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What are the 4 main tooth types in mammals?
What animals have wide zygomatic arch?
herbivores, including baboons and apes
predator/hunter - to focus on prey(binocular vision)
What is the purpose of the foramen magnum?
it determines the way the head is held (humans 90 deg; gorilla 45 deg; chimp 45 deg; orangutan 45 deg)
What do the auditory bullae do?
What does it mean when a mammal has eyes oriented to the side?
herbivore - looking for danger all around
What is the genus/species name of humans?
food is hard to chew (takes a lot of muscle power)
fish faces its intruder
What is a fixed action pattern?
what is the term for warning coloration?
what is cryptic coloration?
coloring that conceals or disguises an animal's shape.
What advantages does a small mammal have?
muscles for chewing attach there
What are the 4 main types of cheekteeth and what diet are they specialized for?
Selendont - grinding tough vegetation
Bunodont - grinding vegetation and meat
lophodont - grinding grains and green vegetation
secodont - shearing meat away from bone
What is agnostic behavior?
any behavior related to fighting
which skulls possess a large sagittal crest?
Where do gorillas live and what do they eat?
vegetables augmented with fruit
What can you tell about a mammal's lifestyle if it has large auditory bullae? Why?
nocturnal - good hearing
fish stays in one place and wiggles side to side or up and down
may vary in degree or angle of extension of operculum (gill covering)
How can you estimate the age of a mammal by its skull?
teeth and how much they are worn down
What advantages does a large mammal have?
harder to mess with
better at retaining heat
when one dies from exhaustion
What is an ethogram?
a list of behaviors with observable definitions
increase in swimming speed
self explanatory - make sure to document baseline speed
How can Bettas live in waters with low oxygen saturation?
they can gulp air
What is the term for males gaining access to multiple females by defending a desirable territory?
resource defense polygyny
Describe this behavior:
What does snout position and size of teeth tell you about food consumed?
the longer the snout, the harder the food is
may include elevation of some or all of the dorsal, ventral, or pectoral fins
What does the size of the braincase tell you about the organism?
braincase size is a good approximation of intelligence
What is the term for upright posture and walking on two legs?
What's different about the Virginia Opposum compared to other mammals? (animals with pouches)
fish subject that is observed throughout an experiment (when more than 1 fish are involved)
what is the thinner end of the blastocoel called?
What are the cells at each pole called?
Macromere at vegetal pole (bigger)
Micromere at animal pole (smaller)
Diffusion across thin tissues such as dermal branchiae (thin spots between ossicles) and tube feet
How are ampullae recognized? (sea star)
Small spherical structures along each side of the ambulacral ridge
Water Vascular System
What is created when the macromere cells begin to invaginate?
Tube like structure called archenteron
What is the ventral surface of a sea star called? (because mouth is there)
What are the ossicles?
The calcareous plates embedded in the skin of an echinoderm
Which part of the echinoderm is made up of spines and calcareous plates?
What structures surround the mouth on a sea star?
1. one cell stage
2. two cell stage
3. four cell stage
4. eight cell stage
7. gastrula with blastopore (becomes anus)
What adult structures come from the endoderm? (in an echinoderm)
What direction is the cleavage in each of the first 3 divisions?
2-cell stage longitudinal
4-cell stage longitudinal8-cell stage equatorial
What gland produces digestive enzymes, and is bi-lobed?
What class of Echinoderm is a sea star?
Where are the gonads found? (in echinodermata)
Emerging from the central disk
What are the two parts of the sea star’s stomach?
Cardiac stomach, larger and closer to the oral surface, connected to the mouth by a short esophagus
Smaller pyloric stomach on top of the other, connected to 2-5 dark rectal ceca which temporarily store waste
1. lateral canal
3. tube foot
4. ring canal
5. radial canal
6. ampullae (2)
7. stone canal
What is the thicker end of the blastocoel called?
What class of Echinoderm is a sea cucumber?
What is the hollow space inside the blastula called? (in echinoderm)
Name a significant feature of the brittle stars (Class Ophiuridea)
What do the ampullae do? (in echinoderm)
Cnidarians have radial symmetry, NOT pentaradial
Where are the eye spots located? (in echinoderm)
At the tip of each arm
What is the bony ridge running along the midline of each arm?(echinoderm)
Name 2 significant features of the Sea Cucumber (Class Holothuroidea).
Leathery cylindrical body
No arms or spines
What are the soft, thin circular structures distributed among the spines on a sea star called and what are they for?
