Lecture Notes 4/6/09 PGS 101 Szeli What is ?abnormal? Atypical -being different from most other people -is all atypical behavior abnormal? -if/when norms change, does our definition of abnormality change? Disturbing/unjustifiable -behaving in unacceptable and/or irrational ways -vary from culture to culture -vary over time Maladaptive/distressing -behaving in a harmful, problematic ways -are they harming themselves or others? Models of psychological disorders Historical model -disorders as possession -evil spirits, witchcraft, ?lunacy? (Had to do with behavioral control by phases of the moon), exorcism, trephining (involves drilling a hole in the skull to let ?evil spirits? come out) -chaining the ?possessed? and ?putting away? people labeled as disordered in asylums Medical model -mental illness, sickness, or psychopathology -diagnosis, symptoms, cure, therapy, treatment, hospital -Only works for disorders that have a biological basis, and not all do. Example: depression due to biological reasons versus depression due to the death of a family member. Bio-psycho-social model -biological, chemical, genetic factors (Brain function; genetic predispositions; disease- producing microorganisms; physical and chemical aspects of the external environment) -psychological factors (Early family life; learning experiences; cognitive factors) -socio-cultural factors (Cultural views about ?normal? and ?abnormal? behavior; social roles; expectations) Perspectives on psychological disorders Biological -are they genetic, hard-wired, or neurochemical? Psychodynamic -are they rooted in early childhood experiences and the working of our unconscious? Humanistic -are they created when our natural progress toward self-actualization is frustrated? Learning -are they acquired through our experiences? Cognitive -are they caused by distortions in thinking or interpreting the world? Biopsychosocial -are they caused by a combination of factors? The ?DSM? What is it? -Axis I -clinical syndromes -Problem with focusing on axis 1 is that it causes people with the same syndromes to be treated the same. Why do we need it? -Axis II -personality disorders -Can exist without axis I. How is it used? -Axis III -physical/medical conditions What are its pitfalls? -Axis IV -psychosocial stressors How is it organized? -Axis V -current level of functioning Anxiety disorders Generalized anxiety disorder -constant feeling of anxiety and tension without any particular environmental cause. -no end point for the anxiety Panic disorder -acute, sudden, usually unpredictable -Individuals with panic disorder may start to restrict their interactions with the outside world, due to vulnerability during a panic attack in public and classical conditioning. -without agoraphobias -with agoraphobia Specific phobia Obsessive-compulsive disorder -obsessions -compulsions Post-traumatic stress disorder
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