A & a Development
- University of Mary Washington
- Psychology 332
- A & a Development
Last Modified: 2011-05-27
In this stage infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences (seeing, hearing) with physical, motoric actions.
Children begin to represent their world with words, images, and drawings. Symbolic thought goes beyond simple connection of information and action.
Children can perform [operations] mental actions that allow individuals to do mentally what they earlier did physically
Logical reasoning replaces intuitive thought as long as the reasoning can be applied to specific or concrete examples.
[conservation] recognize that the properties of an object doesn't change through transformations that alter their appearance
Can classify objects into different sets [classification]
abstract: make-believe, hypothetical situations, verbal problem solving
~metacognition: thinking about thought itself
logical thought think like a scientist
idealistic: ideal characteristics and qualities they desire
not homogeneous early and late portions of this stage
Flights of fantasy may submerge reality and the world is perceived too subjectively and idealistically.
Assimilation dominant process
Through accommodation, adolescents begin to adjust to the upheaval they have experienced.
Late formal thought may appear in the middle adolescent years 15-20.
a solution to a problem at work (with a boss or coworker) may not be the best solution at home (with a romantic partner)
provisional: skeptical, search for truth is an ongoing process
realistic: thinking can't always be abstract sometimes better to be realistic
open to emotions and subjective: realize emotions affect thinking
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory
Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development
Development inseperable from social and cultural activities
Involves learning to use the tools of society
Actively seek out info increases cognitive development
nNeed social interaction, stimulating environments
Tasks in the ZPD too difficult to perform without assistance
As verbal instruction or demonstration is given they organize info in existing mental structures and can eventually perform the task alone
2. Thinking of all possibilities [pseudostupidity]
3. Thinking about thinking [metacognition]
personal fable: feeling that you are so different special and unique that you can get away with things others can't
leads to risky behaviors "that happens to other people not me"
feeling that normal consequences won't apply for you "people just don't understand me"
** no one totally overcomes these feelings but the behavior eventually diminishes
Psychosocial theory that includes eight stages of human development.
Each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be faced
1.Truth vs mistrust
2. Autonomy vs shame and doubt
3. Initiative vs guilt
4. Industry vs inferiority
5. Identity vs identity confusion
6. Intimacy vs isolation
7. Generativity vs stagnation
8. Integrity vs dispair
individuals are faced with deciding who they are, what they are all about, and where they are going in life.
flexible incorporate new ideas about yourself and get rid of obsolete info
can grow and change without losing ones self lifelong process beginning in ado
Occurs in cycles of crisis and resolution
Periods of decision making where one must choose from several options
Four statuses of Identity
commitment: period of identity development when one shows a personal investment in what they are going to do
undecided about occupational and ideological choices show little interest
EX: a 13 year old girl has neither begun to explore her identity in a meaningful way nor made an identity commitment
Often occurs when parents hand down commitments to their teens who have not had an adequate opportunities to explore different options on their own
Parents want kid to be a doctor so he plans on going pre-med without exploring any other options
EX: Sasha not quite sure of the path she wants to follow but visited counseling center and got information about different careers
EX: Marcelo explored a variety of different career options and eventually got his degree in science education to become a high school teacher
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