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Nerves are ___ of the nervous system.
____ division carries signals to the smooth muscle in the large intestine.
The ___ division tends to prepare the body for action.
___ are examples of effectors of the nervous system.
The autonomic nervous system is also called the
Some ___ neurons are specialized to detect stimuli, whereas ____ neurons send signals to the effectors of the nervous system.
About 90% of the neurons in the nervous system are ___ neurons.
___ neurons are the most common type of neurons.
Nerve fiber refers to
Most metabolic and regulatory functions in a neuron happen at the
This image shows a representative neuron. What does "1" represent?
____ are the primary site for receiving signals from other neurons.
__ form myelin in the spinal cord.
Most of the myelin sheath is composed of
The myelin sheath is formed by
Conduction speed of a nerve fiber would be the fastest in a
In order for a peripheral nerve fiber to regenerate it must have
___ has the greatest influence on the resting membrane potential.
Most local potentials happen at the
Opening of sodium gates typically leads to
Which of the following will cause the plasma membrane to hyperpolarize when at its RMP?
Local potentials are _____, meaning they vary in magnitude according to the strength of the stimulus.
An inhibitory local potential
While the membrane is depolarizing its
This image shows an action potential. What does "1" represent?
This image shows an action potential. What does "6" represent?
Local potentials are ___, whereas action potentials are ___.
During hyperpolarization (or afterpotential)
When the voltage of a plasma membrane shifts from +35mV towards 0 mV, we say the cell is
During the absolute refractory period
A traveling wave of excitation is what we know as
In a myelinated fiber only the initial segment in the trigger zone have voltage-regulated channels.
What would be the best explanation for why myelinated fibers conduct signals faster than unmyelinated fibers?
All of the following are typical characteristics of neurotransmitters except
A cholinergic synapse employs ___ as its neurotransmitter.
___ binds to ligand-regulated gates, and is the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.
Which of these happens first in an cholinergic synaptic transmission?
Which of these happens first in an adrenergic synaptic transmission?
___ excites skeletal muscle and inhibits cardiac muscle.
Some antidepressant drugs act by inhibiting monoamine oxidase (MAO), which is an enzyme
All of these contribute to the cessation of the signal in a synaptic transmission except
Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) are associated with
Opening of __ gates produces an ___.
Which of these is an example of an EPSP in a typical neuron?
A neuron can receive thousands of EPSPs from different neurons, and responds by triggering or not triggering an action potential. This addition and response to the net effect of postsynaptic potentials is called
Presynaptic inhibition is the opposite of
Even though all action potentials are the same, the brain can differentiate a variety of stimuli by source and intensity. The mechanism by which the nervous system converts these action potentials into meaningful information is called neural
The best type of neural pool for producing a prolonged output is
Parkinson disease is a progressive loss of motor function due to the degeneration of specific neurons. These neurons secrete an inhibitory neurotransmitter that prevents excessive activity in motor centers of the brain. This neurotransmitter is
Accumulation of Ca2+ in the synaptic knob is called ___, and probably plays an important role in ___.
The following are all functions associated with the spinal cord except
Which of the following sensory functions involves neurons in the posterior root ganglia?
The spinal cord is divided into all of the following regions except
Which of the following fractures would be the least likely to cause a spinal cord injury?
This figure shows a detail of the spinal cord, meninges, and spinal nerves. What does "1" represent?
This figure shows a detail of the spinal cord, meninges, and spinal nerves. What does "4" represent?
Epidural anesthesia is introduced in the epidural space between the ___ to block pain signals during pregnancy.
This figure shows a cross section of the spinal cord. What does "3" represent?
Cerebrospinal fluid fills in the space between the
Which of the following structures is the richest in lipid content?
Gray matter contains
The bundle of nerve roots that occupy the vertebral canal from L2 to S5 is called the
The upper motor neurons that control skeletal muscles begin with a soma in
The signals that control your handwriting travel down the spinal cord in
Many upper motor neurons synapse with lower motor neurons in
___ carry motor commands from the brain along the spinal cord.
Second-order neurons synapse with third-order neurons in the
Which of these is an ascending tract of the spinal cord?
___ keep(s) nerve fibers insulated from one another.
___ fibers innervate eyes and ears.
A ganglion is a
This figure shows the anatomy of a nerve. What does "3" represent?
A mixed nerve consists of both
Which of the following branches of a spinal nerve have somas of solely sensory neurons?
