Lecture Notes 2/6/09 Historical Trends Three major trends Political revolutions: 19th century Western Europe (Germany, France, GB) They were wars of Liberation New ideals of humanism: Putting humans as central focus. Individual desire to control own fate Industrial revolution: peasants flocking to cities, rise of middle class demanding democracy, scientific explosion, transportation explosion Vocabulary Renaissance: the vigorous revival of learning and art beginning in 14th century Florence and extending throughout Europe by the 17th century Reformation: the religious movement in the 16th century that led to the establishment of the Protestant churches Enlightenment: a philosophical movement of the 18th century marked by a rejection of traditional social, religious, and political ideas and an emphasis on rationalism Humanism: any system of thought in which human interests and values are taken to be primary Age of Reason: a period characterized by a prevailing belief in the use of reason; especially the 18th century in Britain and France Early Sociologists Auguste Comte: The father of sociology Positivist: he wanted to base reality on facts and demonstrations Age of science/ ?priesthood of humanity? ?social statics? and ?social dynamics? Order and change. Rigid dies, flexible survives-need balance Not a dispassionate observer Very sensitive. Should help improve society Herbert Spencer: Systematized knowledge Evolutionary concepts sociology ?survival of the fittest? Applying it to society-the fittest society will survive Human societies-living organisms Has different parts that need to work together Noninterference with progress Should be natural Society gets better on its own People (Robber Barons) used his theory for ?social Darwinism? Karl Marx: ?scientific socialism?/ Das Kapitcal Dialectical change Solutions-social environment Economic institution-capitalism ? influence during lifetime
Want to see the other 2 page(s) in 2/6/09?JOIN TODAY FOR FREE!