Chapter 2: England?s First ?Foreign Plantations?: The Chesapeake and New England 1607-1732 Interaction between Europe, Africa, & Western Hemisphere accelerated Compare & contrast colonies established by Spanish, French, Dutch, & English Quest for profit & competition still central Compare & contrast English colonies in Chesapeake & New England Native American life dramatically affected I. New Spain, New France, & New Netherland First permanent colonies in what will become U.S.A. founded by Spain French Protestants tried (1560s) but failed St. Augustine founded (1565) to protect Spanish treasure fleets Spanish conquered Pueblos to found New Mexico (1598) II. New Spain In New Mexico, Spanish hoped to repeat earlier success (Central America) New Mexico was not a source of wealth In St. Augustine & Santa Fe, Spanish conquered Indians, and Franciscans attempted conversion Spanish had some success but also faced significant resistance; Spanish were few in number III. New France French turned north after expulsion from Florida by Spanish Founded Quebec (1608) & Montreal (1642) Controlled St. Lawrence River & access to interior Focused on fur trade Like Spanish, mostly men migrated and are few in number, but French less dispersed Jesuits attempted conversion Unlike Franciscans in New Spain, Jesuits accommodated Native American culture Native Americans interested in writing Slowly gained thousands of converts; these converts changed over time, becoming more hierarchical in gender IV. New Netherland Like French, Dutch focused on fur trade and sent only a few men to settlements Founded Albany (1614) on Hudson River & New Amsterdam (1624) on Manhattan Island New Netherland = small part of extensive Dutch global trade system Dutch & French formed alliances with Native Americans?increased warfare, and Iroquois (Dutch ally) defeated Hurons (French ally) V. The Caribbean French, Dutch, & English competed for small islands Used islands as bases to attack Spanish shipping & sources of valuable goods, especially sugar Global exchange?big European demand for tea & coffee (Asia) & sugar (Caribbean) Used enslaved Africans as labor for sugar? expanded slave trade from 1500s VI. English Interest in Colonization Initial motive same as others (profit) Copied Spanish model at first; then slowly change in response to different environment Unlike others, England sent large numbers of men & women who intended to stay Established farming colonies Two factors explain why so many migrated VII. Social Change in England First Factor: Dramatic Population Increase Depressed wages, many driven off land, & accelerated urbanization Elite used colonies to preserve social order by relieving ?surplus population? Many assumed migration offered chance for economic advance (W. Rudyerd) VIII. The English Reformation Second Factor: Religion Henry VIII broke from Roman Catholic Church & founded Church of England (1533) England then influenced by Protestant Reformation from continent Luther & Calvin rejected elaborate rituals & church hierarchy; stressed reading Bible & salvation by faith alone Anabaptist (radical reformation) went a step further and separated church & state and would only baptize adult believers (pacifists and would not hold public office) Luther and Calvin (see page 10) Late 1500s, Puritans form Purify Church of England of Catholic aspects & incorporate Protestant ideas Puritans confined church membership to ?saved? & asserted predestination (Calvin) Under James I & Charles I, increased persecution of Puritans (early 1600s) IX. The Founding of Virginia Unlike Spanish & French, English financed colonization via joint-stock companies Advantage: pooled resources of many & less risk Disadvantage: colonies needed massive capital but created little immediate profit Virginia Co. (1606) found Jamestown (1607) Immediate trouble?drought, disease, & death John Smith credited with turning Jamestown around Men sent not prepared/willing to farm? expected quick profit (Spanish model) 1607?1624: 8,000 migrated; 1,300 survived Powhatan?s help vital to colony?s survival Powhatan traded food for English knives & guns (to consolidate his confederacy) English/Indian relations quickly deteriorated Although similarities existed, each group focused on differences (role of men in agriculture, importance of hunting) Both had political hierarchies but English more autocratic, whereas Algonquians relied on consensus (chiefs less powerful) Key differences in concepts of property Algonquians assumed property held by group English stressed individual ownership and rejected Indian claims Reflected general English refusal to respect Native American traditions Tobacco brought key changes Saved colony w/ profitable export product & shifted Virginia to agrarian settlement Intensified need for land & labor As incentives to migrate, Co. offered Headright system (1617) & House of Burgesses (1619) Encroachment increased tension w/ Native Americans ? attacked English (1622) English defeated & slowly subordinated Powhatan Confederacy Virginia survived, but Co. collapse (1624) Became royal colony; unlike other European colonies, more local self-government in English colonies X. Life in the Chesapeake Maryland founded (1634)?first colony w/ religious freedom (haven for Catholics) Paralleled Virginia in economy & society?focus was on tobacco & widespread settlement For labor, two colonies relied on indentured servants from England Indenture contract & ?freedom dues? Difficult life (disease, harsh discipline), but some legal protections & possibility of economic advancement until late 1600s Mostly men moved; gender imbalance (1600s) Families unstable because few females and high mortality rate for adults & children Slow rate of natural increase; most settlers were immigrants?creating political instability XI. The Founding of New England Contrast w/ Virginia: different environment Older settlers; more families & women; migrated as community groups Key role of religion for Puritans Pilgrims (Separatists) founded Plymouth (1620) Mayflower Compact?land outside Va. Co. jurisdiction; sought Pilgrim control in self-government Like Virginia, difficult initial settlement & depended on local Native Americans Pokanokets ally w/ Pilgrims for help against Narragansetts Pilgrims = small group; Congregationalist Massachusetts Bay Co. (1629) much larger Founded Massachusetts (1630) & brought Co. charter; again, local self-government Winthrop assumed Mass. would be hierarchical, but asserted communal religious goal Strived for public good, not private advance Covenant: contract with God & with each other Affected government (Mayflower Compact; Connecticut?s Orders) Bay Co. transformed into government Created legislature As with Virginia, one must be male & own property to vote for legislature, In Massachusetts, must also be church member New England distributed land differently Alloted land to groups of men to form town Towns hierarchical, but all men received land New England settlement more compact than Chesapeake, & three town types develop: Isolated agrarian towns; coastal towns (Boston), & commercialized agrarian towns Increase in settlers lead to Connecticut, New Haven, & New Hampshire (1636?38) As in Virginia, expansion increased tension with Native Americans (Pequots), & Puritans did not respect Indian land claims Tension resulted in war (1637)?English slaughtered most Pequots who were unable to form alliances with other Native Americans Till 1670s, not much warfare, but Native Americans resisted English influence A few Puritans tried to convert Native Americans Eliot insisted that converts adopt English culture Result = few converts New France Jesuits more successful b/c did not take much land & accommodated Indian traditions Why convert: disoriented by disruptions to native life (disease, loss of land) XII. Life in New England Unlike Indians & Chesapeake English, Puritans tended to remain on initial farms Formed stable towns & families No gender imbalance b/c many families, including women, migrate Greater natural increase; less disease than Chesapeake; parents exerted more control Church/State linked; no freedom of religion All must attend church & pay taxes to support church, but voting was limited to members Enforced morality & expelled dissenters R. Williams founded Rhode Island (1636), and like Maryland, allowed religious freedom Hutchinson (1630s) ? challenged Puritan orthodoxy & male superiority Summary: Discuss Links to the World & Legacy European colonists & Native Americans interacted and affected each other How did wampum reflect this interaction/ effect? Why was Foxwood's Casino (1990s) important? Reflect survival of Pequots after near destruction Casinos fund museum; other tribes begin to reassert heritage & history
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