Somatosensory refers to these sensory signals except the sensory signals from
Neurosomas of the posterior root are located in the ___, whereas neurosomas of the anterior root are located in the ___.
A ___ is a cordlike organ composed of numerous ___.
There are __ pairs of spinal nerves.
This figure shows the posterior aspect of spinal nerve roots and plexuses. What does "3" represent?
This figure shows the posterior aspect of spinal nerve roots and plexuses. What does "2" represent?
The ventral rami of the spinal nerves form nerve plexuses in all regions except
The cervical plexus gives origin to the ___ nerve(s).
Which of the following nerves originates in the lumbosacral plexus?
This figure shows a dermatome map. A patient with no sensation in the left thumb would probably have a nerve damaged in
Somatic reflexes are responses of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles.
These are all properties of reflexes except
Which one of the following best describes the order of a somatic reflex?
The stretch reflex is a tendency of a muscle to stretch when it is overcontracted.
A stretch reflex is often accompanied by reciprocal inhibition.
The tendon reflex is the inhibition of a muscle contraction that occurs when its tendon is excessively stretched.
The cross extension reflex is the contraction of the extensors on one side of the body when the flexors are contracted on the other side.
Which of the following groups of muscles have the most muscle spindles?
A muscle spindle contains mostly
A nurse pricks your finger to type your blood. You flinch at the pain, pulling your hand back. This is called the
The quickest reflex arcs involve only two neurons, thus forming __ reflex arcs.
The flexor (withdrawal) reflex employs a ____, which maintains a sustained contraction.
If a bee sting on the right thigh causes a quick involuntary reaction of the right arm, this would be an example of
The sensitivity of the muscle spindle is maintained by
The fibers that carry action potentials to cause skeletal muscle to contract are
You go to the movies after a long day and you begin to nod off as soon as the movie starts. Your head starts to lower a little but this reflex causes your head to rise. This is called the
In the patellar tendon reflex arc, the patellar ligament is stretched, which stretches the quadriceps femoris muscle of the thigh. This reflex will cause the quadriceps femoris to
A reflex where the sensory input and motor output are on opposite sides of the spinal cord is called a _____ reflex arc.
The tendon reflex
This reflex shows the least synaptic delay.
Tendon organs are
The cerebellum exhibits folds called gyri separated by grooves called sulci.
The following are all major components of the brainstem except
The right and left cerebral hemispheres are separated from each other by
The cerebellum is __ to the cerebrum.
The cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory centers are found in
Both cerebrum and cerebellum have gray matter in their surface cortex and deeper nuclei, and white matter deep to the cortex.
The gray matter of the cerebrum forms a surface layer called ___ and deeper masses called ___ surrounded by white matter.
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is most permeable to
The pons and cerebellum relate with this secondary embryonic vesicle.
From superficial to deep, the meninges occur in this order:
A patient is experiencing a high fever, stiff neck, drowsiness, and intense headaches. A spinal tap showed bacteria and white blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This individual most likely has
Epidural space is filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).
Cerebrospinal fluid serves these purposes except
Cerebrospinal fluid is secreted by choroid plexuses in the ____ ventricles and reabsorbed by arachnoid villi in the ___.
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) helps prevent hemorrhages in the nervous tissue of the brain.
The blood-CSF barrier is composed of dense regular connective tissue lining the ventricles.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) consists of
Purkinje cells are unusually large neurons found in the cerebellum.
The cerebellum is the largest part of the brain.
The medulla oblongata is the most rostral part of the brain.
Structures in the midbrain control homeostasis and relay sensory signals to specific regions of the cerebral cortex.
The medulla oblongata originates from
The ___ function(s) in visual attention, such as to look and follow the flight of a butterfly.
Degeneration of neurons in this structure, which inhibits unwanted body movements, leads to the muscle tremors of Parkinson disease.
The ___ is the largest part of the hindbrain.
Loss of equilibrium and motor coordination would most likely be related to a lesion in the
The arbor vitae is a structure found in
There are no cranial nerves associated with
The pons is not associated with
The reticular formation is a web of ___ scattered throughout the ____.
The forebrain consists of the cerebrum and the diencephalon.
The thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus are derivatives of the embryonic
Nearly all the somatosensory input to the cerebrum passes by way of synapses in
Sex drive, body temperature, and food and water intake are regulated by
A lesion of the ___ would probably cause a person to sleep for random lengths of time during a 24-hour period.
The pineal gland belongs to
Planning, motivation, and social judgment are functions of the brain associated with
The occipital lobe is
The great majority of ____ tracts pass through the corpus callosum.
