Chemical & Biochemical Engineers z What do they do? z Where do they work? z A view of the Rutgers program What is Chemical Engineering? Chemical engineers translate molecular knowledge and discoveries into products and processes. How do they do that? Using fundamental understanding of physical, chemical and biological processes, engineering design and synthesis skills, and interdisciplinary perspectives on technology, economic and social issues. The chemical engineering discipline has exceptional ability to attack problems of fundamental importance in a wide variety of industries. What do chemical engineers actually do? z Chemical engineers use chemistry, physics, biology, math, and other sciences along with engineering principles to make better products such as high-efficiency fuels, medicine, electronics, food and cosmetics. Everything we use involves chemistry, and chemical engineering touches just about every part of our lives. If you put on soft contact lenses, changed into sweat-proof athletic wear, filled your car with gasoline before driving to the gym, and drink purified water from a plastic bottle, or artificially sweetened soda after your workout, you can thank chemical engineers for making those products possible. z Chemical engineers design processes and products to solve problems and to supply vital materials for our technology-based society. Their work ranges from making clean energy, to producing more-affordable medicine, to streamlining semiconductor manufacturing ? and even ways to improve food production and processing. z You will find chemical engineers in big places like manufacturing industries and production plants. You will find chemical engineers in research laboratories working at the molecular level, to create new synthetic materials. Molecular level work also involves life sciences to look for ways to prevent disease and to improve diagnostics and therapeutic methods such as improved drug delivery. zChemical manufacturing ? Commodity chemicals ? Petrochemicals zPolymers & specialty chemicals zFuels, alternative fuels zPharmaceuticals, biotechnology, healthcare zFood & beverage industries zPulp & paper industries zDesign and construction of chemical plants zMicroelectronics, electronic and advanced materials zEnvironmental health and safety industries zBusiness services zPatent law & intellectual property Where do they work? Merck, ExxonMobil, IBM, Shell, Hoffmann-La Roche, L?Oreal, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Intel, Air Products, National Starch, Kraft Foods, DuPont, Dow, Accenture, Eastman Chemical, BASF, Academia, ? Chemical Process Industries Commodity chemicals Petrochemicals Polymers Pharmaceuticals Agrochemicals Photography & lithography chemicals Dyes & pigments Cosmetics Flavors & fragrances Food additives There are 50,000 ? 100,000 chemical compounds in the world. Energy/Fuels Energy/Fuels (cont.) Those industries that fall under the category of fuels include petroleum products production and refining, ethanol, and gasohol production, as well as nuclear and synthetic fuels. Typically known for their work in refineries, chemical engineers are also involved in developing alternative energy sources (gasohol, biodiesel, coal gasification, liquefied natural gas). Chemical engineers in the fuels industries work on production processes, environmental monitoring, research and development, and process safety. Pharmaceuticals/Biotechnology Biotechnology (cont.) Chemical engineers in the biotechnology industry develop and design the processes to grow, handle, and harvest living organisms and their by-products. The biotechnology industry uses living cells and materials produced by cells, and biological techniques developed through research, to create products for use in other industries. Work in the field of biotechnology has produced antibiotics, insulin, interferon, artificial organs, recombinant DNA products, techniques for waste reduction and recycling, and insect resistant hybrid plants. Advanced Materials Industries in the category of advanced materials use chemical engineers to help develop materials with different properties such as weight, strength, heat transfer, reflectivity, and purity. Electronics Electronics (cont.) ? Conventional microelectronics - Manufacture of ultra-pure silicon for computer microprocessors and memory chips. - Microlithography processes used in integrated circuit manufacturing. ? Silicon-based molecular electronics - Utilizing individual organic molecules for electronic device applications. A technology that could scale down electronic devices to the nanometer scale ? breakthrough in miniaturization. Environmental