a condition of the esophagus characterized by spasm of the lower esophageal (cardiac) sphincter and absence of peristalsis of the lower two thirds of the esophagus.
an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas caused by autodigestion and marked by symptoms of acute abdomen and escape of pancreatic enzymes into the pancreatic tissues.
acute renal failure
clinical syndrome characterized by a rapid decline in renal function with progressive azotemia and increasing levels of serum creatinine.
acute tubular necrosis (ATN)
a type of intrarenal acute renal failure affecting the renal tubules caused by renal ischemia and nephrotoxic injury.
an inflammation of the appendix that if undiagnosed, leads rapidly to perforation and peritonitis.
an abnormal intraperitoneal accumulation of a fluid containing large amounts of protein and electrolytes as a result of portal hypertension.
flapping tremor (liver flap) commonly affecting the arms and hands that is a manifestation of hepatic encephalopathy.
automated peritoneal dialysis (APD)
dialysis machine that controls the fill, dwell, and drain phases, and cycles four to eight exchanges per night with 1 to 2 hours per exchange.
an accumulation of nitrogenous waste products, such as blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine.
a surgical procedure that is used to treat morbid obesity.
a precancerous esophageal disorder characterized by metaplastic cell changes.
an abnormal stone formed in body tissues by an accumulation of mineral salts.
an inborn error of metabolism characterized by the inability to hydrolyze peptides contained in gluten.
inflammation of the gallbladder.
stones in the gallbladder.
chronic kidney disease
the presence of kidney damage for at least 3 months with functional or structural abnormalities, with or without decreased glomerular filtration rate; can also be a glomerular filtration rate of < 60 ml/min/1.732m2for more than 3 months, with or without damage to the kidney.
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
progressive destruction of the pancreas with fibrotic replacement of pancreatic tissue.
chronic progressive disease of the liver characterized by extensive degeneration and destruction of the liver parenchymal cells.
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)
dialysis carried out manually by exchanging 1.5 to 3 L of peritoneal dialysate usually four times daily with dwell times of 4 to 10 hours; an indwelling catheter permits fluid to drain into and out of the peritoneal cavity by gravity.
continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT)
means by which solutes and fluids can be removed slowly and continuously in the hemodynamically unstable patient; usually used to treat acute renal failure.
a chronic inflammatory bowel disorder of unknown origin that can affect any part of the GI tract from the mouth to the anus.
an inflammatory condition of the urinary bladder, characterized by pain, urgency and frequency of urination, and hematuria.
technique in which substances move from the blood through a semipermeable membrane and into a dialysis solution; used to correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances and to remove waste products in renal failure.
a saccular dilation or outpouching of the mucosa through the circular smooth muscle of the intestinal wall.
difficulty swallowing, commonly associated with obstructive or motor disorders of the esophagus.
end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
last stage of kidney disease occurring when the GFR is less than 5% to 10% of normal or when creatinine clearances are less than 15 ml/min.
a malignant neoplasm of the esophagus.
saclike outpouching of one or more layers of the esophagus.
distended, tortuous, fragile veins at the lower end of the esophagus that result from portal hypertension.
inflammation of the mucosal lining of the esophagus, caused by infection, irritation from a nasogastric tube, or, most commonly, backflow of gastric juice from the stomach.
fulminant hepatic failure
a clinical syndrome characterized by severe impairment of liver function associated with hepatic encephalopathy; also referred to as acute liver failure.
an adenocarcinoma of the stomach wall.
a complex of tortuous veins located in the upper portion (cardia, fundus) of the stomach.
inflammation of the gastric mucosa.
an inflammation of the mucosa of the stomach and small intestine.
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
any clinically significant symptomatic condition or histopathologic alteration presumed to be secondary to reflux of gastric contents into the lower esophagus.
an immune-related inflammation of the glomeruli characterized by proteinuria, hematuria, decreased urine production, and edema.
an example of cytotoxic (type II) autoimmune disease, characterized by the presence of circulating antibodies against the glomerular basement membrane and alveolar basement membrane, usually associated with glomerulonephritis and characterized by a cough with hemoptysis, dyspnea, anemia, and progressive renal failure.
dialysis that uses an artificial membrane (usually made of cellulose-based or synthetic materials) as the semipermeable membrane through which the patient's blood circulates; impurities or wastes are removed from the blood.
varicosities in the lower rectum or anus caused by congestion in the veins of the hemorrhoidal plexus.
changes in neurologic and mental function resulting from high levels of ammonia in the blood that a damaged liver cannot detoxify.
inflammation of the liver.
a serious complication of cirrhosis characterized by functional renal failure with advancing azotemia, oliguria, and intractable ascites.
a protrusion of a viscus through an abnormal opening or a weakened area in the wall of the cavity in which it is normally contained.
herniation of a portion of the stomach into the esophagus through an opening, or hiatus, in the diaphragm.
dilation or enlargement of the renal pelvis and calyces resulting from obstruction in the lower urinary tract with backflow of urine to the kidney.
dilation of the renal pelvis caused by backflow of urine.
most commonly performed incontinent urinary diversion procedure, in which ureters are implanted into part of ileum or colon that has been resected from intestinal tract and abdominal stoma is created.
inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
chronic, recurrent inflammatory diseases of the intestinal tract that include ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
chronic, painful inflammatory disease of the bladder, believed to be associated with an autoimmune or allergic response, and characterized by severe bladder and pelvic pain, urinary frequency, and urgency.