Most gray matter of the cerebrum is located in
The hippocampus and amygdala are structures found in
A predominance of ___ waves in an electroencephalogram (EEG) might indicate that a person is physically and mentally relaxed.
During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep
The amygdala, hippocampus and hypothalamus are involved in such feelings as love, anger, fear, pleasure, and pain.
The vision association area resides primarily in the temporal lobe.
The ___ association area is responsible for perceiving and attending to stimuli, and the ___ association area is responsible for identifying them.
Short-term memory is associated with the ____, whereas long-term memory is associated with the ___.
Destruction of the amygdala would mostly affect
Which body region is controlled by the largest area of the motor cortex?
The pyramidal cells of the precentral gyrus are called ___ neurons.
Nonfluent aphasia, due to a lesion in the ___, results in slow speech, difficulty in choosing words, or use of words that only approximate the correct word.
After a stroke a patient complains about lack of sensitivity in her right hand. The stroke most likely affected the
___ show more lateralization than ___.
Which of the following functions would most likely be controlled by the representational hemisphere of the cerebrum?
All cranial nerves lead to structures in the head and neck.
There are three cranial nerves involved in eye movement and two in the sense of taste.
The ___ is not a motor cranial nerve.
This is the largest of the cranial nerves and the most important sensory nerve of the face.
This nerve innervates most of the viscera in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
The autonomic nervous system carries out many somatic reflexes that are crucial to homeostasis.
The autonomic nervous system is composed of ganglia in the central nervous system and ganglia in the periphery.
Most autonomic efferent pathways involve one neuron.
The autonomic nervous system controls all of the following except the
Autonomic nervous system fibers are involved in all of the following except
Which one of the following best describes the order of a visceral reflex?
The effect of autonomic fibers on target cells is ___, and/whereas the effect of somatic fibers is ___.
In response to high blood pressure, stretch receptors called ____ in the walls of arteries carrying blood to the head will trigger a reflex that causes the heart to ____ its beats per minute.
The motor pathway of the autonomic nervous system usually involves __ neurons.
Preganglionic fibers run from
Preganglionic fibers of the autonomic efferent pathway are ____ and secrete ____.
Somatic reflexes act faster than visceral reflexes. These are all reasons for this except
The parasympathetic division stimulates digestion.
Both divisions of the autonomic nervous system are normally active simultaneously.
Sympathetic nerve fibers are not associated with situations involving
___ is the background rate of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity.
Autonomic nervous system
These are all characteristics of the enteric nervous systems except
Which of the following is associated with the "flight or fight" reaction?
Most preganglionic fibers synapse with postganglionic fibers in the dorsal root ganglia.
All preganglionic fibers pass through the sympathetic chain of ganglia synapsing at least once there.
Fibers of the vagus nerve end very near or within their target organs.
Most fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system travel in
Sympathetic fibers arise only from the ____ region(s) of the spinal cord.
The sympathetic chain of ganglia (paravertebral ganglia) is found at the ___ levels of the spinal cord.
These are all features of the sympathetic division except
These are all characteristics of the parasympathetic division except
Most preganglionic fibers in the sympathetic nervous system synapse with 10 to 20 postganglionic neurons. This results in
The solar plexus is used as a name for
Which nerve(s) carries the most parasympathetic fibers?
The parasympathetic division arises from the ___ region(s) of the spinal cord.
Damage to the ___ may affect near vision accommodation.
White rami carry ____ neurons, while gray rami carry ____ neurons.
___ nerve(s) pass(es) throughout sympathetic ganglia without synapsing.
The adrenal medulla is a modified sympathetic ganglion.
The adrenal medulla secretes mostly
The autonomic effect on a target cell depends only on the neurotransmitter reaching that target cell.
Most sympathetic postganglionic adrenergic fibers secrete adrenaline.
The neurotransmitter(s) associated with autonomic ganglia is(are)
Sympathetic fibers do not release
A neuron that synapses in the adrenal medulla is a ____ neuron, and releases the neurotransmitter ____.
Acetylcholine (ACh) binds to both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors.
Acetylcholine (ACh) always has an excitatory effect.
Binding of norepinephrine (NE) to an alpha-adrenergic receptor is usually excitatory, and binding to a beta-adrenergic receptor is usually inhibitory.
If a cell has α1 adrenergic receptors, it is sensitive to
Propranolol, a beta-blocker, is typically used to
Which of the following is more effective in producing bronchodilation?