Dermal branchiae – thinner tissue allows for gas exchange by diffusion
What does the blastopore develop into in the adult sea star? (remember, Echinoderms are deuterostomes)
What word describes the cell divisions that occur after the haploid egg is fertilized, returns to the diploid condition and mitotic division begins?
What is the small round plate slightly off center in the central disk of a sea star and what is it for?
Madreporite - the opening to the water vascular system and acts as a pressure regulating valve
What is the fertilized egg called after meiosis goes to completion?
What is the blastula?
What is the dorsal surface called?(because mouth is NOT there) (sea star)
Which is more closely related to humans, evolutionarily speaking: Echinoderms, Molluscs, or Arthropods?
What is the solid ball of cells called, as cleavage continues?
Morula (word means mulberry)
What is the outer layer of cells called? (echinoderms)
What are the main parts of the Echinoderm nervous system?
Nerve ring, located in central disk regionRadial nerves that extend into each arm
What adult structures come from the ectoderm? (echinoderms)
Epidermis and nervous system
What structure extends from the mouth down the middle of each arm, housing both the radial canal of the water vascular system and the radial nerve?
Cells of the archenteron make up the 2nd layer of cells – what are they called?
2. ambulacral ridge
3. ampullae (2)
5. rectal seca
8. pyloric stomach
9. cardiac stomach
Describe the path through the water vascular system
How does the total mass of an 8 cell embryo compare to the unfertilized egg?
Very little change
What does the word ‘echinoderm’ mean?
What embryonic germ layer develops into muscle, bone, blood, and other connective tissues?
What kind of symmetry do Echinoderms have:
Bilateral in larval stagePentaradial in adult stage
What adult structure forms from the archenteron fusion with animal pole?
What is another name for the lateral canals in the water vascular system?
What is a gastrula?
2-layered embryo formed once the archenteron developed
What class of Echinoderm is a sea urchin?
How do we know that Echinoderms are more closely related to Humans than molluscs or arthropods?
By comparing embryological development:
1. way coelom forms in Echinoderms is similar to Vertebrates
2. pattern of cell division after fertilization of egg is similar to Vertebrates3. Vertebrates and Echinoderms are deuterostomes– 2nd opening that forms is the mouth in adult
What is pentaradial symmetry?
Appendages and organs of adults occur in groups of five or multiples of five.
Adult echinoderms are arranged in a roughly radial manner, but some body parts can be offset from the center
Name 2 significant features of the Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars (Class Echinoidea).
Dermal plates fused to form a shell
Name 2 significant features of the Sea stars (Class Asteroidea).
5 to 25 arms attached to central disk
Flexible spiny skin
What is the short tube under the central disk that is joined to the madreporite?
What are the tube feet used for and where are they located?
Terminal ends of the water vascular system; terminal end has a sucker attached to the ampulla. Found extending from the ambulacral groove
How does the sea star begin digestion of its prey outside its body?
It can evert its stomach through its mouth
What is the function of the ureters?
carry nitrogenous waste from kidneys to bladder
What is the difference between fetal and adult circulation patterns?
Fetal: blood taken to placenta where gas and nutrient exchange occurs
Adult: gas exchange occurs in lungs; nutrients enter blood stream through digestive tract
What 3 structures add secretions to sperm as it moves out of the body?
In the female body, where does implantation occur?
What organ inside the mother holds a developing fetus?
Name the male reproductive structure where sperm is stored
What structure is found in the left pleural cavity?
left side, top to bottom and acrossbottom (7 items)
What urinary structures are whitish tubes leaving the kidneys?
What is the time called when a fetus is developing in utero?
What valve opens between the left atrium and the left ventricle?
What is the function of the epididymis?
Where is the heart found?
pericardial cavity of the thoracic cavity
What is the first chamber that receives blood from the body?
What does the thyroid gland do?
right 7 features
What are the sheets of peritoneum called that project from the abdominal wall and support the organs?
What is the opening of the uterus called?
Where is the spleen found?
attached by mesentery to the stomach; long reddish organ
Where does most absorption in the small intestine occur?
in the placenta
Where in the female body does fertilization occur?
What are the 2 parts of a mammal's body cavity?
What membrane lines the abdominal cavity?
What is the pointed flap of tissue in the back of the throat?
under the stomach in the mesentery that joins the stomach and small intestine
What part of the large intestine is considered the colon?
from the juncture with the small intestine into the pelvic region
How does bile get from the gallbladder to the duodenum?
through the bile duct
What kind of tissues make up the peritoneum?
epithelial tissue supported by connective tissue
How does blood get from the left ventricle to the rest of the body?
through the aorta
What is the coiled tubule around the testis?
left side, top to bottom (6 items)
How many sections are found in the thoracic cavity? What are they?
