Crime and Science 4/14/10 (Not on 3rd Exam) National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crimes Part of the FBI s Critical Incident Response Group Provides support to law enforcement for crimes such as homicides, child abductions, exploitations, terrorism, bombings, arson, threats, rape, extortion. Who makes up NCAVC? FBI Agents (minimum 15 years) ATF Agents DOE Agents Retired Homicide Investigators Child INterview Specialists Research Scientists Clinical Psychologists Criminal Investigative Analysis Crime Analysis Threat Assessment Investigative Suggestions Interview Strategies Search Warrant Assistance Prosecutive and Trial Suggestions Expert Testimony Major Case Management Profiles of unknown officers Criminal Investigative Analysis Process of reviewing and assessing the facts of a criminal activity and interpreting offender behavior and interactions with the victim as exhibited during the commission of a crime or in a crime scene. What is a Profile? TYPE of individual who committed the crime based on the crime and the crime scene itself. Includes: Age Sex Race/ethnicity Level of intelligence/schooling Job status Living circumstances Interpersonal relationships Prospective Profiling - used as a template, this is the kind of person I think will commit a crime. Retrospective Profiling - after-the-fact, attempts to define the personality and behavior characteristics of individuals. Keys to Profiling Behavior reflects personality Posture, speech, gestures, manner of dress Remains consistent whether in day to day activities or in the commission of the crime. Have to WORK at changing behaviors If behavior is unique, it may be useful in telling offenders apart from each other. Best Predictor of Future Behavior is Past Behavior Psychological reverse engineering Lots of behavioral elements in violent crimes Control of a crime scene will be evident in everyday life. Profiling is only PART of the investigation Not a substitute for thorough, well planned investigation Not a substitute for physical evidence How is a scene evaluated? Details Motivation Type of Person Victimology How does the offender select a victim? Desirability: What does the person represent to the offender? What does he/she want? Availability: Stalking, how available are you to be stalked? Vulnerability: Is the victim easy to access? Victim Risk Level: High vs. Low Lifestyle, Habits Degree to which victim exposes self to injury/violent crime Can the person be influenced with a substance Pre-offense Behavior Precipitating events in life of offender Usually unknown to investigations at the time they are reviewing scene/case Post-offense Behavior Actions within hours/days following crime Noticed by others because they change their behaviors Assessment will provide investigative leads Offender risk level gives clues to the offender s personality Con vs. Blitz vs. Surprise TERMS Mass Murder: 3 or more victims, 1 location, 1 offender, 1 event Spree Killing: Multiple murders, single event, more than 2 locations, short time period. Serial Murder: Multiple murders, more than 2 locations, cooling off period, involves planning and victim selection. Body Disposal Concealed Ensure that the body not found or that discovery is delayed Allows time for distancing Dumped No effort to conceal Lack of concern by offender that body is located Typical for stranger killings because they think a connection will not be found. Displayed Intentional positioning Place location where body will be found Degrade or humiliate the victim
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