Number 1 continued… b. Translation: i. Point 1: Description of term Individual vs. aggregate public opinion. ii. Point 2: Representatives must run their constituency with all tenants in mind. To ignore a few of them for the greater good is not bad. iii. Point 3: People in general do not know what they want, therefore cannot thrive well or be happy in a representative democracy – Burkean trustee is a must in this case. 3. Dahl a. Because of Dahl’s seven undemocratic elements of the constitution…. Assumption: Dahl would argue for more representation. i. Slavery, Suffrage, Election of the President, Choosing Senators, Equal representation in the Senate, Judicial Power, Congressional Power b. Translation: i. Point 1: The system is incapable, according to Dahl, of providing adequate, democratic representation of the people – therefore he would argue that representatives are responsible to the people. 4. Gallup (page 329) a. While Gallup realizes a representative is responsible to his/her home district, Gallup calls for Burkean Trustee. (More representation of the whole) i. “We need to know the will of the people at all times.” if we know the will, “the efficiency of democracy can be increased, because we can substitute specific knowledge of public opinion for blind groping and guesswork.” ii. “Some critics charge that public officials pay too much attention to polls” ”…Elections are a confusing and imperfect way of registering national opinion” b. Translation: i. Point 1: Gallup implies the people are an important source of governance. Not a specific set of definite and defined rules by legislators. However, “the people” should be taken at a national perspective. – “After one hundred and fifty years we return to the town meeting. This time the whole nation is within the doors.” ii. Point 2: Gallup mostly talks about polling and how this arena needs to change. But in doing so, he advocates for representatives to be more in tune to what the people want as a whole. 5. Morin (page 337) a. Morin for Burkean Trustee (sounds like a slogan, huh?) i. “Morin cautions that polls can be ‘risky,’” and “other problems arise because people will answer questions ‘even if they don’t really have an opinion or understand the question that has been asked’” ii. “The difference appears to be the word fight. America is a peaceable kingdom; we hate it when our parents squabble and are willing to accept just about any alternative—including Clinton’s resignation—to spare the country a partisan fight. But when the alternative is less overtly combative—stand trial in the Senate—Americans are less likely to scurry to the resignation option” (338P6) b. Translation: i. Point 1: Morin would argue that people may not understand every issue, and therefore it is the responsibility of the representative to act best on their behalf, and responsibility then lies in the whole. ii. Point 2: Everyone’s definition of every word can be different. An attempt to gain an opinion from the people may not represent the feelings of the people at all. This point concurrent with Hibbing/Theiss-Morse.