Safety & Health Food & Beverages Food & Beverages (cont.) The food and beverage industry includes the handling, processing, preparation, packaging, and preservation of food and beverages. Chemical engineers in the food and beverages industry formulate new products to meet consumer demand, change ingredients for better flavor, change handling processes for more consistent texture, freeze-dry products for preservation, and design aseptic packaging to ensure a longer shelf life. Agricultural Chemicals z Fertilizers z Pesticides z Insecticides Design & Construction Other Employment Alternatives Chemical engineers? expertise is also applied in the areas of law, education, publishing, finance, and medicine, as well as in many other fields that require technical training. Options can include packaging and financial engineering, for example. ChE Statistics z Chemical engineers receive highest starting salaries of all B.S. degrees z In 2007 the range of starting salaries for Rutgers Chem. E. was $50,000 to $70,000 per year z 45-55 students per class z 37% of chemical engineering UG students at Rutgers are women z Top-rated Department z 15 faculty members Anecdotes from Chemical Engineers z Jeff Wilke, Senior VP, Amazon Chemical engineers learn how to design a process to make money. Chemical engineering students learn to understand the links between design trade-offs and economic value. They have to consider social externalities such as pollution and environmental impact. They learn to translate principles of pure science (chemistry and physics) into a cost structure in support of a business. They learn to design processes with minimal defects and efficient trade-offs between capital investment and operating cost. z Along the way, chemical engineering majors also learn engineering skills in computer science, operations research, biotechnology, materials science, and process control. They learn to apply the math of optimization and of uncertainty. This combination of broad mathematical and scientific knowledge, coupled with a systems-thinking approach, has enabled me to quickly adapt to a wide range of industries (software, financial services, commodity chemicals, metals, electronics, pharmaceuticals, and e-commerce/ logistics). Pursuing a ChE degree, with the opportunity to complement my major with a superb set of liberal arts subjects, meant I had more exposure to the intellectual frameworks upon which western democracies and capitalist industries are built. I made an excellent choice. The Essential Chemical Engineer z Turns raw materials into useful products z Works in teams z Focuses on new products and processes z Benefits the environment, health, nutrition Selected CBE Faculty that Actively Interact with UGs Undergraduate Director Research Training Programs Bioengineering Nano-Pharmaceutical Engineering Chair Polymers Graduate Director Development of New Ionic Polymers (Prof. Hara?s Group) Sulfonated Kevlar PolyethyleneEthylene ? Kevlar has better properties (mechanical/thermal) ? Better compatibility with other materials Gas-Liquid Reactors (Profs. Khinast, Glasser) (11 | 25) Objectives: ? Simulation / Design ? Scale-up ? Flow Regimes Important for: Pharmaceutical Industry Chemical Industry Energy Industry Some reactor types: Re >> Re << Typical results: Bubble Slurry Column Jet Loop Re a c t o r Semibatch / Batch Re a c t o r Reactor Start-Up Gas hold-up during start-up This shows a gas-liquid flow. The volume fraction of gas is plotted. CFD-Results: Vortex Shedding - Pressure Bubble at Re = 80 This shows flow of liquid around a gas bubble. It is a time-dependent flow. The Importance of Pharmaceutical Processing (Prof. Ierapetritou?s group) Advantages of an Optimized Pharmaceutical Process Advantages of an Optimized Pharmaceutical Process Experimental and Computational Approaches Experimental and Computational Approaches -Improve product quality -Lower pharmaceutical costs -Improve drug delivery vehicles -Reduce waste 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 Time Step 10,000 samples, 2 particles per sample 5,000 samples, 4 particles per sample 2,500 samples, 8 particles per sample 1,250 samples, 16 particles per sample Materials Process Units Characterize the process behavior Predictive Models Control Strategies Concentration Deviation TD=10, TI=62, Kc=-.0075 30 sec Dead Time -0.004 -0.003 -0.002 -0.001 0 0.001 0.002 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 Time (s) CBa r Cbar Process Operations under Uncertainty (Prof. Ierapetritou?s group) 6 8 10 12 0 20 40 60 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 (6.77, 50, 0) (6.46, 54, 0.09) (11.5, 