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AT Still University
Medical Microbiology 5070
Medical Microbiology 5070
AT Still University
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Erythrovirus B19, Naked, DNA
Papilloma, Naked, DNA
JC virus, Naked, DNA
Adenovirus, DNA, Naked
HSV, VZV, DNA, Enveloped
Hepatitis B, Enveloped, DNA,
Smallpox, DNA, Enveloped
Poliovirus, RNA, Naked
Norovirus, RNA, Naked
Hepatitis E, RNA, Naked
Rotavirus, RNA, Naked
Rubella, RNA, Enveloped
Hepatitis C, RNA, Enveloped
HIV, RNA, Enveloped
LCM, RNA, Enveloped
Rabies, RNA, Enveloped
Hantaan, RNA, Enveloped
SARS, RNA, Enveloped
Influenza, RNA, Enveloped
Measles, RNA, Enveloped
Ebola, RNA, Enveloped
Hepatitis D, Enveloped, RNA
exterior to capsid and is of host origin (wet transmission)
glycoproteins through envelope, viral attachment sites
12 corner, 20 faces
Viral propagation cycle
replication of nucleic acid
maturation and release
common/highly specific process for viral cell invasion. Requires interaction between unique surface proteins and highly specific hot cell receptor sites.
uncoating always occurs in the cytoplasm of the host cell
DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus except for poxvirus
DNA viruses make double stranded RNA
All RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm except (orthomyxoviruses and retroviruses)
RNA viruses are usually releases rapidly after maturation
DNA viruses are usually not released rapidly
cancer cell, live longer
plaque forming units a plaque is a viral "colony"
Indirect fluorescent antibody (ELISA)
IgG and/or IgM, C' and viral components adsorbed or embedded (major process) in the cell membrane induce cytolysis (cellular)
IgG and/or IgM antibodies form complexes with viral antigen and complement, generating neutrophil chemotactic factors, with resultant local tissue inflammation and destruction (immune complex)
transformation process involves the integration of viral nucleic acid into the host chromosome
an early step in cancer development
Transmitted: Kuru, vCJD
scrapie, BSE (Mad Cow Disease)
characteristics- lose muscle coordination, show dementia and progressive insomnia, amyloidosis
alpha helix-> beta sheet in amyloid
68 Years CJD
28 Years vCJD
Erythrovirus B19, DNA, Naked
Transmission: respiratory droplets or transplacental
Ends up in the bone marrow
1st viremia and anemia
2nd immune response (rash and arthralgia)
slapped face rash, erythema infectiosum
aplastic crises in chronic hemolytic anemia
Human Papillomavirus, DNA, naked
HPV types 1-4 common, 16, 18 cervical cancer
Transmission: breaks in the skin, mucous membrane, STD, fomites
Pathology: warts occur in keratinized skin, koilocytes,
disease: papillomas (warts). Common, plantar, flat warts: common in children and young adults
cervical dysplasia, CIN and carcinaoma types 16 and 18
CD8 T cells eventually kill HPV infected cells/
JC virus, DNA, Naked
Very common but only cause disease in immunocompromised patients.
Transmission: respiratory droplets, and it lies dormant in the kidney
virus is shed in urine
Disease: AIDS patients, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (lytic infection, demyelination of oligodendroctyes
Adenovirus, DNA, naked,
transmission: aerosol, close contact, fecal-oral. Very resistant.
Disease has characteristic inclusion bodies
acute febrile pharyngitis & pharyngoconjunctival fever
pharyngitis and pinkeye. young less than 3 years old.
Acute respiratory tract disease
military recruits. Types 4 and 7
HSV 1 and 2, DNA, enveloped
Herpes replication uses its own viral DNA polymerase
cowdry type A-acidophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies, Syncytia (giant cells)- are produced facilitating cell-to-cell spread, avoiding antibody
Transmission: HSV-1 is direct contact, veicular fluid or fluids via breaks in the skin or mucous, above the waist
HSV-2: STD, infections below the waist
HSV1 is the most common sporadic encephalitis in U.S.
HSV 1 and 2 use a Tzanck smear or pap test of material scraped from the base of a vesicle to reveal the syncytia and cowdry tpe A inclusions.
CFS shows lymphocytic pleocytosis
Varicella: chicken pox
T-cell lymphocytosis, Downey cells,
Burkitt's lymphoma: African malaria areas, and Hodgkin's lymphoma
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma: CHINESE,
Hairy oral leukoplakia in AIDS.
opportunistic, neonates and immunocompromised
Cytomegalic inclusion disease: often fatal disease in newborns and immunocompromised, most common cause of congenital defects
Human B-lymphotropic virus
exanthem subitum (roseola infantum and possibly multiple sclerosis).
