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1. Does social judgment theory believe the strength of arguments in a message matter?
1. Please define the term selective perception.
a. When people perceive events so that they fit their preconceived beliefs and attitudes.
1. Please define the term-biased assimilation.
a. The processing of information very selectively so that ambiguous information fit their point of view and became consistent with their beliefs.
1. What are the three key findings regarding the research on attitude accessibility?
a. The more frequently that people mentally rehearse the association between an object and evaluation, the stronger the connection will be.
b. Objects toward which we have accessible attitudes are more likely to capture attention.
c. Accessible attitudes serve as filters for processing information.
1. Please define the term implicit attitude.
a. Evaluations that have an unknown origin, are activated automatically, influence implicit responses, namely uncontrollable responses and ones that people do not view as an expression of their attitude and thus do not attempt to control.
1. According to social judgment theory, what is the position you hold on an issue called?
a. Attitudinal anchor
1. Please list and describe the three latitudes associated with social judgment theory.
a. Latitude of acceptance—preferred position close to your anchor.
b. Latitude of rejection—range of positions you find unacceptable.
c. Latitude of non-commitment—positions that you have no real opinion or feeling toward.
1. What are the three outcomes of seeing a message according to social judgment theory?
a. Assimilation—Accept the message.
b. Contrasting—Rejecting the message.
c. Boomerang Effect—Anchor moves away from intended direction of persuasive message.
1. Please describe the term ego-involvement.
a. Person’s commitment to an issue is related to a person’s self-concept and self-esteem.
1. How does ego-involvement affect the different latitudes associated with social judgment theory?
a. It affects the size of the latitudes of non-commitment and rejection. This increases biased information processing.
1. Please describe where the most effective messages should fall in terms of the different latitudes according to social judgment theory.
a. The latitude of non-commitment. It is far enough away from the anchor, so it will result in a more substantive change in attitudes.
1. Please explain where an ineffective message would fall in terms of the different latitudes according to social judgment theory.
a. Messages within the latitude of rejection and the latitude of acceptance will be rejected.
1. Please describe four strategies that could be employed to increase the effectiveness of messages (i.e., increase the likelihood of persuasion) within the framework of social judgment theory.
a. Credible sources
b. Try to move your audience’s anchor
c. Decrease level of ego-involvement
d. Diluting the argument
a. Based on the concept of pairing two stimuli. An unconditioned stimuli creates unconditioned response. There is a neutral stimulus that creates no response. Conditioning occurs when you pair the unconditioned stimuli with the neutral stimuli. After conditioning you get a conditioned response to the once neutral stimulus.
1. Please describe the process of operant conditioning.
a. Learning occurs as a result of reinforcement and punishment.
a. People can learn from watching models.
b. People do not have to experience reward or punishment first hand to learn how to behave or not behave in a certain way, we can watch models do it and learn from it.
1. What are the three functions associated with seeing models behaviors reinforced or punished?
a. Information function—consequences or benefits associated with a behavior.
b. Motivational function—establishes value for a behavior and incentive to engage in the behavior.
c. Reinforcement function—strengthens connection between established behaviors and outcomes.
1. Please describe the five steps in the modeling process.
a. Observe—pay attention to the model to understand.
b. Identify with the model.
c. Realize the behavior produces desired response.
d. Retention and reproduce—must remember the observed attitude/behavior and reproduce it.
e. Reinforced—behavior reinforced, which increases likelihood the behavior will be repeated.
1. What is the role of efficacy in social learning theory? That is, what does people’s level of efficacy help us predict according to the theory?
a. The greater efficacy will mean the person is more likely to model the preferred behavior.
1. Please define the terms fear and fear appeal.
a. Fear is an internal emotional reaction composed of psychological and physiological dimensions that may be aroused when a serious and personally relevant threat is perceived.
b. Fear appeal is a persuasive communication that tries to scare people into changing their attitudes by conjuring up negative consequences that will occur if they do not comply with the message recommendations.
1. What is the illusion of invulnerability?
a. The belief that one is less likely to experience negative life events than others.
1. What are the three reasons that people harbor illusions of invulnerability?
a. People do not want to admit that life’s misfortunes can befall them.
b. People maintain a stereotype of the typical victim of negative events and blithely maintain that they do not fit the mold.
c. People offload the cost of pleasures to the more mature adults they will become in the future. So they separate their current and future selves.
1. What are the five practical suggestions from the research on fear appeals?
a. Communicators must scare recipients.
b. Persuaders must shatter the illusion of invulnerability.
c. Persuaders must discuss solutions, as well as problems.
d. Efficacy recommendations should emphasize costs of not taking precautionary actions, as well as benefits of undertaking the activity.
1. What were the main components of Basil’s model regarding guilt appeals?
a. Empathy and Efficacy
1. What are the three components of a rational appeal?
a. Claim: the position applied by the persuader
b. Data: evidence that supports the claim
c. Warrant: the statement that connects the data to the claim
1. Please list and describe three things that make humors appeals effective.
a. Catches our attention and increases recall
b. Humor enhances liking of the source
c. Distracts people from the core of the message
1. Please list and describe two drawbacks of humor appeals.
a. Liking is not tied to credibility, humor tends not to be credible.
b. Humor is difficult to nail down because there are different types
1. What is the action state tied to guilt?
a. Atone for mistakes
a. Increases the amount of guilt aroused in the public, but arousing too much guilt reduces the effectiveness of the message.
