The First Farmers Broad Spectrum Revolution wider range, or broader spectrum, of plant and animal life was hunted, gathered, collected, caught, and fished It was revolutionary because if led to ?food production? in the middle east. Broad Spectrum Revolution Basic foraging was the primary subsistence mode for Homo, from erectus to well beyond the appearance of anatomically modern humans. Neolithic Revolution The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East high plateau the hilly flanks the steppe the alluvial plain The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East In the hilly flanks, habitual harvesting of wild grains did occur, and it is suggested that this abundance led to the first sedentary villages dependent on harvesting wild grains. Natufians Deliberate cultivation most likely came in response to documented climatic changes Vertical Economy refers to the patterned adaptation that occurs in areas where several different ecological zones in hilly or mountainous terrain occur close to one another. Many of the places where food production evolved (Middle East, Peru, Mesoamerica) were areas of vertical economy. Trade resources gained in value through interregional trade, which in turn resulted in intensified exploitation of the resources. the movement of the grains outside their indigenous zone, where they were subjected to different selective pressures, resulting in different strains of wheat and barley Genetic Changes and Domestication In wild grains, the axis (the stem connecting the seed to the stalk) is brittle, which allows the grain to reseed itself easily. Fossil remains indicate that domestication of sheep and goats was accompanied by a decrease in the size of the animal. Food Production and the State The early stages of food production in the Middle East were marked by gradual transition from foraging to producing economies. In the Tigris-Euphrates alluvial plain (Mesopotamia), cultivation required irrigation, which began around 7000 B.P. By 6000 B.P., irrigation systems had become far larger and more complex, and were associated with a new political system, "based on central government, extreme contrasts of wealth, and social classes": the state. Other Old World Farmers Cultivation evolved independently in areas other than Mesopotamia, based upon crops other than barley and wheat. A list of the other areas and their chief crops. a. Sub-Saharan Africa: millets and plantains. b. Southeast Asia: rice. c. China: millet and rice. d. Mesoamerica: maize (corn). e. South America: potatoes. First American Farmers America was first settled by immigrant H. sapiens from Asia, who followed big game (mammoth) herds across Beringia, perhaps 25,000 years ago. Descendents formed the Clovis tradition. The Foundations of Food Production independent development of food production in the New World to occur 3,000 to 4,000 years after it occurred in Europe and Africa. domesticated animals were never important to the economy. Staple crops in the New World were maize, potatoes, and manioc Early Farming in the Mexican Highlands Valley of Oaxaca Oaxaca became the original center of maize domestication. The apparent ancestor of maize was a wild grass, teocentli As in the Old World, several millennia passed after the origin of cultivation before the first states arose. From Early Farming to the State Around 3500 B.P., sedentary life developed separately in two parts of Mexico: the Gulf Coast and the Pacific. Archaeological evidence of an elite level has been dated as early as 3500 B.P. The Olmecs were a chiefly society flourishing between 3200 and 2500 B.P., who built ritual centers of a scale associated with elites who could marshal mass labor. The Olmecs were followed by the city state of Teotihuacan (1900-1300 B.P.) and the Aztec state (A.D. 1325 -- conquest). State Formation in the Valley of Mexico By A.D. 1, a settlement hierarchy, with communities of different size, function, and types of structures, had emerged, with the religious center, Teotihuacan, at the top of the hierarchy, smaller cities between, and rural farming outposts at the bottom. After its peak (A.D. 100-700), Teotihuacan experienced a rapid decline in size and power, its population dispersed, and it was succeeded by the lesser Toltec state (900-1200 A.D.), and then the Aztecs. Costs and Benefits surplus for economic diversification and specialized trades greater social inequality, intensified warfare, and crime, and are uniquely associated with slavery
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