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University of North Texas
A & P Exam 1 Chapter 3
A & P Exam 1 Chapter 3
University of North Texas
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Produces ATP aerobically
site of enzymatic breakdown of phagocytized material
packages proteins for insertion in the cell membrane or for exocytosis
site of synthesis of lipid and steroid molecules
smooth endoplasmic reticulum
forms the mitotic spindle
forms part of the protein synthesis site in the cytoplasm
act as interpreter molecules that recognize specific amino acids and nucleotide base sequences
attaches the correct amino acid to its transfer RNA
provides the energy needed for synthesis reactions
found in the cytoplasm, this struture specifies the exact sequence of amino acids of the protein to be made
May be attached to the ER or scattered in the cytoplasm
Chromosomes decoil to form chromatin
Chromosomal centromeres split and chromosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell
Nuclear membrane and nucleolus disintegrate
Chromosomes align on the spindle equator
Centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell
Plays a role in the synthesis of steroid based hormones and proteins
The actual site of protein synthesis
Hollow cytoskeletal elements that act as organizers for the cytoskeleton
dense spherical bodies in the nucleus that are the synthesis site for ribosomal RNA
Houses DNA and RNA
Help prevent molecules from passing through the extracellular space between adjacent cells
Type of anchoring junction
Present in electrically excitable tissues
Abundant in tissues subjected to great mechanical stress
Each daughter cell resulting from mitotic cell division has exactly as many chromosomes as the parent cell
Apoptosis is programmed cell suicide, but cancer cells fail to undergo apoptosis
dna contains "dark matter" that codes for specific structural proteins
final preparation for cell division is made during the cell life cycle subphase called G2
chromatin consists of DNA and RNA
in osmosis, movement of water occurs toward the solution with the lower solute concentration
the genetic information is coded in dna by the regular alternation of sugar and phosphate molecules
a process by which large particles may be taken into the cell for food, protection of the body, or disposing of old or dead cells is called phagocytosis
the orderly sequence of the phases of mitosis is
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
diffusion is always from areas of greater to areas of lesser concentration
facilitated diffusion always requires a carrier protein
dna transcription is another word for dna replication
the gycocalyx is often referred to as the "cell coat" which is somewaht fuzzy and sticky with numerous cholesterol chains sticking out from the surfa
in their resting state, all body cells exhibit a resting membrane potential ranging from -50- +50 millivolts
microfilaments are thin strands of the contractile protein myosin
interstitial fluid represents one type of extracellular material
the cell membrane normally contains substantial amounts of cholesterol
aquaporins are believed to be present in red blood cells and kidney tubules but very few other cells
most organelles are bounded by a membrane that is quite different in structure from the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane
only one cell type in the human body has a flagellum
microtubules are hollow tubes made of subunits of the protein tubulin
telomeres are the regions of chromosomes that code for protein ubiquitin
nitric oxide may act as a biological messenger
both potassium and sodium ions can leak through the cell membrane due to diffusion
transporting an enzyme from one side of a cell to the other and releasing the contents by exocytosis
in certain kinds of muscle cells, calcium ions are stored in
the smooth ER
the rna responsible for bringing the amino acids to the factory site for protein formation is
a red blood cell placed in pure water would
swell and burst
which of the following describes the plasma membrane
the phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell
acts as a site of cell to cell interaction and recognition
encloses cell contents
what structures are fingerlike projections that greatly increase the absorbing surface of cells?
which of the following statements is correct regarding diffusion?
the greater the concentration of gradient, the faster the rate of diffusion
cell junctions that promote the coordinated activity of cells by physically binding them together into a cell community include
tight junctions,gap junctions, desosomes
if cells are placed in a hypertonic solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable, what could happen?
the cells will lose water and shrink
which of the following is not a subcellular structure
once solid material is phagocytized and taken into a vacuole, what happens?
a lysosome combines with the vacuole and digests the enclosed solid material
riboswitches are folded RNAs that act as switches to turn protein synthesis on or off in response to
changes in the environment
which is a function of a plasma membrane protein?
molecular transport through the membrane
messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA play a role in protein synthesis
produces nucleus replication
the electron microscope has revealed that one of the components within the cell consists of microtubules arranged to form hollow tube
bindes cells together
glycoproteins in the glycocalyx
wavy contours of the membranes of adjacent cells
special membrane junction
which transport process is the main mechanism for the movement of most macromolecules by body cells?
receptor mediated endocytosis
caveolae are closely associated with all but which of the following?
enzymes involved in cell metabolism
passive membranes transport processes include
movement of a substance down its concentration gradient
enzymes called ___________ destroy cells dna and cytoskeleton producing a quick death of the cell
contain some of the dna and rna code necessary for their own function
are able to detoxify substances by enzymatic action
takes place during interphase of the cell cycle
the nucleotide sequence in the tRNA anticodon is an exact copy of the dna triplet that coded for it except that uracil is subsituded for thymine
in the maintenace of the cell resting membrane potential
extracelluar sodium levels are high
which is a concept of cell theory?
a cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms
reperssor genes do not serve as a signal for cell division
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