1. What concept was described as being similar the use of guilt appeals?
1. Research has shown that embarrassment has been associated with two specific outcomes. Please briefly describe each of these outcomes.
a. Avoidance, avoiding a situation where you know you’ll feel embarrassed.
b. Compliance, those who perform an embarrassing task were more likely to comply to later requests
1. Please define the term fear appeal.
a. Messages that convey information about personally relevant and significant threats, followed by recommendations to overcome the threat.
1. Early fear appeal research proposed that increased fear would have what outcome on the effectiveness of the message.
a. It would increase the effectiveness, but no research supported the idea.
1. According to the parallel response model, what are the two types of reactions people can have to fear appeal messages?
a. Emotional Reactions; deny or maladaptive outcomes (YOU DON’T ACT THE WAY THEY WANT YOU TO ACT)
b. Logical Reactions; adaptive outcome, behaviors are changed.
1. According to the extended parallel processing model, what are the two important components of a good fear appeal message?
1. What are the two components of threat?
a. Susceptibility-how likely is it that you’ll be affected
b. Severity-how grim is the threat?
1. What are the two components of efficacy?
a. Self-efficacy-the extent in which the audience feels they can perform the behavior
b. Response efficacy-how effective the recommended solution is in eliminating the threat.
1. If threat is low, what is the outcome of the message?
a. No motivation to process the message
1. When threat is high, what are the two ways that individuals can process a fear appeal message? Provide a brief description of the two ways that people can process messages.
a. Fear Control response; the situation is scary and you don’t wanna deal with it, the solution won’t make a difference or they cannot engage in the behavior you are suggesting. You don’t want this response.
b. Danger Control; the situation is scary, but there is something you can do about it. People believe the proposed solution will work and they can perform the behavior you are suggesting. People are motivated to protect themselves and confront the danger. This is the response you want.
1. What determines whether someone engages in danger or fear control processing of a message?
a. Perception of the fear!
1. Please describe the term elaboration.
a. The amount of thinking the receiver devotes to understanding a message
1. Please provide a brief description of the central route of persuasion.
a. Characterized by extensive thinking/use of cognitive energy and long term, strong attitude change. The strength of the argument is important for persuasion.
1. Please provide a brief description of the peripheral route of persuasion.
a. Characterized by little thinking/little use of cognitive energy and elaboration. Short-term weak attitude change.
1. Please describe the two important factors that influence whether people go through the central or peripheral route of persuasion according to the ELM.
a. Motivation: is the message relevant to you
b. Ability: How capable is the receiver to think about the message based on existing knowledge.
c. If both motivation and ability are present, the central route is taken. If one is low or absent, the peripheral route will be taken.
1. Please list and describe the five influences on motivation according to the ELM.
a. Personal relevance/involvement-how important it is to you.
b. Accountability-the degree to which you are responsible for knowing the content of the message.
c. Personal responsibility-the degree to which the receiver is responsible for the message outcome or consequences.
d. Incongruent information-information that challenges existing attitudes and beliefs and increases motivation to process the message.
e. Need for cognition-personality characteristics in which people want to think about things.
1. Please list and describe the five influences on ability according to the ELM.
a. Message comprehension-the degree to which the receiver can understand the message structure and organization and language.
b. Message repetition
c. Distraction-the extent to which the receiver has other things in the environment that distracts them from the message.
d. Mode of message delivery-presentation of the message-written or verbal
e. Prior knowledge-existing knowledge about message topic
1. What needs to be part of your message for it to be effective among individuals taking the central route of persuasion?
a. Strong arguments
1. What needs to be part of your message for it to be effective among individuals taking the peripheral route of persuasion? Please provide examples.
a. Source credibility
c. Number not quality of the arguments
1. What factors increase biased processing of messages?
a. When we have prior knowledge
b. When message threatens self-image, values, or beliefs
1. According to lecture, what are the three ways the heuristic systematic model of persuasion differs from the ELM?
a. More forcefully proposes that people generally attempt to avoid using cognitive energy to process information.
b. For people need to engage in systematic processing they need motivation and ability
c. Proposes that heuristic and systematic processing can happen at the same time.
1. What are the two types of motivations regarding information processing according to the heuristic-systematic model?
a. Accuracy Motivation- assumes that we strive to hold accurate attitudes.
b. Defense Motivation- close-minded form of processing in which information is processed in a way to defend existing attitudes and beliefs
1. Please describe mere exposure theory.
a. Through repeated exposure to a neutral stimulus, an individual comes to evaluate the stimulus more favorably. All that is necessary is repetition.
1. Please provide the three explanations for why the mere exposure theory works.
a. Messages are easier to process when they’ve been seen/heard before
b. Offer a more complex explanation, consumers infer that ads that come to mind more quickly are the ones they like a lot.
c. Pleasures that come from increased familiarity.
1. What are the two key components of semiotics? Please describe each.
a. The notion that persuasive messages do not affect “you” or “me”, but rather “them”, the third persons.
1. What does the cognitive response perspective assert?
a. That people’s own mental reactions to a message play a critical role in the persuasion process, typically a more important role than the message itself.
1. What are the two types of arguments people make while processing messages according to the cognitive response approach?
1. Individuals high in need for cognition tend to do three things more than those low in need for cognition. Please list these three things.
a. Recall more message arguments
b. Generate a greater number of issue-relevant thoughs
c. Seek more information about complex issues than those low in NFC
1. What are three heuristic cues people tend to rely on when deciding which products to purchase online?
1. What are three cues that low-involved voters tend to use when casting their votes in elections?
a. Candidate appearance
1. Please list two weaknesses of the ELM.
a. It does not clearly specify the type of message that persuaders should employ under high involvement.
b. The ELM position permits it to explain all possible outcomes, making it impossible to prove the model wrong.
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