Georgia State University School of Social Work Human Behavior & the Social Environment 8.30.10 Class Theoretical Perspectives On Human Behavior & the Social Environment Instructor: Lionel Scott AKA Prof. Scott 8.30.10 Class Agenda Announcements Course Overview continued Theoretical Perspectives on Human Development & the Social Environment Development in Contexts Key Concepts in Systems Theories Important Concepts of Ecological Perspective Class Exercise – Application of Theoretical Concepts Micro, Mezzo, and Macro Systems Film – “The Boys of Baraka” Questions/Discussion & Wrap-UP Announcements Best Way to Contact Me Email (not through uLearn). Email me directly at email@example.com from your campus email, yahoo, gmail, or other email portal. 9/20/10: pages 50-64 Annotated Bibliograhpy The content covered in SW3330 focuses on Biological, Psychological, and Social Aspects of Development during the Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescent Developmental Phases of Life. In Reggie’s Story, a number of Biological, Psychological, and Social Developmental Issues during his infancy, childhood, and adolescence are discussed that possibly impacted the final outcome of his life. BIOLOGICAL ISSUES included (a) having parents that were mentally disabled and (b) risky sexual behavior (e.g., selling himself on the gay loop). PSYCHOLOGICAL ISSUES included (a) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, (b) low-average IQ in the mentally retarded range, (c) oppositional defiant disorder, (d) suicidal behavior, and (e) sexual identity confusion. SOCIAL ISSUES included (a) divorce of adopted parents, (b) delinquent behavior, and (c) homelessness. Select a Biological, Psychological, or Social Developmental Issue in Reggie’s Story. Complete an Annotated Bibliography on that issue. Your Annotated Bibliography is to include EIGHT SOURCES in the form of peer reviewed articles. Each of your sources must address your selected issue as relates to children and/or adolescents. Before choosing or settling on a topic, read or become acquainted with Reggie’s story. Bio-Psysho-Social Aspects of Reggie Kelsey’s Life Biological Psychological Diagnosis (April 1998 at Orchard Place): AD/HD, PTSD w/psychotic features, borderline mental retardation Social Literature Search Demonstration Psychosis and Adolescence Timeline of Reggie Kelsey’s Life Born February 14, 1983 in Minnesota Placed in emergency foster home w Campbell’s (April 17, 1988) Adoption by Campbell’s finalized (1990) Campbell’s divorced (1994) Reggie (14 yrs old) taken to hospital due to suicidal threat (late 1997) Taken to YESS by Mrs. Campbell (no longer wanted) (1997) Iowa Department of Human Services (DHS) took custody of Reggie (December 5, 1997) Chapter 1 Theoretical Perspectives On Human Behavior & the Social Environment Quote “The characteristics of the person at a given time in his or her life are a joint function of the characteristics of the person and of the environment over the course of that person’s life up to that time.” Urie Bronfenbrenner (1992) Development in Context D = f(PE) [Development is a joint function of person and environment] Note: In Social Work circles, this is often referred to as PERSON-IN-ENVIRONMENT (PIE) system. D = f(PE) Personal/Social Characteristics single parent vs. two-parent home care vs. day care private vs. public school rural vs. urban residence minority vs. majority status lower vs. middle class mother <12 vs. >12 yrs education male vs. female older vs. youngest child involved vs. non-involved father ? – What statements or perceptions about individuals might we make based on these characteristics? ? – Can the influence of an individual’s personal characteristics on their behavior & functioning be affected by characteristics of their environment? D = f(PE) Environmental Characteristics high crime vs. low crime close-knit family vs. distant family substance abuse vs. no substance abuse in the home family violence vs. no family violence child abuse victim vs. no abuse corporal punishment vs. no corporal punishment high performing schools vs. low performing schools ? – What statements or perceptions about individuals might we make based on these characteristics? ? – Can an individual’s personal characteristics influence the extent to which environmental characteristics affect their behavior & functioning? D = f(PE) Example – low birth weight Minority Status Low Income Learning Disabilities Poor Classroom Performance Attention Deficit Disorder Low Birth Weight Quality of Maternal Care Different Ways of Illustrating Person-In-Environment (i.e., Systems Theory, Ecological Theory, Ecosystems Theory, Multisystems Theory) Elizabeth Hutchinson (2003). Dimensions of Human Behavior (2nd Edition) Different Ways of Illustrating Person-In-Environment (i.e., Systems Theory, Ecological Theory, Ecosystems Theory, Multisystems Theory) Nancy Boyd-Franklin (1989). Black Families in Therapy. Different Ways of Illustrating Person-In-Environment (i.e., Systems Theory, Ecological Theory, Ecosystems Theory, Multisystems Theory) Different Ways of Illustrating Person-In-Environment (i.e., Systems Theory, Ecological Theory, Ecosystems Theory, Multisystems Theory) Lesser & Pope (1989). Human Behavior & the Social Environment. Different Ways of Illustrating Person-In-Environment (i.e., Systems Theory, Ecological Theory, Ecosystems Theory, Multisystems Theory) Key Concepts in Systems Theory & Ecological Perspective Key Concepts in Systems Theory Borders/Margins that separate one entity from another Boundary Secondary/Subordinate system that is component of larger system Subsystem Tendency of a system to maintain a relatively stable, constant state of balance Homeostasis Culturally established social behavior and conduct expected of a person Role Reciprocal, dynamic, interpersonal connection characterized by patterns of communication & emotional exchange Relationship Energy, information, or communication flow received from other systems Input The response of a system after receiving & processing an input Output The act or tendency of a system to move from a more simplified to a more complex existence Differentiation The tendency of a system to progress toward disorganization, depletion, and death Entropy The fact that there are many different means to the same end Equifinality Key Concepts in Ecological Perspective Conditions, circumstances, and interactions that encircle humans Social Environment Communication and interactions with people in one’s environment Transactions Natural power of active involvement between people and their environments Energy Exact point at which interaction b/w an individual & the environment takes place Interface Capacity to adjust to surrounding environmental conditions Adaptation The way people deal with negative experiences they encounter Coping The mutual reliance of each person upon every other person Interdependence Application of Key Concepts Mrs. Green contacted the Social Services Department after hearing Jimmy (aged 6) screaming in the apartment next door. Mrs. Green recalled seeing strange-looking bruises on Jimmy’s arms and legs, as well as on his 4-year old sister, Sherry, about a month ago. Ms. Chin, a Protective Services Worker, visited the Horney household the day after Mrs. Green filed the report. Both Mr. Horney (aged 38) and Mrs. Horney (aged 32) were home. Ms. Chin informed the Horney’s that she was there to investigate potential child abuse. After examining the children, Ms. Chin found slash-like bruises on their arms and legs. When Mr. Horney was asked how the children got these bruises, he stated that he strapped them a little similar to how his own father disciplined him. He stated that his neighbors should mind their own business. The Horney family was a (1)_______________ of the larger community. In the course of her assessment, Ms. Chin learned that the Horney’s were experiencing problems in their marriage. Mrs. Horney was very soft-spoken and did not say much during the Protective Services Worker’s visit. It was evident that she did not say anything that would go against her husband, illustrating the nature of their (2)_______________. Continuing her assessment, Ms. Chin learned that the Horney’s were also having difficulties keeping up with their rent. Their financial difficulties were causing them a significant amount of stress, thereby affecting the (3)_____________ of the family. Mr. Horney admitted that he could use some help in finding a job. Ms. Chin referred him to the local employment agency where he met with a job specialist. The job assistance provided by the employment agency represents (4)______________. Note: Review “Application of Systems Concepts to a Case Example of Child Abuse” (pages 25 – 26 of text) and Highlight 4.1 – “The Application of Systems Theory Principles to Families” (pages 156 – 159, 160). (1) Subsystem (2) Relationship (3) Homeostasis (4) Input Three Basic Types of Systems Micro System Mezzo System An Individual Any small group – i.e., family, work groups, social groups Practice Orientation Macro System System larger than a small group Focuses on individual’s needs, problems, and strengths Focuses on family’s or group’s needs, problems, & strengths Focuses on social, political, & economic conditions and policies that affect individuals and groups Types of Macro Systems Impacting Individuals & Groups Culture Communities Shared attitudes, values, goals, spiritual beliefs, social expectations, arts, technology, & behaviors that characterize the society in which people believe A number of people with something in common that connects them in a way that distinguishes them from others Organizations Structured groups of people who come together to work toward some mutual goal and perform established work activities that are divided among various units Case Example The Kelly family consisted of Angie, a 40-year-old Black schizophrenic woman, Gloria, aged 14, William, aged 13, and Verona, aged 9. The family was supported by welfare (AFDC) benefits. The family was referred to a community mental health center by a local child welfare agency because all three children were truant from school, experiencing academic difficulties, and had been repeatedly placed in foster homes over the years. In their first session with a therapist, Angie looked particularly helpless. Her oldest daughter Gloria took charge and described the family’s concerns. Gloria stated that they lived in a “hell zone” in which they could not sleep at night. Their apartment had been broken into a number of times but was “better than nothing.” The family had in fact been living in shelters for the homeless prior to finding this apartment six months earlier. The child welfare worker reported that the family had been homeless a number of times because the children often vandalized the buildings in which