17th Century Pharmacy: Influence Of Colonial America
April 8, 2008 17th Century Pharmacy: Influence of Colonial America on the Development of Pharmacy and Medicine The continents of North and South America, which first became known to Europeans at the very end of the 15th century, began to influence the world of Western Medicine and Pharmacy by the 17th Century. Louis Hebert (1575-1628) first formally trained pharmacist in the New World French Pharmacist trained in France. His family had a successful pharmacy in Paris. 1605 He went to the French settlement of Canada in 1605 ( today ( Quebec. In what is present day Nova Scotia (Dutch name but under French Control. Involved in pharmacy and agriculture. 1613 British came there and threw the French out of Nova Scotia. Some of the French who were there went further west to what is today the province of Quebec. Herbert returned to Paris and went back to practice 1617 Settled in Quebec and worked there till his death. Practiced pharmacy and was a community leader Governor John Winthrop (1588-1649) “The Governor who healed the Sick” 1630: British trained lawyer sent to Massachusetts to serve as governor. Colony he was to lead had begun 10 years earlier by Puritans. First governor of this colony. Very influential in establishing the city of Boston 1640: Didn’t have any formally trained pharmacists (apothecaries). To serve the needs of the people, he imported medicines from England. In his home he would mix medicines and made them available to the people of the colony. Reflected the fact of a lack of formally trained pharmacists John Winthrop Jr (1606-1676) – First governor of Connecticut. Established the first plants/labs for production of inorganic chemicals – some of which could be used as drugs. John Winthrop III (1638-1707) – Also governor of Connecticut. They became interested in medicines, drugs, and chemicals. Role of religious orders of women in providing nursing and pharmacy services in hospitals: St. Louise de Marillac (1591-1660) – Established a religious order of women in France. To serve the poor and elderly in hospitals (more like hospices then). Came French-Canada to staff the first hospitals. Nuns served as the first hospitals pharmacists in the New World. 1639, Quebec, New France (Canada) – The Hotel-Dieu Hospital in Quebec City (Soeurs Augistines De LaMisericorde De Jesus) 1693 – Quebec General Hospital Doctor Shops – physician/apothecary – still no clear separation between physician and apothecary. While people were serving an apprenticeship to be a doctor they would run these doctor shops. One of the key places where people got their medicine in the 17th and 18th century. 19th century – began to decline. Eventually replaced by traditional apothecary shops. William Davis – 1646 – in Boston. 6 years after the time of Governor Winthrop Gysbert van Imbroch: 1653 and 1663 (new Amsterdam became NYC in 1664): apothecary/physician. Opened a pharmacy in New Amsterdam. Later, he moved further North (in 1663) in Kingston, NY. 17th Century Training and the Status of Physicians and Pharmacists America 1636: First University in present-day United States – Harvard – eventually had a medical school. During the 17th century, most of the physicians who had medical degrees came from Europe. 1755: Rutgers University: Pharmacy School 1892. Medical schools did not come to NJ until the middle of the 20th century. 1821: 1st US Pharmacy School: in Philadelphia. Up until that time, all of the pharmacists who were trained in the US got trained from apprenticeships. Europe: University training in the 17th century was starting to replace apprenticeship training for physicians. First actual free standing pharmacy school in Europe did not open until late 18th century in Paris, France. King James I of England (reigned 1603-1625) and his influence on pharmacy. Guild of Grocers (Spicers/Pepperers) – Pharmacists were in this league. As time went on they wanted to separate – their own league. Sir Francis Bacon – He was interested in scientific issues. Felt that apothecaries would bring a more scientific approach to medicines. England was getting ready to make the London Pharmacopeia official (on April 26, 1618). If pharmacists don’t support it, it wouldn’t become successful. Pharmacopeia Londonensis – became official on April 26, 1618 King James’ Proclamation of December 6, 1617: Established the Society of Apothecaries of London. Society of medicine opposed in (physicians). Pharmacists must abide by the standards to appease the physicians. Also to appease the physicians, apothecaries must agree to not practice medicine (no charging for diagnostics). The consequences and reality of the proclamation of December 6, 1617: Really not enough trained physicians to serve the needs of the people so people still kept coming to pharmacists for diagnostic purposes. But they would not charge for them to keep with the law. Today, we are reimbursed by the products we fill, not counseling. The most significant drugs from the new world Drug Active Ingredient Historical Significance Current Status Coca Leaves Cocaine In Colombia. It is the molecular basis for local anesthetics – like Novocaine. Has been used as a stimulant, but is very addictive. CII – Controlled substance – most strictly controlled class of narcotics that is available Controlled substance drug. Legal to use it as a local anesthetic. Major drug abuse problem. Cinchona Bark (Peruvian Bark) (Jesuit’s Bark) Quinine Observed by Jesuit clergyman, Agostino Salumbrino (1561-1642). First effective anti-malarial. Gave Europeans more courage to go into Africa and begin the slave trade. Molecular basis for most of the subsequent anti-malarial drugs put on the market (derivatives). Also the molecular basis for anti-arrhythmic drugs (control bad heart rhythms) – Quinidine – diasterioisomer or quinine. Still useful in treating malaria but there are resistance problems Curare d-Tubocurarine Poison arrows used by Native Americans. The substance that was on the arrows would immobilize the person and lost all muscle tone. Derived a class of drugs called the Neuromuscular Blocking Agents – modern drug – Atracuronium bromide. “Cur” in the name. Used as an adjunct to surgery. Tobacco Leaf nicotine Major recreational drug. Recognized as a major health hazard. Increasingly socially unacceptable. Thomas Sydenham (1624-1689) – Father of Clinical Medicine in England – Best way to learn and practice medicine, you had to go the bedside of the patient ( direct care. Physicians dressed pompously but he didn’t dress that way. Students asked him what books to read, he would answer Shakespeare. Describe Syndenham’s influence on one of the drugs in the chart above. Developed Laudanum – tincture of opium. Very powerful more so than paregoric. What the cause of cinchonism was. Cichona was used to treate many things. When they administered the drug the patient went into cinchonism – toxic effects of the drug. He said if you give a correct dose it will be more effective. Cinchonism effects: Tinnitus (temporary loss of hearing – a ringing in the ear); dizziness; rash; blurred vision. Extreme cases: anti-arrhythmic – toxic effects to the heart.