POS 2041 The Presidency 22 Feb 2012 Main Idea Details Who can become President? Article II: At least age 35 to run A natural-born citizen Resident 14 years Articles of Confederation No Executive Branch 4 yr terms, no term limits originally 22nd Amendment (1951) Presidential Succession Act (1947) 4 Presidents died in office Harrison, Taylor, Harding, FDR 4 Presidents assassinated Garfield, McKinley, Lincoln, Kennedy Chief Executive First nation to democratically elect chief executive Initially a uniquely American institution Commander in Chief Congress Declare war Raise and maintain the country?s armed forces Commander in chief Power to deploy armed forces Technically only after declaration of war, but rule is never followed Head of State Ceremonial Activities Official state visits to other countries Chief Diplomat INHERENT POWER Diplomat Foreign policy National representation Appoints ambassadors Political Party Leader Founders did not believe in establishment of political parties Appoints chair of national party committee (Debbie Wasserman-Schulz) Political power through presidential appointment/removals What are some important presidential appointments? Proposal and Ratification of Treaties Treaty Formal agreement between two or more sovereign states President has sole to propose treaty Senate must approve it by a 2/3 vote of the members present START treaty Power to Make Treaties Requires Congressional approval Treaty of Versailles (1919) Woodrow Wilson League of Nations (precursor to UN) Period of ?Isolationism? Main Idea Details Power to undo treaties Does not require Congressional approval GW Bush International Criminal Court (War Crimes) Why did this withdrawal occur? Kyoto Agreement Reducing smog emissions Mexico City Policy Republicans usually repeal, and Democrats re-enact Obama signed back into law US is largest donor of foreign aid Much goes to Family Planning Clinics Power to Grant Reprieves and Pardons Should presidents have power to grant pardon? In 1925, the SC held that this power is absolute and that not even Congress can overrule it Veto Power Veto Congress can override with a 2/3 vote Line-item veto Unconstitutional Signing Statements GW Bush wrote 161 statements Challenging more than 1,100 clauses of federal law Allow president to disregard a specific provision of a bill ?I?m allowing this to go into effect CONDITIONALLY? Example: 2005 Congress passed a law PROHIBITING TORTURE Bush: ?Executive branch will interpret law consistent with constitutional authority? Power in Foreign Affairs Senate must ratify any treaty Executive agreements What are some executive agreements invoked by presidents? What were their consequences? Do presidents take advantage of their powers in times of crisis? Loaned Britain warships -> we were allowed to use British naval bases in western hemisphere The War Powers Resolution War Powers Resolution Act (1973) Limits the president?s war-making powers Notify Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops Can?t deploy troops for more than 60 days War on Terrorism Did Bush follow War Powers Act? 2001 joint resolution authorizing by Congress Afghanistan only 2002 Congress authorized war in Iraq Increasing Use of Executive Orders Executive orders What is it and how is it derived? Eisenhower?s orders to desegregate schools Orders have the force of law Little Rock Executive Order used to: Create military tribunals ?Enemy combatants? Deny 6th and 14th amendment rights Main Idea Details Presidential legacies Nixon and the War on Drugs: Shafer Commission Effects of marijuana/drug use Recommend drug policies Commission determined that possession and non-profit transfer of marijuana should be decriminalized Nixon?s reaction to finding: Not what ?the country wants/feels? Scare weed users Turn them into criminals ?hard drugs v. soft drugs? Marijuana arrests jumped from 100,000 to 420,700 Vietnam, Media, Academics NIXON ?decimate? North Vietnam ?Never forget, the press is the enemy? ?The establishment is the enemy? ?The professors are the enemy? Nixon?s attitude towards the establishment led to the veto of 4 Higher Education bills, restricting funds He referred to 4-yr degrees as ?unnecessary liberal education?
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