3 - left pleural cavity, right pleural cavity, pericardial cavity
What is the small coiled tube near the ovary?
oocytes or eggs
clockwise from 12 to 6
What part of the pig is analogous to a human toenail?
What organ absorbs water and prepares waste for defecation?
What large, brown, convex organ is found under the diaphragm?
What kind of mammals are pigs?
What structure separates the nasal passage from the oral cavity?
Where does blood from the body enter the human heart?
What is the largest chamber of the heart?
How long does pig gestation last?
about 17 weeks
What is a v-shaped gland just below the larynx?
Name the male reproductive organs where sperm is produced
What is the pancreas' function?
secrete pancreatic juices which help digest protein,fat, carbs
secrete insulin and glucagon into bloodstream to help maintain normal blood sugar levels
What is a tetrapod?
How does the heart muscle get oxygen?
coronary arteries which come off the aorta
What 2 systems are closely tied together and sometimes called the urogenital system
What small tube runs parallel to the rectum?
What are 3 parts of the large intestine?
colon, rectum, anus
What is the function of the urinary system?
clockwise from 6 to 12
What is the cavity of the human uterus called?
In the human female reproductivesystem, what are the feathery ends of the fallopian tubes called?
left 7 identified features
How old were the pigs dissected in lab?
15 weeks gestation
How does oxygen rich blood get from the lungs back to the heart?
pulmonary veins to left atrium
Not head, right side top to bottom
bottom, left to right
right lobe of liver
top right, clockwise
What is the point where the uterus and fallopian tube come together?
What major organs are found in the thoracic cavity?
heart and lungs
Where are ovaries located?
posterior to kidneys
clockwise, from top right - whatsystem?
What is the function of the bile duct?
What female structure is both a copulation organ and birth canal?
What structure is just posterior to the hard palate?
4. small intestine - duodenum
5. large intestine - colon, rectum,anus
What are some of the liver's functions?
destroying red blood cells
maintaining blood glucose levels
features, clockwise from top right
(air in ; food in; to stomach; to lungs)
What is the anterior end of the small intestine called, where it joins the stomach?
Where is the right lung found?
right pleural cavity of the thoracic cavity
What is the function of the urethra?
scrotal sac within scrotum
Where is the gall bladder found in the body?
dorsal to the right lobe of the liver
What organ stores and releases bile?
What does the glottis lead to?
clockwise, from top right
What male organ develops in the abdominal cavity then moves outside the body?
Why is the adult mammalian heart called a 'double pump'?
it sends blood to the lungs for gas exchange and into the body to deliver nutrients and collect waste
In the female reproductive system what organ produces eggs (ova)?
How does blood get to the lungs to be reoxygenated?
from right ventricle to the pulmonary arteries to the lungs
Where is the larynx located?
on top of the trachea
Name 2 functions of the liver
Destroy old red blood cells
maintain blood glucose levels
What structure is a blood rich lining of the uterus?
Name the 4 parts of the urinary system
What fluid, stored and released by the gall bladder, aids in the digestion of fat?
What is the voice box called?
Name the tubes that carry sperm from the epididymis to the urethra
What valve opens between the right atrium and the right ventricle?
Why is the left ventricle the largest chamber of the heart?
is has to force blood throughout the entire body when it contracts (big muscle)
What system is the thymus gland part of?
In the male reproductive system,what are the tubes where sperm is produced - inside the testes?
What structure connects a developinganimal and the placenta?
What is called the crossroads of food and air? Why?
What structure is found at the front of the mouth and contains several ridges?
Where does excess water leave the body of a cephalochordate?
What are the 3 subphyla of Chordata?
1. oral cirri
3. pharyngeal gill slits (3)
8. ventral fin
What is paedomorphosis?
How many species of ray-finned fishes are there?
5 features, from top left, andthe organism
1. dorsal nerve cord
3. pharynx with gill slits (2)
5. postanal tail
- urochordate larva
Name the class mammals are in
Name 4 characteristics that all fish share, and 1 that most share
2. use gills to breathe
4. possess fins as means of locomotion
5. fins, all except hagfish and lamprey
What 3 characteristics of Chordata are thought to be associated with increasing size and mobility?
2. cranium and vertebral column replace notochord
3. adaptations in circulatory and respiratory systems to support more active life style
Class Amphibia -
legs for walking & swimming
lungs/nostrils for breathing air
modified sense organs
What term means: concentration of nervous tissue and sensory structures at the anterior end?
