OBJECTIVE 10.13 ? Discuss Rogers? views of a fully functioning individual; define his concepts of the self, self-image, incongruence, being authentic, ideal self; conditions of worth, organismic valuing, positive self-regard, and unconditional positive regard; and explain how Markus and Nurius? concept of the possible selves help to direct our future behavior. OBJECTIVE 10.14 ? Explain the best way to judge a theory; and compare and contrast the trait theories, psychoanalytic theory, behavioristic and social learning theories, and the humanistic theory in terms of a. their views of human nature; b. whether behavior is seen as free or determined; c. principal motives; d. personality structures; e. the role of the unconscious; f. the concept of conscience; g. the developmental emphasis of each; and h. what each sees as barriers to one?s personal growth. OBJECTIVE 10.15 ? Discuss the following assessment techniques in terms of purpose, method, advantages, and limitations: a. structured and unstructured interviews, including the problem of the halo effect; b. direct observation using rating scales, behavioral assessment, and/or situational testing; c. personality questionnaires, including the definitions of test reliability and validity and an overview of the MMPI-2; d. honesty tests; e. projective tests, including an overview of the Rorschach and the TAT; and f. a test battery. OBJECTIVE 10.16 ? Describe the personality characteristics of sudden murderers, and explain how their characteristics differ from those of habitually violent persons. OBJECTIVE 10.17 ? Describe the characeristics of shyness; its causes; why shyness involves public self-consciousness rather than private self-consciousness; the key difference in shy and not-shy persons; how shyness is maintained by four self-defeating beliefs; and how shyness can be treated by replacing these unproductive beliefs and learning social skills.
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