they lived. She also reported that the youngest sister have been placed in a foster home the previous week because her mother had burnt her head with a curling iron when fixing her hair. Angie Kelly expressed a helpless feeling of not being able to “get these children to act right.” She was herself seen for medication by a psychiatrist in the adult clinic at the community mental health center. She had been hospitalized for a while. Ecomap Using an ecosystem perspective in social work practice, the social worker attempts to understand individuals and families in their environmental context. The ecomap is a visual tool designed to organize and clarify information about the transactional relationships between the individual/family and their environment at a specific point in time. The ecomap is constructed with the client to assess resources and supports, as well as, stresses in the family’s interactions with their environment. It can be used in a broad range of practice settings with individuals and families. It is particularly helpful during assessment and intervention planning, as it helps both clients and social workers to better understand the nature of the family’s relationships with individuals, groups, organizations, and the community. Completing the ecomap can help the social worker and the client to identify strengths, needs, and boundary issues. Completion of this assignment includes a written analysis of the transactional relationships between the individual/family and their environment. Special attention should be given to the following: Ecomap of Kelly Family Nancy Boyd-Franklin (1989). Black Families in Therapy: A Multisystems Approach Application of Key Concepts The Kelly family consisted of Angie, a 40-year-old Black schizophrenic woman, Gloria, aged 14, William, aged 13, and Verona, aged 9. The family was supported by welfare (AFDC) benefits. The family was referred to a community mental health center by a local child welfare agency because all three children were truant from school, experiencing academic difficulties, and had been repeatedly placed in foster homes over the years. Gloria stated that they lived in a “hell zone” in which they could not sleep at night. Their apartment had been broken into a number of times. This description of their neighborhood illustrates the system or ecological key concept of (1)_________________. In the family’s first session with a therapist, the therapist was interested in each member’s perspective about their home situation, which illustrates the systems theory concept of (2)_____________. The point at which the therapist and the family came into contact represents what key concept? (3)________________ The therapist felt that the family was very guarded and she wondered if the presence of the child welfare worker might be contributing to their reluctance to discuss their family. Hence, the therapist asked the child welfare worker to wait in the waiting room, thereby creating a (4)____________ between the worker and the family. Future sessions were used to empower Angie, the mother, to take responsibility for her own family. Angie felt that she needed to find a new apartment in a safer neighborhood and explore job opportunities. Having referred her to a number of vocational and community programs, Angie reported that she still was unsuccessful in finding a new apartment and job. Finding that this was a problem of many clients being served by her center, the therapist brought together a number of mothers to share their stories and to provide support to one another. The text identifies three orientations to social work practice that are illustrated in this paragraph. One social work practice orientation illustrated is (5)________________. (1) Social Environment (2) Input (3) Interface (4) Boundary (5) Micro or Mezzo Systems Interacting with Kelly Family Child Welfare Agency Macro System School Macro System Mother’s psychiatrist Micro System Child Welfare Agency Macro System Dangerous Neighborhood Macro System Mother’s Support Group Mezzo System Extended Family Mezzo System You can make notes on yellow handout Film (PBS Documentary) Synopsis: Four 12-year-old black boys from one of the most violent ghettos in Baltimore, Maryland, are taken 10,000 miles away to an experimental boarding school in rural Kenya, to try to take advantage of the educational opportunities they can't get in their own country. Devon Brown Montrey Moore Richard Keyser Romesh Vance Film Update - "The Boys of Baraka" filmmakers visited Devon, Montrey and Richard in Baltimore in the summer of 2006 to catch up on their lives since filming stopped. http://www.pbs.org/pov/boysofbaraka/film_update.php ?s that arise from films If one factor from each of our developmental histories could be erased, to what extent would we be different? If one factor from each of our developmental histories could be changed, to what extent would we be different? Asian vs. Latino. Raised Agnostic vs. Christian. Born into poor family vs. working class family. Can a change in context change the course of an child’s development and functioning? Who would we be if certain traumatic experiences and circumstances could be erased? If we could start our lives all over again with a “blank slate,” what factors would we choose to be in place? If given the choice, how many of us would choose to go through the infant, child, and adolescent developmental stage over again.