Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
Explain the conflict perspective on social control and deviance.
Where may bias appear in the criminal justicesystem?
--“crime” is used most oftento refer to dangerous actions of the poor (not to the actionsthat cause the most misery and suffering)
--examples of corporate crime, health care, and workplace safety
the significance the table showing “how Americans are really murdered”?
Black children are 5% of Iowa’s public schoolchildren but make up approx. 22% ofsuspensions and expulsions
Rate of black incarceration in Iowa is 6Xhigher than white rate; blacks make up 2.3% ofIowans but 23.7% of new prison inmates
Be familiar with Edward Morris’ study of a Texas middle school.What was his research method? What were hisfindings? On which students’ clothing did the teachers focus? Why?
--used participant observation
--Teachers identified students who lacked knowledge of norms and attempted to reformthem by regulating their bodies (clothing wise)
--Teachers favored the white and asian americans over the latinos and blacks
Why are black men disproportionately arrested and imprisoned for drug crimes?
--The federal government provides funding, equipment andincentives for police to focus on drugs
--Courts have increased police ability to stop and searchsuspects
--Most defendants can’tafford good legal representation.
--The War on Drugs is focused on black inner-cityneighborhoods
What is the significance of the fact that drug users can be found in SiliconValley and atIowa State University?
Why are some drugs illegal and others aren’t? What role does the harmfulness of drugs play?
The War on Drugs illustrates how decisions ranging from whatdrugs are illegal to who is the target of law enforcement towhat punishments are fitting are shaped by the meaning of thedrugs (not objective evidence)
What is “driving while black”? What have studies about it found? What is the 100-to-1 rule? What is thesignificance of “driving while black” and the 100-to-1 rule to understanding the mass incarceration of blackmen?
--“Driving While Black” describes the greater likelihood ofblack drivers being stopped by police
--blacks and latinos are the minority but they get stopped most frequently
“100-to-1 rule”: refers to federal sentencing standards passed in the 1986
--5 grams of crack = 5 years (mandatory)
--500 grams of powdered cocaine = 5 years
--10 grams vs. 1,000 grams = 10 years
--African-Americans more likely to be convictedfor crack; whites and Hispanics for powdered
Explain the sociological view of rationality.What are value andformal rationality?
--Sociologists view rationality as a socialconstruction
--Formal rationality involves cost-benefitanalysis (instrumentality, calculability)
--Value rationality involves commitment to a bindingconviction; dominant in tradition and religion (“What is the virtuous thing to do?”)
What was Max Weber’s claim about theimportance of formal rationality in the modern world?
Max Weber believed the most important developmentin the modern world was a change in rationality—thegrowing importance of formal rationality
What is a bureaucracy?
large hierarchicalorganization governed by formal rulesand regulations and having clearlyspecified work tasks
What are the three aspects of bureaucracypresented in lecture?
Impersonality: Decision-makingcriteria that ignore personalcharacteristics
Division of labor: Subdivision ofdifferent people or groups in differenttasks, characteristics of mostbureaucracies
Hierarchy of authority: Ranking ofpeople or tasks in a bureaucracy fromthose at the top, where there is agreat deal of power and authority, tothose at the bottom, where there islittle power and authority
How does AlvinGouldner’s study of a Gypsum plant illustrate how bureaucraciesdiffer from non-bureaucratic organizations?
-Half of workers related to other workers
-Little paperwork; things handled on case-to-casebasis
-Workers could try different jobs until they foundone they liked; rhythm determined by workers
-Workers used plant materials and servicesWorkers were happy, but customers andcompany managers were not
What is McDonaldization?
McDonaldization:“the process by which the principlesof the fast-food restaurant are coming to dominatemore and more sectors of American society as well asof the rest of the world”
Efficiency: the search for theoptimum means to a given end
Streamlining processesSimplifying goods andservices,
Using customers toperform work
Calculability:emphasis on thingsthat can becalculated, counted,and quantified
Name and describe each of the four aspects of McDonaldization. (3)
Predictability:emphasis on thingsbeing the same fromone time or place toanother
Offering uniformproductsReplications ofsettings
Scripting ofemployee behaviors
Control (of people)through replacementof human withnonhuman technology
MachinesArchitecture/interior designLimited options
What are the “irrationalities of rationality” that Ritzer describes?How can the results of formal rationality be said to be irrational?
