a matrix structure?
The first organizational design task is to ________ and create the structure best suited to the contingencies an organization faces.
Tall organizations have ________ hierarchical levels relative to their size.
In a ________, fewer managers are needed because their role is not to make decisions; instead, they act as coaches or facilitators and help other employees make decisions.
________ teams consist of people from different functions who are permanently assigned to work full time on a team to bring a new good or service to market.
in highly formalized organizations, job behaviors are MOST OFTEN ________.
Formalizing the kinds of behaviors expected
beliefs / values / norms
Following appropriate rules
Behaving cautiouslyObeying instructions
Eliminate punishments for unsuccessful risk taking ventures
Newcomers obtain information about an organization's culture by ________.
Observing other employees, Working with other employees, Participating in the organization’s
Professional ethics / individual ethics / societal ethics.
Predictability and stability are desired states
________cultures are those whose values and norms help an organization build momentum, grow, and change as needed to achieve its goals and to be effective.
What are some common instrumental values in a company with an inert culture?
Laziness / output restriction / noncooperation
According to Hofstede, ________ is the dimension of culture that focuses on the values that govern the relationship between individuals and groups.
Individualism versus collectivism
In a country with low power distance, such as Norway, the government would MOST LIKELY view programs to equalize wealth amongst all citizens in a(n) _______ manner.
The concept of ________ measures the degree to which countries accept social and economic differences in wealth, status, and well-being as natural.
Companies in two different countries have tried to work together by developing a joint venture. However, within six months of initiating this project, the companies find that they cannot work together. Employees in the different countries cannot seem to relate to one another. They have different outlooks on life. This is MOST LIKELY because ________.
Differences in national values and norms can make interaction difficult
Transferring their top managers to their global divisions
The main effect of establishing ethical rules is to regulate and control the pursuit of _______________.
Regulate and control the pursuit of unbridled self-interest
________ have the ultimate responsibility for ensuring an organization behaves ethically.
-Power and Conflict
-Differences in Functional Orientation
-Groupthink/escalation of commitment
In the text, an ________ is a person to whom employees can report ethical lapses by management or turn to when faced with ethical dilemmas.
Research suggests that ________ is one of the main reasons for the inability of some organizations to change the status quo.
Impediments to change that cause ________ are found at all levels of the organization.
-Power and Conflict
-Differences in functional orientation
Describe briefly the role of values and norms in an organization's culture.
values and norms can cause people to to behave in predictable ways; if organizational change occurs, people are likely to resist.
Organizational change is MOST LIKELY to be resisted ________.
reengineering - ground up design of business
restructuring - simplify by eliminating divisions, departments, levels in hierarchy, downsizing
What should managers do to support the successful implementation of TQM?
Managers must be willing to decentralize decision making, empower employees, and become work facilitators rather than supervisors. The “command and control” model gives away to an “advice and support” model. It is also important that employees, as well as managers, share in the increased profits that successful TQM programs can provide.
adopt new ways to look at their roles in an organization
Some companies have abandoned their attempts at TQM because it requires too much commitment over a long ____________.
________ involves the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in cost, quality, service, and speed.
An owner knows that his organization can save a lot of money and produce a better product if specific changes are made. He knows that the employees will not partake in the change themselves. He would have the MOST success if he implemented ________.
Are reengineering and total quality management interrelated and complementary?
By educating employees and managers and communicating with them
In organizations where performance is deteriorating rapidly, ________ is MOST LIKELY to be used in order to turn things around.
Determining desired state
In action research, the recognition of the need for change arises because someone in the organization ________.
Thinks there is a gap between desired performance and actual performance
________ involves deciding what the organization's strategy and structure should be.
Advantages - Less influenced by internal politics; detached view helps them see the forest through the trees; insiders are too close to the problem and cannot see the true source of the problem.
Disadvantages - Have to employ someone new from external source. May not be able to take control of employees as much as an internal agent. Internal locus of control.
List several goals of organization development.
i) improve organizational effectiveness and
ii) help people reach their potential and realize their goals
Education and communication
Participation and empowerment
Bargaining and negotiation
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