REL 320 Study Guide: First Exam Key Terms Indulgences sola scriptura sola fide faith good works transubstantiation predestination double predestination ?the priesthood of all believers? sacraments ?Magisterial Reformation? ?corporate salvation? (as it relates to Catholicism) ?high church? vs. ?low church? ritual ?radical monotheism? (as illustrated by the story of Job) theodicy Arminianism (Jacobus Arminius) Anabaptist (meaning of) Puritans vs. Pilgrims ?city upon a hill? covenant visible saints conversion narratives theocracy, quasi-theocracy jeremiads ?inner light? ?second blessing? revivalism (distinctive features of) camp meetings circuit riders ?new measures? ecumenism (of revivalism) evangelical Christianity (features of) Traditions: Textbook, Reader, and Lectures Definitions and Theories of Religion Review the concepts I discussed in lecture: substantive definitions, functional definitions, ?family resemblance? definitions, ?irreducible complexity,? religion as a toolbox. Review the differences between the religious study of religion and the academic study of religion, including such ideas as ?methodological agnosticism,? ?methodological atheism,? insider?s vs. outsider?s perspectives, critical tolerance, etc. Know the differences among the theologies of Martin Luther, John Calvin, Jacobus Arminius, and the Catholic Church, especially with regard to: How one is saved or ?soteriology??the doctrine of salvation. This includes their various ideas about original sin and its consequences, divine election, the nature of faith, human free will, the sacraments, and saints. Views on church/state relations Signs or evidence of divine election. Luther and Lutheranism, focusing on: Luther?s various criticisms of the Catholic Church. The religious reforms Luther initiated, e.g., doctrinal, clerical (including lay and monastic life), Biblical, liturgical (ritual and how it should be conducted), and sacramental. Calvin and Calvinism, focusing on: Calvin?s theology (TULIP) ?Radical monotheism,? ?double predestination,? and their relationship to questions of divine justice, i.e., theodicy. Calvin?s Geneva and ?low church? reforms. The Church of England, the Puritans, and the New England way, focusing on: The Reformation in England, its origin, a general sense of its ongoing conflicts, and their relationship to the Pilgrims and Puritans. The Puritan understanding of the New World, their mission, their covenant with God, and God?s providential role. Various features of the ?New England way? (attitudes towards church/state, conversion narratives, signs of election, the ?visible saints? and accompanying benefits) including prominent dissenters and the reasons for its decline. Max Weber?s understanding of the relationship between Protestantism and the rise of capitalism. The Great Awakening, Second Great Awakening, and the history of revivalism, focusing on: Significant figures and what they are known for, e.g., Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield, Charles Finney, etc. The distinctive features of revivalism (its understanding of salvation, the clergy, being ?born again?) especially as contrasted with the older establishment. Critics of revivalism and the tactics they used to curb it. The ways in which revivalism changed over the centuries, specifically with respect to its understanding of salvation, the conduct or practice of revivals, the origin of revivals, and the nature of God. The Radical Reformers, Anabaptists, and Amish, focusing on: Attitudes towards scripture (especially in contrast with Luther and Calvin), the primitive church, and its implications for religious practice. Attitude towards church/state relations and the logic behind it. The religious style and society of the Amish. Magic in the New World, focusing on: The general differences between elite and folk religions (also understood as the differences between ?religion? and ?magic?) The relationship between the Reformation (Protestantism) and the witch craze. The clerical or ?providentialist? understanding of magic and human suffering, vs. the folk understanding of magic and human suffering. The Quakers, focusing on: Its origins, founder (George Fox), and the doctrine of the ?inner light.? Attitudes towards swearing oaths, paying taxes, military service, pacifism, gender, slavery, and the logic behind these attitudes. View of church/state relations, including the implementation of their views in Pennsylvania. Methodism, focusing on: Its origins, founder (John Wesley), and the meaning or significance of the name ?Methodism.? Why were they called ?Methodists?? Wesley?s views on salvation, spiritual practice and growth, the ?second blessing,? revivalism (his innovations), and slavery. The Movie (on reserve in the library): The Reformation: An Age of Revolt: answers to classroom questions
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