PSYC 2606 Test 2B Dr. Martichuski Fall 2008 1. Rules for accepted and expected behaviors are called A. values. B. norms. C. attitudes. D. both norms and attitudes. 2. Personal space between friends in the U.S. is usually a distance of approximately A. 6-7 feet. B. 4-6 feet. C. 1-3 fet. D. 0-1 feet. 3. Evolutionary psychology has been criticized for A. hindsight biases. B. unethical treatment of human participants. C. the use of unrepresentative samples. D. only studying aggression. 4. Peter just started college this semester. His mom wants him to be an excellent, straight-A student. His friends want him to party with them all of the time, saying that these are his carefree student days. Peter is not sure what he wants to be as a student. He is experiencing A. role overload. B. role reversal. C. intrarole conflict. D. interrole conflict. 5. Individualists A. are more likely to be female. B. teach the value of hard work for one?s pay. C. are more likely to make the fundamental attribution error. D. are more likely to use hindsight bias. 6. When men and women want empathy and understanding, they are most likely to turn to a A. spouse. B. woman. C. man. D. coworker. 7. When examining someone?s ethnic self-awareness, researchers ask people with a mixed heritage A. which heritage they identify with more. B. how much they identify with each heritage separately. C. what norms they prefer to follow. D. which parent they identify with more. 8. The new president of the Debate Team is not really sure how to behave as the president. She is experiencing A. role ambiguity. B. person-role conflict. C. intrarole conflict. D. interrole conflict. 9. Evolutionary psychologists study A. physical traits. B. psychological traits. C. both physical and psychological traits. D. neither physical nor psychological traits. 10. The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next are called A. beliefs. B. norms. C. cultures. D. values. 11. Which statement about social norms is FALSE? A. Social norms make social interactions run more smoothly. B. Social norms cause us to feel uncomfortable when they are violated. C. Social norms control us so successfully that we hardly sense their presence. D. Social nors are independent of culture. 12. When an initially discounted message becomes effective, a delayed impact of the message occurs. This is called the _____ effect. A. sleper B. short-term emory C. delayed reaction D. longevity 13. According to Aronson (1997), when fear aroused by a persuasive message is relevant to a pleasurable activity (e.g., sex or smoking), the result is often A. intensified fear. B. reduced fear. C. imediate behavioral change. D. denial. 14. A comunicator is said to be _____ when he or she is perceived as both an expert and trustworthy. A. honest B. guileless C. honorable D. credible 15. An audience is more likely to perceive a speaker as sincere when A. the audience is alert. B. the speaker argues an expected position. C. the audience is tired. D. the speaker argues against their own self-interest. 16. When Coca-cola shows happy people drinking Coke, they are using the _____ route to persuasion. A. peripheral B. central C. logical D. image 17. The size of a listener?s latitude of acceptance depends on whether or not the A. receiver of the message is emotionally invested in the topic. B. receiver of the message is interested in the topic. C. comunicator of the message is credible. D. comunicator of the message is articulate. 18. People who are quick to respond to peripheral cues, such as a comunicator's friendliness, are _____ in the need for social approval. A. low B. average C. high D. slightly above average 19. A cult has all of the following characteristics EXCEPT A. a distinctive ritual and beliefs that are related to its devotion to a god or a person. B. the use of mind-altering drugs. C. isolation from the surrounding "evil" culture. D. a charismatic leader. 20. Joanne asked her husband if he thought it was okay if they went on a three-week European vacation. Her husband blew up, saying that they couldn?t possibly afford it because of the bad economy. Joanne agreed, and suggested that maybe they just go to the beach for a week. He agreed, saying that that idea is more reasonable. Joanne snickered because she wanted the beach trip the whole time. She used what technique on her husband? A. ingratiation B. reciprocity C. foot-in-the-door D. dor-in-the-face 21. Which of the following illustrates media influence through a two-step flow of communication? A. A teenager buys a video game she saw advertised both on television and in her favorite magazine. B. A domestic car manufacturer sponsors a television program about the defectiveness of many foreign imports. C. A candidate for political office answers questions from members of a studio audience on live television. D. A man buys a new laundry detergent after having it recomended by a friend, who had read that it was both effective and environmentally safe in a consumer magazine article. 22. Even though Jan really dislikes wearing dresses, she decided to wear one to her cousin's wedding. This is an example of A. obedience. B. acceptance. C. conformity. D. compliance. 23. If you clean your room only because your parents order you to, your behavior is a form of A. obedience. B. acceptance. C. conformity. D. compliance. 24. The spread of bodily complaints within a school or workplace with no organic basis for the symptoms is called A. mass influence. B. mass hysteria. C. social influence. D. mass delusion. 25. If there is a red button, and a sign next to the red button that says, ?Don?t push the red button?, we have a desire to push the button. This is because we are experiencing A. the false uniqueness effect. B. the fundamental attribution error. C. the self-serving bias. D. psychological reactance. 26. People are MOST LIKELY to conform to A. a unanimous group. B. a group of younger people. C. a group with two others in it. D. a group with a dissenting confederate. 27. Which factor is associated with more obedience? A. gender B. sadism C. extroversion D. none of these 28. After President Bush announced his position regarding a possible war with Iraq, he was unlikely to change his mind. This most likely reflects the A. we-they polarity between the political parties. B. fact that public commitment reduces susceptibility to social influence. C. fact that the high status of the office elicits a need for uniqueness. D. fact that higher-status people are more susceptible to psychological reactance. 