Chapter 5 ? History of Children?s Folk and Fairy Tales: From Perrault to Hoodwinked Part 1: Definition, Genres, Common Features ? Traditional literature is the body of stories, or genres, that have come to us through oral transmission and whose authors are generally unknown Genres of Traditional Literature ? Myths, Legends, Folk and Fairy tales, Ballads, Fables, ? Greek, Roman myths ? Different kinds of legends ? Folk/Fairy Tales From All Around the World. ? European/American ? Fables ? Indian, Panchatantra ? European (Greek), Aesop Common Features of Traditional Literature, inc Folk and Fairy Tales ? Characteristic features of traditional literature are: ? Clear narrative structures and plots whether linear or cyclical (hero?s journey) ? Magical object (sword, shoes, cape, etc) ? Easily recognizable themes (good versus evil, overcoming social inequality, justice triumphs?universal themes, timeless) ? Mythic, legendary characters (King Arthur, Joan of Arc) but also famous fairy tale characters (Cinderella, etc) ? Non-human characters (animals, super human, extraordinary such as the Wolf, Puss in Boots, Beast, etc) ? Human/non-human characters are marked (HP with scar, Wolf as predator, Beast w/huge head and fur) ? Economy of symbolism in settings (castle/cottage, water/woods) ? Storytelling quality (Once upon a time, songs, refrains) Part 2: Social and Political History of Folk and Fairy Tales: 1400s-2100 ? Oral tradition flourished until the late 1400s (Gutenberg, Caxton) and the end of the Middle Ages (Medieval Era) ? With the Renaissance, Reformation, and Enlightenment, science and reason replaced religious and mythic accounts of the world and folk and fairy tales disappeared-traditional literature felt to be ?old wives?s tales,? ?superstitious nonsense? despite Comenius, Locke, Perrault, De Beaumont, etc Social and Political History of Folk and Fairy Tales ? Carl Jung?s ?collective unconscious?: settings, themes, and images found mostly in fairy tales, legends, etc suggest a common store of experiences ? Antti Aarne and Stith Thompson. 1961. The Types of the Folktale classified folk tales according to motifs (individual detail) and tale type (collection of motifs). ? 1960s. Campbell?s The Hero With a Thousand Faces ? Bettelheim?s The Uses of Enchantment. 1976 psycholanalytic approach ? 1970s Feminist theory?s emphasis on stereotyping in folk/fairy tales ? Emergence of multiculturalism in schools. ? Recognition of Cultural Impact/Importance of Disney?s retelling of traditional tales in the age of media. Part 3: Literary History of the Folk and Fairy Tale ? Basile?s The Tale of Tales. 1634-36 ? Perrault?s Tales of Mother Goose. (Histoires ou Contes du Temps Passe, avec des Moralities). 1697. ? Grimm?s Household and Nursery Tales (Kinder Und Hausmarchen).1812 ? Romanticism: renewed interest in traditional literature because of new image of the child as innocent, pure, close to nature, wild, organic, natural, etc ? Victorian Era (19th): renewed interest continues with writers such as Dodgson (Carroll), Hans C Andersen, Oscar Wilde, illustrators like Caldecott and Greenaway, debates about value of fairy tales to children ? H.C. Andersen?s Tales. 1846 ? Wilde?s The Happy Prince and Other Tales. 1888. Illustrated by Walter Crane ? Baum?s The Wizard of Oz (1900). ? Disney 1930s onwards ? Carter?s The Bloody Chamber (1979) Part 4: History of a Tale: Beauty and the Beast 1. Cupid and Psyche. 2nd century myth 2. Panchatantra: Indian Fables, 1st-6th . Authors unknown. ?The Girl Who Married A Snake. 3. De Beaumont?s ?Beauty and the Beast.? 1757. Pub. in Magasin des Enfants 4. Movies, Television, etc in 20th Plot: Beautiful Woman accept/marry an ugly man Illustrations: Beauty and the Beast Beauty and the Beast: Cocteau Beauty and the Beast Beauty and the Beast: Disney Beauty and the Beast ? Q. Disney?s version or De Beaumont?s version? ? Q. What are the differences between the two? ? Is Disney?s version a feminist version? Belle reads (fairy tales) is independent (refuses Gaston), makes her own choices (marries the ugly beast who turns into the handsome prince) ? Belle refuses Gaston ? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vAy_Sxj4 xW0 Gaston and Beast: Transformations ? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kH2LJVb V72Y Feminism ? ?There can be little doubt that the strongest influence on fairy tales in recent years has been feminism? ? Q. What is feminism and how has it influenced children?s literature in general? ? A. Feminism is defined as a ?collection of theories movements and philosophies motivated by a concern with the experiences of women? and it has influenced children?s literature in a number of important ways: Feminism, Folk/Fairy Tales, & Beauty and the Beast ? Several Question/Ideas are relevant: ? What are the experiences of women generally in these tales? ? Do these classic tales provide good role models for boys and girls or should they be abandoned in favor of ?watered down? contemporary versions? ? Are all the heroines passive? Which ones are active (Gretel, Clever Gretel)? What about Belle? ? Are all the heroes active? Who is active? Who is passive? ? Why is the conflict often between the stepmother and the daughter? ? Do kids see characters in these tales as gendered subjects or do they see/read them just as (neutral) kids on adventure stories (394/395)? ? Why are these tales attractive to adult women? EMU Traditional Literature
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