0, 0.662) Pareto Surface Ex p e c te d m a k e s p a n S at i s f y i n g d e m an d Ro bus tn e s s schedule 1 schedule 2 schedule 3 Ro bus tn e s s Short Term Scheduling Supply Chain Management Alternative Schedules for different demand, prices Production Planning Time Horizon Increases Uncertainty Complexity Increases Optimization of different objectives: Robustness, Meet the Demand Expected Cost Trade-offs Gene Silencing for Cancer (Prof. Roth) z We seek to turn off genes involved in disease, e.g. oncogenes in cancer z In a model system, we turn off green fluorescent protein (GFP) with a piece of DNA delivered using ? A cationic liposome (DOTAP) to bind and deliver anionic DNA ? A pH sensitive polymer (PPAA) for intracellular delivery z We are building on these efforts to build more sophisticated systems that will find and delivery DNA or other drugs selectively to tumor cells Functionalized nanoparticle Recognition of target cells Micro-composite Nanoparticle Lee, Williams, Devore, Roth, Biomacromolecules, 2006. CHO-GFP cells (untreated) CHO-GFP cells + DOTAP/PPAA/DNA Nanoparticle Synthesis, Deagglomeration and Stabilization (Prof. Tomassone) ? Nanoparticle-filled polymer composites have improved properties with respect to regular composites, ranging from mechanical to electrical properties. ? One of the drawbacks to synthesize them is that nanoparticles agglomerate easily and destroy their unique properties. Surfactants facilitate dispersion of Nanoparticles Nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix Schematic of Particle Formation from Emulsion Experiment Details of the critical second stage (emulsion refining stage) Experimental Procedure for the Hydrodynamic Formation of Nanoparticles Molecular Simulations Flow of Cohesive Granular Materials: Experiments and Computer Simulations (Prof. Tomassone) Powder Transport Die Filling Compaction Tablet manufacturing processes In the Pharmaceutical Industry ? Cohesion affects Flow through Hoppers ? Cohesion affects Flow through Feeder ? Cohesion affects Flow through Fill cam ? Cohesion affects Material response We use computer methods such as Discrete Element Methods based on Newton?s equations What causes Cohesion ? Triboelectric forces ?Permanent charge ? Van der Waals? forces ? Partial melting and solidification ? Hydrogen bonding ?Interlocking ? Water bridge formation Cohesion is an attractive force between particles Flow of non-cohesive glass beads in hoppers. Top row are the snapshots from experiments and the bottom row shows the same from simulations Cohesive powder flow in a rotating drum Comparison of experiments and simulations Multiscale Simulation Approaches to Molecular Design of Novel Nanomaterials (Prof. Prof. Neimark) , 10 -15 10 -12 10 -9 10 -6 10 -3 10 0 10 -10 10 -9 10 -8 10 -7 10 -6 10 -5 10 -4 (nm) (Ám) (fs) (ps) (ns) (Ás) (ms) LENGTH TIME Atomistic MC, MD, DFT Ab initio QM, DFT Mesoscale DPD, BD, MESODIN Lattice MC Continuum Fluid&Thermo Dynamics Optimization electrons > atoms > nanophases > self-assembly > materials > devices up-scaling down-scaling Multiscale Simulation of Nanostructured Ion-Exchange Polymer Membranes Applications: perm-selective membranes for fuel cells and protective clothing hybrid (classical/ semi-empirical MD) transport and thermodynamic properties ab-initio optimization mesoscale DPD classical MD coarse-grained MC kinetic lattice MC Alex Neimark, Rutgers CBE Why Pharmaceutical Engineering? Pharmaceutical Engineers help the Pharmaceutical industry by bringing the industry into the 21st century Figure 2-3-1 D sample used to test the approach during confined consolidation. Different colors indicate different materials the old way the new way Why Pharmaceutical Engineering at ? Dry granulation manufacture of tablets More efficient manufacturing leads to lower cost, higher quality pharmaceuticals ? Drop-on-demand manufacturing Small batch capability at any locale leads to individualized treatment of clients ? Film-strip unit dosage manufacturing Better healthcare for seniors and infants resulting from friendlier dosage form ? l o c a t i o n , l o c a t i o n , lo c a t i o n Examples of research at Rutgers, Pharmaceutical Engineering: Research in plant biotechnology (Prof. Pedersen) ?Design and analysis of in vitro culture systems for chemicals production and plant propagation ?Mathematical analysis of complex reaction networks in plant systems and the application of rational metabolic engineering strategies Student Activities 2 nd Place at the 11 th Annual AIChE College Bowl ac Microsoft PowerPoint - IntroEngineering-2-PC.ppt
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