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
a symptom complex characterized by intermittent and recurrent abdominal pain associated with an alteration in bowel function (diarrhea or constipation).
symptom of yellowish discoloration of body tissues that results from an increased concentration of bilirubin in the blood.
an inherited abnormality in which the amount of the digestive enzyme lactase is inadequate for the normal digestion of milk products, resulting in the inability to digest lactose (except for the bacterial breakdown of the lactose in the large intestine).
a whitish precancerous lesion on the oral mucosa or tongue that results from chronic irritations.
adipectomy; performed to remove unsightly flabby folds of adipose tissue for cosmetic reasons.
the use of sound waves to break renal stones into small particles that can be eliminated from the urinary tract.
tear that occurs in the esophageal mucosa at the junction of the esophagus and stomach caused by severe retching and vomiting and results in severe bleeding.
a collection of risk factors that increase an individual's chance of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus.
classification describing individuals with a body mass index > 40 kg/m2.
a feeling of discomfort in the epigastrium with a conscious desire to vomit.
the formation of stones in the urinary tract.
a vascular disease of the kidney characterized by sclerosis of the small arteries and arterioles of the kidney resulting in renal tissue necrosis.
an abnormal condition of the kidney characterized by peripheral edema, massive proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, and hypoalbuminemia; may occur in a severe primary form or secondary to many systemic diseases.
nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
a group of disorders that is characterized by hepatic steatosis (accumulation of fat in the liver) that is not associated with other causes such as hepatitis, autoimmune disease, or alcohol.
classification used to describe individuals with body mass index values of 30 kg/m2 or more.
an abnormal increase in an individual's proportion of fat cells.
< 400 ml of urine in 24 hours.
a surgical procedure in which an opening is made to allow the passage of urine from the bladder or intestinal contents from the bowel to an incision or stoma surgically created in the wall of the abdomen.
a procedure in which fluid is withdrawn from a cavity of the body.
lack of intestinal peristalsis.
peptic ulcer disease
a condition characterized by erosion of the GI mucosa resulting from the digestive action of HCl acid and pepsin.
dialysis with the use of the peritoneal membrane as the semipermeable membrane; performed to correct an imbalance of fluid or of electrolytes in the blood or to remove toxins, drugs, or other wastes normally excreted by the kidney.
the inflammation of the peritoneum; produced by bacteria or irritating substances introduced into the abdominal cavity by a penetrating wound or perforation of an organ in the GI tract or the reproductive tract.
physiologic stress ulcer
an acute ulcer that develops following a major physiologic insult such as trauma and/or surgery.
polycystic kidney disease
a genetic kidney disorder in which the cortex and the medulla are filled with thin-walled cysts that enlarge and destroy surrounding tissue.
increased venous pressure in the portal circulation caused by compression and destruction of the portal and hepatic veins and sinusoids resulting in splenomegaly, large collateral veins, ascites, systemic hypertension, and esophageal varices.
a diffuse pyogenic infection of the renal parenchyma and collecting system.
renal artery stenosis
a partial occlusion of one or both renal arteries and their major branches; a major cause of abrupt onset hypertension.
syndrome of skeletal changes found in chronic kidney disease as a result of alterations in calcium and phosphate metabolism; characterized by uneven bone growth and demineralization.
short bowel syndrome
a condition of rapid intestinal transit, impaired digestive and absorption processes, and fluid and electrolyte losses that results from extensive resection of the small intestine.
small, dilated blood vessels with a bright-red center point the size of a pinhead from which small blood vessels radiate.
greater than normal amounts of fat in the feces, characterized by frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter that floats, as in celiac disease, some malabsorption syndromes, and any condition in which fats are poorly absorbed by the small intestine.
stress-related mucosal disease
see physiologic stress ulcer.
an abnormal temporary or permanent narrowing of the lumen of a hollow organ, such as the esophagus, pylorus of the stomach, ureter, or urethra; caused by inflammation, external pressure, or scarring.
chronic inflammatory bowel disease that causes ulceration of the colon and rectum.
the presence of excessive amounts of urea and other nitrogenous waste products in the blood; renal function declines to the point that symptoms develop in multiple body systems.
inflammation of the urethra.
an uncontrolled leakage of urine as a result of cerebral clouding and/or physical factors that make it difficult to get to the bathroom facilities on time.
the inability to empty the bladder despite micturition or the accumulation of urine in the bladder because of an inability to urinate.
urinary tract infection that has spread into the systemic circulation; life-threatening condition requiring emergency treatment.
the forceful ejection of partially digested food and secretions (emesis) from the upper GI tract.
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