Kaposi's Sarcoma virus
transmitted sexually, dark skin lesions, AIDS, primary effusion lymphoma, Multicentric Castleman's disease
Variola, DNA, largest virus, Very contagious, human to human, viral particles are brick-shaped or ovoid, and consist of an internal central mass
a rash is produced in the skin, which evolves into hemorrhagic, crater-form lesions (pocks)
smallpox: Guranieri inclusion body
Molluscum contagiosum virus, AIDS-associated, more prevalent in children,
Disease: Molluscum contagiosum- a self limiting infection of epithelial cells producing nodular or wart-like lesions
Hepatitis B, DNA, enveloped,
acquired via blood or needles, sexual contact
HBV is liver tropic, can integrate into hepatocyte DNA in cases of hepatocarcinoma
Virion= dane particle, enveloped
Primary hepatocellular carcinoma- highly fatal cancer, 80% associated with chronic hepatitis.
Rhinovirus, RNA, naked
transmission: nasal secretions
infected cells release bradykinin and histamine, causes coryza
common cold and acute bronchitis <2 years old.
enterovirus group, RNA, fecal-oral transmission, incidence peaks in summer.
Polio (aseptic meningitis), RNA, naked,
infection of the anterior horn of the spinal cord> flacid paralysis.
septic form has many neutrophils
aseptic has mainly mononuclear
Coxsackie A virus, RNA, naked, vesicular lesions,
herpangia- oral mucosa, vesicular lesions on soft palate and uvula
hand-foot-mouth disease- skin and oral mucosa
aseptic meningitis- acute febrile meningitis
coxsackie B virus, RNA, naked, disease involves muscle and pleurodynia
echovirus, RNA, naked,
boston exanthem- rash
cerebellar ataxia- encephalitis
Hepatitis A, RNA, naked,
icterus- sudden onset, incubation 15-50 days, chronic doesn't occur
CMI attack on infected hepatocytes
Norovirus, RNA, naked, Star of david, Cruise ships, highly contagious, summer diarrhea
Hepatitis E, RNA, E for epidemic, not chronic, distributed worldwide, very severe in pregnant women,
Rotavirus, RNA, naked, Wheel like appearance, acute infantile diarrhea- winter diarrhea, very common in young children 95% have been infected by age 5
Colorado tick Fever Virus, RNA, naked, fever, headache, severe myalgia, North West
human T-cell lymphotropic Virus, RNA, enveloped, similar to HIV with transmission, Tropical spastic parapareisi, adult leukemia,
RNA, enveloped, diploid, HIV,
Rubella Virus, RNA, enveloped with spikes, fever rash, lymphadenopathy in children
congenital rubella- miscarriage, stillbirth, severe birth defects, RASH,
Equine Encephalitis, RNA, enveloped, HORSES, EEEV or WEEV,
monkeys, monocyte-macrophage, RNA, Enveloped, not in the US, sudden onset of fever, headache, and myalgia
Dengue virus, RNA, enveloped, generalized viral infection, flu-like syndrome or hepatits, milder in children, severe generalized body aches, particularly i back of legs and joints.
Hepatitis C, RNA, enveloped, BLOOD and SEXURALLY transmitted.
chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma
Rabies, RNA, enveloped, Negri, hydrophobia,
RNA, enveloped, monkeys to humans
acute hemorrhagic fever: fever, hemorrhagic rash, DIC. The most severe and fatal of the hemorrhagic fever diseases.
high yield replication, extensive tissue damage involving liver, spleen, lymph nodes and lung.
Coronavirus, RNA, enveloped, 2nd most common cause of common cold.
Can also cause SARS. Virus invades the respiratory tract epithelium.
parainfluenza virus, RNA, enveloped, induce syncytia, reinfection occurs, common cold, laryngitis, bronchiolitis
Mumps virus, RNA, enveloped, acute, epidemic parotitis (painful enlarged salivary glands), chills, headache and poor appetite.
measles, RNA, enveloped, cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, photophobia, severe rash. Koplik's spots, high fever.
Respiratory Syncytial virus, RNA, enveloped, everyone has it, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, colds, croup, acute otitis, sinusitis
epidemics ever winter
RNA, enveloped, Influenza virus- serious cases develop pneumonia,
Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus (LCM), RNA, enveloped, tropical, pet owners at risk,
fever and flu-like myalgia- the most common LCM
Lassa Fever, RNA, enveloped, fever, coagulopathy, petechiae,
Sin nombre virus, Hantavirus, RNA, enveloped, close contact wih rodents, rodent urine, fever, pulmonary edema,
Hepatitis D is a Viroid and it is the only known viroid in humans, blood-borne transmission.
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