University of Tennessee Dr. Catherine Higgs History 262 (World Civilizations) January 20, 2010 Bulliet Isthmus of Suez Osmani Turks Mansa Musa McNeill Volga River Morocco Ibn Battuta Eurasia Caspian Sea Algeria Syncretism Nile Pastoral nomads Tunisia Gao Niger Islam Libya Ethiopia Ganges Muslim Kola nuts Adal Yangtze Zheng He Sijilmassa Portugal Silk Road Five Pillars Benin Swahili Antioch Mecca Ghana KiSwahili Persia (Iran) Ramadan Mali Zenj Gobi Desert Hajj Songhay Zimbabwe Beijing (Peking) Qur?an (Koran) Kumbi-Saleh Marco Polo Ottomans Almoravids THE WORLD IN TRANSITION, part one Themes and limits in the study of world history Richard W. Bulliet, et al., The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History, volume 2: Since 1500, 4th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2008) William H. McNeill, The Rise of the West (1963, 1991) States, governments, migration, religion and environment The World in 1400 Geography Cultivation and civilization Near major sources of water The Nile Ganges Tigris and Euphrates Yellow River Yangzi 2. Major crops a. millet b. wheat c. rice Trade routes-united people in 1400s Climate dominated trade routes Isthmus of Suez From the Mediterranean to red sea to India c. how and where did the people of the old world travel? i. The silk roads Old world: before discovery of the Americas Islam Judaism (circa 5th-3rd centuries B.C.E.), Christianity (ca. 4 B.C.E.-1 C.E.), Islam (ca. 622 C.E.) Muhammad at Mecca, 622 C.E. Islam vs. Muslims The five pillars: one God (Allah); pray fives times daily; give alms, observe fast of Ramadan; Hajj The Ottoman Empire The Trans-Saharan Trade Exports-gold, slaves, cloth, ivory, pepper, kola nuts Imports-horses, grass, copper, glassware, beads, leather, textiles, tailored clothing, salt(salt mines at Sijilmasa) North African trading emporiums: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya West African empires Ghana (ca. 400-1240 C.E.) Sacked by Almoravids, ca. 1067 C.E. Mali (ca. 1235-1500 C.E.) Mansa Musa?s hajj, 1324-1325 C.E. Songhay (ca. 1460-1600 C.E.) Sacked by Moroccans, ca. 1591 C.E. Islam-official religion of Songhay East Africa Ethiopia and Christianity Swahili coastal trading towns Blend of culture: artisans and laborers Slaves, ivory, rhino horn, amber, luxury goods across the Indian ocean Trade through skiffs called Dhows Zimbabwe Africa was never isolated Questions to consider: 1. How did geographical barriers shape world history around 1400 C.E.? 2. What formed the bases of the interactions between the peoples of the world in 1400? 3. How extensive was the reach of Islam in 1400? How do you explain its appeal? 4. In what ways did the Trans-Saharan trade link the old world?s economies around 1400? 5. In what ways was the East African-Indian Ocean trading network different from that centered in the Mediterranean basin and along the North African coast?
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