29. Although he made a promise to himself to not take illegal drugs, Tom gave into peer pressure at a party to smoke marijuana because he did not want to be rejected by the others. Tom's conformity is a result of A. dissention. B. acceptance. C. normative influence. D. informational influence. 30. When the influence of the situation is _____, the consequent behavior is more likely to be a result of _____. A. weak; individual personalities B. weak; external circumstances C. strong; individual personalities D. strong; dispositions 31. The experimenter in Milgram's study used all EXCEPT which of the following verbal prods to encourage participants to continue? A. "It is absolutely essential that you continue." B. "You wil be penalized if you refuse to go on." C. "You have no other choice, you must go on." D. "The experiment requires that you continue." 32. According to a video shown in class, in the recent study where researchers did the Milgram obedience study again, subjects in the study exhibited A. nervous laughter. B. uncontrollable sobbing. C. profuse sweating. D. all of the above 33. In the remake of the Milgram study video, they showed a recent situation where obedience to authority was not questioned. That situation was one where A. a serial killer was arrested, and he claimed that he was just following orders when he killed his victims. B. a manager of a McDonalds was told over the phone to strip search a young employee. C. a U.S. senator used obedience to party leaders as an excuse for his congressional voting record over the past several years. D. a woman abused her own children because her husband told her to. 34. According to a discussion in class about the original Milgram experiment, some psychologists suggest that obedience was not really being measured because A. the experiment was only done in one place, which was very prestigious (Yale University). B. the experiment had no mundane realism. C. at some point, participants were confused because they were no longer testing the hypothesis that punishment affected learning. D. the experimenter and the post-experimental interviewer were different people. 35. Asch?s line judgment study, where participants told which of three lines matched a criterion line, was a study of A. obedience B. persuasion C. conformity D. informational influence 36. During the 1970s, the military junta in power in Greece initially selected candidates for officers based on their submission to authority. The candidates were first asked to guard prisoners, then to observe torture, and then to eventually practice torture. This process demonstrates how _____ can breed _____. A. obedience; conformity B. conformity; obedience C. compliance; acceptance D. acceptance; compliance 37. Which of the following is NOT a social group? A. a doctor with her patient B. a group of friends who share the same taxi and decide who gets dropped off first C. four people working together on a class project D. five people waiting in a check-out line at a department store 38. When the rules for a jury require everyone to vote the same way in order to reach a verdict, they are using the _____ rule. A. unanimity B. majority wins C. plurality D. quorum 39. Douglas and McGarty (2001) reported that the anonymity of Internet chat rooms, newsgroups and listservs seems to foster more hostile behavior than is observed in face-to-face conversations. This is an example of how _____ contribute(s) to deindividuation. A. group size B. physical anonymity C. arousing activities D. culture 40. Which one of the following is NOT an explanation for group polarization? A. informational influence B. normative influence C. social facilitation D. desire to be accepted 41. The text suggests that the extremism of terrorist organizations, such as those involved in the September 11th attacks on the United States, is very likely the result of the naturally occurring proces of A. group polarization. B. pluralistic ignorance. C. social loafing. D. social facilitation. 42. According to the video on groupthink, which of the following is NOT a characteristic of groupthink? A. Closed mindedness B. Illusion of vulnerability C. Self-censorship D. Ilusion of group cohesion 43. Triplett conducted one of social psychology's first laboratory experiments by asking children to wind string on a fishing reel. The results of the study indicated that there was a positive relationship between the speed at which the children wound the reel and the presence of other children. Later studies found the same pattern and dubbed it A. the groupthink effect. B. the social facilitation effect. C. social loafing. D. deindividuation. 44. Your psychology professor has assigned group projects to your class. She has chosen to individually grade each student's contribution to the assignment as an attempt to reduce A. social facilitation. B. social loafing. C. minority influence. D. group polarization. 45. According to the video shown in class Wednesday, it is easier to become deindividuated when A. someone is being encouraged by a leader. B. group members have similar clothing. C. here is conformity in hairstyle among group members. D. the group has uniform behavior. 46. Brainstorming A. doesn?t work but people think it does because of the illusion of outgroup homogeneity B. doesn?t work but people think it does because of the ilusion of group effectivity C. does work, and is a good strategy if a group is trying to be creative with solving a problem D. does work, and is a good strategy if a group is trying to eliminate impractical options for solving a problem 47. Groups tend to loaf less when A. the members of the group are friends. B. the members are dissimilar. C. the members will never see each other again. D. the members are strangers. 48. Increased arousal enhances performance A. only on easy tasks. B. only on complex tasks. C. on dominant responses. D. on all responses. 49. Which of the following circumstances contributes to people becoming deindividuated? A. They are imersed in a large group. B. They are physically anonymous. C. They are involved in arousing, distracting activities. D. Al of the choices are corect. 50. Zimbardo reported that women who were masked and hooded in KK-style hoods and robes tended to _____ than women who were visible and wore name tags. A. administer longer shocks to a victim B. engage in greater social loafing C. make riskier decisions D. make more contact and reveal more personal information Diane Martichuski 2606test2B089key
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