-It was proposed by Clements. Viewed individuals, populations, and communities have a relationship like cells, tissues and organs.
-Said that communities have predictable and distinct associations of species, separate communities, separated by sharp boundaries.
-Productivity, Habitat Heterogeneity, Benign/Extreme Environments, History/Time, Low Extinction, Stability, Competition Gradients, Predation Hypothesis, and Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis.
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