Chapter 5: Self-Governing Colonies in a Changing Empire, 1770-1775 Severing the Bonds of Empire, 1754-1774 Growing conflict b/t colonists & British Government created debate within colonies British victory in French & Indian (Seven Years) War changed balance of power in North American & affected everyone there New British taxes to pay for war & colonial resistance to new taxes exposed basic differences b/t two sides in political ideas I. Renewed Warfare Among Europeans & Indians Three wars b/t French & British in N. America (1689?1748) No side was able to defeat other decisively Iroquois ? as neutral, manipulated two Europeans against each other to dominate interior beyond Appalachians Probe by British colonists into Ohio River (1750s) renewed conflict w/ French Albany Congress (1754): Seven colonies try to coordinate response to French Draft Plan of Union, but colonial assemblies rejected it (fear loss of autonomy) VA Governor sent militia into disputed area Militia defeated; sparked war Most Ohio Indians sided w/ French English forces performed poorly (1754?1757) Pitt improved war effort after 1757 w/ greater cooperation b/t British & colonies French defeated by 1760; cede all N. American claims (1763 treaty) British gained control of French fur trade & took Florida from Spain (Spain gets Louisiana) French threat removed for 13 colonies Some colonial leaders (Franklin) predicted geographic expansion, economic development, & population growth for 13 colonies II. 1763: A Turning Point For Native Americans, French defeat & Spanish decline removed key allies Less able to resist British expansion Cherokees defeated in south (1760?61) In Ohio, Pontiac formed alliance (idea of Neolin) to fight Anglo-Americans (1763) British defeated Pontiac?s forces Proclamation of 1763?British restricted movement of colonists into interior Government sought less conflict w/ Indians Squatters & land speculators wanted expansion British Government faced massive war debt George III assumed throne (1760)?stubborn, erratic, wanted to assert power of monarchy English faced high taxes, prompting Grenville (prime minister) to try to tax colonies to pay debt Government asserted it could tax colonies under ?virtual representation? concept Colonists advocated ?actual representation? Both asserted government by consent, but differed in how to create representation Colonists also accepted ideas of ?Real Whigs? Distrusted those in power Assumed powerful (especially monarchs) will encroach on liberty & property (both linked) Advocated less active central government; called for perpetual vigilance to prevent abuses British efforts to increase control & raise revenue interpreted through Real Whig ideas Colonists initially assumed new acts unwise; over time, many saw conspiracy to oppress them Sugar Act (1764)?first tax designed to raise revenue in colonies, not just regulate trade Currency Act (1764) outlawed colonial paper money Both laws hit in midst of depression Early protest was hesitant & uncoordinated III. The Stamp Act Crisis (1765) First English tax that affected every colonist Big break w/ colonial tradition of being taxed only by elected assemblies Rights of British Colonies by Otis reflected colonial dilemma: how to oppose act without rejecting authority of Parliament Colonial protest indecisive until Henry & Virginia Stamp Act Resolves widened debate VA House passed first four resolves (stressed rights of colonists & tax only w/ consent) Most colonists wanted self-government, not independence (late 1760s & early 1770s) Loyal Nine (Boston)?artisans joined w/ unskilled workers to stage group protest Inspired other urban protests?eventually stamp collectors agreed not to perform job Some protests turned violent Increased worry among elite & artisans (wanted protest, but feared demands of unskilled, poor, slaves, & women) Creates Sons of Liberty: an intercolonial organization to keep protest orderly Not always successful Artisans liked Revere = backbone of resistance Rebels use violence and humiliation to intimidate those loyal to the government 1765?66: colonial assemblies & Stamp Act Congress petition; Sons of Liberty protested, & merchants organized embargo Rockingham, new prime minister, repealed act (1766) because saw it as divisive Declaratory Act?Parliament asserts authority over colonies Sons celebrated and then dissolve IV. Resistance to Townshend Acts Renewed effort (1767) to raise money from colonies w/ duties on items from England Used revenue to pay royal officials?made them independent of colonial assemblies Increased enforcement of Navigation Acts Provoked immediate resistance Dickinson?s Letters from a Farmer: England can regulate trade but cannot tax colonies Assemblies motivated to act when royal governors blocked discussion by dissolving assemblies (starting w/ Massachusetts) Created rituals of resistance (especially #92 & #45) to reach illiterates Sons of Liberty resumed & tried to involve ordinary folk in resistance Agreed not to purchase/consume British goods Rebels believed in a high-level conspiracy, that stretched across 5 ministries, to subvert their liberties?100 years later historians discovered that no such conspiracy existed Divisions still existed, especially w/ merchants hurt economically by nonconsumption Artisans again central; protests cut imports, but often violent?scared colonial elite Duties repealed (except tea), and salaries postponed (1770) V. Confrontations in Boston Originated w/ clashes b/t Bostonians (especially laborers) v. custom officials & British troops March 5, 1770: crowd of laborers harassed soldiers who responded w/ shots Five colonists died; resistance leaders used incident to generate support for protest Elite Sons of Liberty still disliked mob actions Calm on the surface (1771?72), but more patriot leaders feared conspiracy to ?enslave? them Did not want independence; rather, desire was for freedom from Parliament while maintaining loyalty to king After England started to pay royal salaries (late 1772), Samuel Adams organizes first Committee of Correspondence in Boston Sam Adams Established in all 13 colonies, committees increased popular support, especially in interior Earlier resistance limited to coast & cities Boston committee drafted statement asserting rights to life, liberty, & property Approved by most Massachusetts towns Contrasted w/ earlier statements?loyalty to England less important than secure rights VI. Tea & Turmoil Tea = key symbol of earlier resistance Tea Act (1773) saved East India Company from bankruptcy w/ monopoly in colonies Upset rebels (saw act as either tax or first step in monopoly on all trade) In Boston, neither rebels nor governor compromised Tea Party (Dec. 16): artisans key, but cross-section of community participated Boston?s King?s Street Riot and Destruction of Tea Parliament responded w/ Coercive Acts (4) Port Act closed Boston until tea reimbursed Massachusetts Government Act weakened elected bodies & strengthened appointed ones Justice Act protected royal officials charged w/ crime by moving trial out of colony Quartering Act allowed seizure of private buildings for housing troops Quebec Act: tolerated Catholics, empowered appointed bodies, & annexed interior Stemming from Real Whig ideas & past conflicts, rebels saw clear evidence of conspiracy to oppress them rebels agreed to intercolonial meeting to decide response, but did not call for revolution 1763?74: key b/c many colonists became active politically & began to see differences w/ England American identity emerged from interaction b/t British action & colonial response Summary: Discuss Links to the World & Legacy French & Indian War as first world war? Global roots & implications of conflict Greater links b/t N. America & rest of world How are census & reapportionment a legacy? Focus on actual (not virtual) representation Why does census still cause debate?
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