Inefficiency and higher costs
The illusion of fun
Health and environmental hazards
Define and explain globalization, grobalization andglocalization.
-Globalization: the process through whichpeople’s lives all around the worldbecome increasingly interconnected
-Grobalization (grow + global):Globalization involving “theimperialistic ambitions ofcorporations, states, and others andtheir imposition of their ways ofdoing things, products, and so forthon the local.”
-Glocalization (global + local): themixing of the global and the local
What are the three components ofgrobalization?
Capitalism: Capitalist firms seek to expand—includingexpansion across national boundaries
McDonaldization:The principles of the fast foodrestaurant are spreading across the world
Americanization:“the propagation of American ideas,customs, social patterns, industry, and capital aroundthe world” (Ritzer)
Glocalization emphasizes thecontinued importance of localinfluence on globalizedproducts
Strategic glocalization involvescorporations localizing globalproducts
Organic glocalization involvespeople creatively transformingglobal products
Give examples of how some nations have more powerthan others to affect the outcomes of globalization
International agencies like the InternationalMonetary Fund and World Bank have powerover poor nations’ policies
The IMF loans money to countries inexchange for “austerity policies”
Be familiar with each of the four case studies discussedin class and what they illustrate about globalization.
--Foxconn: Taiwanese company w/factories in China, which make national electronicproducts
--Women from developing nationsmigrate to wealthy nations connected to a wife’straditional role
--2010-2011: Quran-burning controversy
continuous,large-scale, organizedcollective action motivated bythe desire to enact, stop, orreverse change in some areaof society
What are the four types of social movements (basedon how much change they call for and who ischanged)?
-Alternative social movements seek changefor specific individuals focused on one aspectof their lives
-Redemptive social movements seekradical change for their adherents
-Reform social movement seek tochange limited aspects of a society
-Revolutionary socialmovements attempt tooverthrow an entire socialsystem and replace it withanother
-Sociologists dislike the term “cult”because of its negative connotations,prefer “New Religious Movement”
Explain the difference between old and new socialmovements. Be able to give examples of each.
Old social movements: related to economicstruggles between “haves” and “have-nots”
E.g., labor movement, Grange movement
New social movements: focus on non-economic quality of life issues and identities
E.g., feminism, gay rights, peace movement,environmentalism, pro-choice/pro-life,animal rights
The lecture discussed several factors that help explain why some socialmovement are successful and others aren’t. Be able to explain all of these.
Political opportunity structure
A coherent system of beliefs,values and ideas
Linkage between social movementframe and frame of social movement recruit
Reaching people who already share the frame
Convert people to their frame (frame
Manipulate existing frames for new purposes(frame extension)
are a better predictor of protest(or rioting) than deprivation
--Chicago police riot
Persuasion: disseminating group’smessage
Bargaining: offering something(votes, $) in exchange for somethingelse
Coercion: creating disturbances orthreatening to do so
Be familiar with findings about how social movement success/failure isconnected to social networks, rising expectations, resource mobilization,bureaucratization, and political opportunity structure.
Social networks: people are recruited into socialmovement activities through friends and relatives
Resources: key resources include money, people andorganizational strength
There are advantages for bureaucratic socialmovement organizations
Political opportunity structure: some environments aremore friendly than others for social movements
Describe and explain the four possible consequences of social movementsdiscussed in class.
Social movements may result inchanged social policies, e.g, newlaws
Social movements may result inchanged social attitudes
E.g., groups of people may beconstructed as deservingsympathy or vilification
Social movementsmay result in newinterestorganizations (PETA)
Social movements may resultin biographical change forparticipants
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!