CA 470: O utline ? 2/9/10 Philippine National Revolution of 1896 I. INtroduction Larger questions for week: What is nationalism, and how did it differ in the Philippine Revolution of 1896 from the American Revolution of 1776? How did ideals of ra cial equality and national sovereignty, articulated in novels, paintings and newspapers, inspire the Philippine Revolution? Why look at this revolution? 1) First nationalist revolution in Asia ? first in Asia to successfully overthrow a colonial power and create a modern nation-state 2) First revolution globally to overthrow European high imperialism 3) Pre-cursor to other revolutions (demonstration effect) ? including the Philippine ?people power? revolution of 1986 4) Insights on political martyrdom & eulogy in construction of martyrs 5) Uses of media 6) Significance in engaging the problem of nationalism II. connection between nationalism & question of dignity revolutions as battles over economic & political control, but also over questions of human dignity people who have had their dignity broken down to the extent that they begin to adopt the colonizer ' s perspective that they are lesser than others inferiority complex Before Treaty of Versailles (1919) ? global legitimation of empire based on: ? ?superior races?: right to subordinate ?lesser races? Rhetoric of guardianship reinforcing erosion of dignity: offensive, patronizing, but why also possibly seductive? More advanced, more civilized than you but we care about you as a people and will protect you militarily will bring you into the world market help you until you dress like us, speak like us, and share our values ? even though you ' ll still be lesser holds a promise for the lesser group. At least the wealthiest and most educated will maybe be seen as equals eventually These promises are always ever receding on the horizon Colonize d group will never be strong enough to gain independence and will never be considered equal. Philippine revolution provides important insights into this problem III. The Problem of nationalism & ?The nation-State? ? Europe vs. Europe?s Colonies The emergence of nationalism and the ?nation-state? in Europe ? Old states, monarchies, and principalities become mono-ethnic, mono-lingual new nations New nation-states formed on principle of ethnic & cultural unity New nation-states then became imperial powers and divide up other parts of world into colonies & protectorates State boundaries in many former colonies ? accidents of colonial conquest, encompassing not one but dozens, even hundreds, of ethno-linguistic groups ? Result: many emerging nations beyond Europe artificially bounded Why significant? Nationalism emerging from colonialism (vs. nationalism in Europe): 1) Nations form from territo ries mapped out by European colonizers 2) New Western-educated elites (in Philippines, the Ilustrados ): ? anchored in native culture but studying at Western universities ? bond intellectually & socially as Western-educated ? equal to Westerners while also holding deep connections to their homeland ? adopt nationalism to reject white colonial ideology ? as nationalist leaders, begin to articulate a new national identity for their homeland and a vision for the future IV. Benedict Anderson?s theory of nationalism ? From: Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities (Verso, 1991), pp. 1-36. If anyone would like a copy of this reading, see me after class. Nationalism as an invention of emerging national elites Stages in the emergence of nationalism: 1. New educated native elite emerge as European colonial burea ucracies expand to staff an expanding civil service. ? as they administer, begin to identify with the whole of the colony, not just individual localities. 2. Their career advancement blocked to advantage colonial officials. Colonial officials justify their positions on racial/cultural grounds: ? by virtue of racial/national/cultural superiority, are destined to rule. 3. Educated native elite seek reforms from colonizer government? little success. 4. They lead in the creative imagining of a new nation: Their new nationalism becomes a counter-nationalism . a. Translate European concepts of culture and nation into local languages b. Re-appropriate language of subordination used by colonizer ? e.g., Ilustrados re-appropriate the term ?Filipino,? making it a symbol of nationalism b. Reinvent history and fashion a new national mythology (e.g., creation of a lost Golden Age) Myth of the past becomes historic basis for new nation Rewriting the past also serves to unify (e.g., via new myth of universal resistance against colonizers) d. Often, designate one language as the ?national language? 5. Expropriation of ?the colony? itself. V. political martyrdom Criteria: 1. Innocence 2. Willingness: C lear signs of knowing sacrifice, willingly going to one?s death for cause 3. Witnesses/witnessing vI. KEY Rhetorical elements of Philippine nationalism [Thursday ] Ilustrados (also called Propagandistas) ? educated exiles VII. Spanish confrontation with the Filipino Catholic Church Spain?s clash with native Filipino Catholic Priests ?leading to Spain?s fatal error 1. The 1872 Revolt 2. The execution of Father Josť Burgos
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