Muscarinic receptors bind
The binding of ___ to a nicotinic receptor of a muscle fiber will ___ it.
Atropine is sometimes used to dilate the pupil for eye examination. Which receptor would atropine block?
Sympathetic effects tend to last ___ than parasympathetic effects. One reason is that ___.
This enzyme breaks down norepinephrine (NE).
Drugs that are monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors would most likely
A possible explanation for the effect of caffeine is that it blocks the receptor for a neuromodulator in the brain called _____, which inhibits ACh release by cholinergic neurons.
All of the following are under dual control of the ANS except
Antagonistic effects of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system are exemplified in the control of
___ is an example of the cooperative effect between the two autonomic nervous system divisions.
Which one of the following is made up of primarily adrenergic fibers?
All autonomic output originates in the central nervous system.
The ___ is an especially important center of autonomic control.
Autonomic function receives input from all these except
Transduction begins with an action potential in a sensory receptor.
Sensory receptors sense only stimuli external to the body, such as light, sound waves, smell, and touch.
The output energy of all receptors is a type of ___ energy.
The initial effect of a stimulus on a sensory receptor is a local electrical change specifically called a(an)
What is a sensation?
You can smell the fragrance of your deodorant when you just put it on, but after a little while the smell fades. What explains this phenomenon?
Which of these is most vulnerable to irreversible damage caused by a very loud noise?
Changes in cerebrospinal fluid pH are detected by
Changes in blood pressure are detected by ___ in arteries.
Pain, heat, and cold are detected by
Most somesthetic signals in the right side of the body reach the cerebral cortex in the contralateral primary somesthetic area.
Most second-order somesthetic neurons synapse with third-order neurons in the
Fast pain is a localized response mediated by myelinated nerve fibers.
Divergent sensory pathways explain the phenomenon of referred pain.
This organ does not have nociceptors.
These are all analgesics (pain relievers) naturally occurring in the central nervous system except
These structures are all involved with spinal gating of pain signals except
Olfaction results from the stimulation of chemoreceptors.
Taste signals travel from the tongue through the facial and glossopharyngeal nerves.
What taste sensation is produced by amino acids such as aspartic acid and glutamic acid?
What structure is visible to the naked eye?
The primary olfactory cortex is located in the
___ is the only sense in which signals can reach the cerebral cortex without passing first through the thalamus.
Infrasonic frequencies below ___ Hz are not detected by the human ear, whereas ultrasonic frequencies above ___ Hz are inaudible vibrations.
The ossicles belong to the middle ear.
The macula sacculi is nearly horizontal and the macula utriculi is nearly vertical.
The vestibule contains organs of hearing and equilibrium.
The middle ear consists of a fluid-filled chamber.
Which structure allows upper respiratory infections to spread from the throat to the tympanic cavity?
Each upward movement of the _____ causes the stereocilia of the inner hair cells to bend, opening ___ gates.
A 100 dB sound (loud) of 150 Hz (low pitch) would cause the
When you spin while sitting in a swivel chair with your eyes closed, you can sense this movement by means of your
When you travel in an elevator, the ___ senses when the elevator is moving.
The crista ampullaris is associated with
The ___ do(does) not contribute to the sense of equilibrium.
Stimuli produced by sound waves reach the brain following the pathway:
The cornea belongs to the tunica fibrosa (fibrous layer) of the eyeball.
Light falling on the retina is absorbed by rhodopsin and photopsin in the pigment epithelium.
Human vision is limited to wavelengths ranging from ___ nm.
These are all accessory structures of the eye except
Glaucoma is a state of elevated pressure within the eye that occurs when the ___ is obstructed so the ___ is not reabsorbed as fast as it is secreted.
Nerve fibers from all regions of the retina converge on the ___ and exit the eye by way of the optic nerve.
___ are responsible for photopic (day) vision as well as trichromatic (color) vision.
___ are the only retinal cells that produce action potentials.
The ___ is not an optic component of the eye.
When you view objects close to the eye, the eye makes an adjustment called
A(An) ___ eye does not need a corrective lens to focus the image.
Adjustment to close-range vision involves all of the following except
Rods secrete glutamate from the base of the cell when exposed to light.
Vitamin A is necessary for the synthesis of rhodopsin.
The fact that cones exhibit less neuronal convergence than rods do is part of the reason that
The duplicity theory of vision holds that
The first-order neurons in the visual pathway are
Half of the fibers of each optic nerve decussate at the ___.
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