What 'fish' has a skeleton of cartilage and produces a lot of slime?
frogs, toads, salamanders
What Chordate invaded Great Lakes fisheries after a canal was built and destroyed commercial fish?
Lizards, snakes, turtles,crocodiles, alligators
How many groups of existing vetebrates are there, and how are they divided?
8 total: 4 fish, 4 tetrapods
What part of the urochordate is made of a cellulose-like material that is unique in the animal kingdom?
What class includes lizards, snakes,turtles, crocodiles, and alligators?
How did birds adapt for flight?
front limbs = wings
hind limbs - bipedal locomotion
reduction of skeletal weight
How many species of lobe-finned fishes are there?
Name the class birds are in?
What do the subphyla Urochordata and Cephalochordata have in common?
invertebrates, lacking a vertebral column
How do birds and mammals regulate their body temperatures?
endothermy - without regard to their external environment
What does the term 'mammalia' refer to?
mammary glands for feeding young
What is the term for retention of juvenile form into adulthood?
How do urochordates swim?
they don't - most are sessile marine organisms
What primitive chordate is in subphylum Craniata?
Lancelet is the common name for what subphylum of Chordata?
What class includes frogs, toads,and salamanders?
What is endothermy?
body temperature regulation without regard for environment
identify 5 features, from bottomleft to bottom right, and the animal
1. pelvic fin
2. pectoral fin
3. external gill slits
5. external nares
10 features, bottom left to bottomright
2. gall bladder
5. pyloric caeca
7. adipose tissue
10. urinary bladder
Which class requires a water habita tat some stage of their life?
Name the 2 features at the top ofthe adult urochordate and what they handle
1. excurrent siphon - wastes and CO2
2. incurrent siphon - food and oxygen
What group of fish is the most primitive chordate?
What 2 physical features help birds and mammals regulate their body temperature internally?
feathers and hair/fur
What class is commonly called cartilaginous fish?
Why do zoologists think urochordate larvae might have evolved into modern chordates?
larvae are free swimming and possess all 5 chordate characteristics
What is an amniote?
animal that lays shelled, water-filled eggs (some retain the eggs internally) as a specialization for life on land
Name 3 features that most bony fish share
(most have scales)
sharks, skates, rays
sea squirts - scientific classification
How do cephalochordates swim?
myomeres pull against the flexible notochord
What subphylum of Chordata do sea squirts or tunicates belong to?
Describe the lancelet feeding process
1. use muscles (myomeres) to burrow tail first into sand
2. leave mouth and tentacles (cirri) exposed above surface
3. draw seawater into mouth by cilia
4. tiny food particles are filtered off via gill slits
5. waste exits body through atriopore
animal with 4 limbs (to support them on land)
Which of Amphibia or Reptilia is anamniote?
What organism is Phylum Chordata
What 2 scientific classes are called the bony fishes?
What organism is in
What 2 Chordata characteristics do Urochordata retain in adulthood?
pharyngeal gill slits
3. myomeres (2)
4. dorsal nerve cord
5. dorsal fin
6. caudal fin
7. postanal tail
name 5 features, bottom left tobottom right, and animal
What 'fish' has no jaws, no bony skeleton, and no scales, but does have bony vertebrae?
What structures in modern mammals(for example) might be the replacement for the notochord?
cranium and vertebral column
Identify 5 features, top left to topright, and the animal
8 features, from top left, andthe organism
1. excurrent siphon
2. incurrent siphon
8. pharynx with gill slits (2)
- adult urochordate
How to Amphibians and Reptiles control their body temperature?
they are ectothermic and regulate it by their behavior in the environment
What do hagfish have for structuralsupport that is different than other fish?
notochord - no vertebrae
What are the five common characteristics of all of the Phylum Chordata?
dorsal, tubular nerve cord
pharyngeal gill slits
endostyle or thyroid gland
Why do sharks swim all the time?
to prevent sinking because they have no swim bladder
How do urochordates feed?
water enters through incurrent siphon, passes through pharyngeal gill slits, small particles of food are filtered off and passed by cilia to the stomach (filter feeders)
Name 3 common types of Actinopterygii
perch, trout, catfish
6 features, top left to top right,and animal
2. swim bladder
3. trunk muscles
5. spinal cord
3 out of 4 groups of existing tetrapods share ONE significant characteristic - what is it?
they are amniotes
Name 2 types of Sarcopterygii
Identify 6 features, top left to right, then under, and the organism
1. caudal fin
2. posterior dorsal fin
3. anterior dorsal fin
5. external nares
6. external gill slits (2)
- sea lamprey, external
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