Aaah 202 Study Guide (2012-13 Drpic)

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plan of sant'ivo alla sapienza
c. 1642-1660s
patrons: Archiginnasio (University) under Urban VIII Barberini, Innocent X Pamphili, Alexander VII Chigi
Maria Raggi
1647
Bernini
Santa maria sopra minerva (elephnt obelisk church)
the glory of saint ignatius (ceiling fresco)
andrea pozzo
1680s
illusionistic dome
1680s
Andrea Pozzo

moses fountain
1587-90
arch: domenico fontana
patron: sixtus V
cornaro chapel
1630s
bernini
patron: cardinal frederico cornaro
Church of santa maria della vittoria
facade of Santa Susanna
1603
arch: carlo maderno
patron: cardinal rusticucci
san carlo alle quattro fontane (also called san carlino)
interior and courtyard
1638-77
borromini
patron: Discalced Trinitarians
statue of st. andrea
artist: antonio raggi

altarpiece with martyrdom of st. andrea
artist: borgognone
piazza del quirinale, palazzo del quirinale and fountain of the dioscuri (castor and polloux)
various artists
15th-19th cent. especially under Paul V borghese, Urban VIII barberini, Innocent X pamphili, and above all alexander VII chigi
fontana paola
arch: flaminio ponzio
1620s
patron: paul V borghese

facade of san crisogono
arch: giovan battista soria
1626
patron: cardinla scipione borghese
raimondi chapel- san pietro in montorio
bernini
1630s
patron: cardinal raimondi
ludovica albertoni
bernini
-Albertoni-Altieri chapel- San francesco a ripa
patron: cardinal albertoni
1670s
santa cecilia- basilica of sant cecilia
arch: stefano maderno
patron: cardinal sfondrati
c 1600
baldacchino- altar-tomb of st peter
bernini
1624-1633
patron: urban VIII barberini

crossing of st peters with statues of st. longinus, st. andrew, st helen, st veronica
bernini and other artists
patron: urban VIII barberini
1629-1640
cathedra petri
bernini
patron: alex VII chigi
1657-66

tomb of urban VIII
bernini
1628-1647
bernini
tomb of alexander VII
bernini
patron: alexander VII chigi
1671-78
chapel of the blessed sacrament
bernini and other artists
1673-74
scala regia
bernini
1663-66
patron: aelxander VII chigi
constatines vision of the cross during battle against maxentius
bernini
patron: alex VII chigi
1654-70
piazza san pietro
bernini
1656-67
patron: aelx VII chigi
advisors: Lucas Holstein, Virgilio Spada
laterano: piazza:
stradone (street from colosseo), via merulana (leading to SM Maggiore, Porta san giovanni and Appian way (leading to greece), obelisk (15th cent from temple of Ammon in Thebes- tallest nad oldest obelisk outside egypt, transported to Rome in 357 for cico massimo and re uplifted by Domenico fontana under patronage of Sixtus V)
lateran palace:
late 1580s
arch: domenico fontana
patron: sixtus V

benedction loggia
late 1580s
arch: domenico fontana
patron: sixtus V (statue of henry IV of france)
nave of st giovanni in laterno
1650s
Borromini
patron: pope Innocent X pamphili

tombs at laterno
1650-60s
under: pope innocent X pamphili and alexander VII chigi)
lancellotti chapel
arch: giovanni antonio de rossi
1675
patron: pope clement XII Corsini
corsini chapel
1735
arch: alessandro Galilei
laterno facade:
1732-36
arch: alessandro galilei
patron: celement XII corsini
Spanish Steps-Francesco de Sanctis & Allesandro Specchi 1st half 18th C. Rome, Italy. similar to Michelangelo's staircase in Library brought to urban, fixed differing elevation problem, organic geometry, double stairs in 3 sequences, another obelisk shows importance of site, called Spanish Steps b/c used to be location of Spanish Embassy 
baraccia fountain
bernini (pietro and gian lorenzo)
1629
patron: Urban VII barberini
propaganda fide
1646-66
borromini
sant andrea delle fratte
1653-65
borromini
patron: del bufalo
trevi fountain
arch: nicola salvi
1732-1760
patron: clement XII corsini
Athansius Kircher
Jesuit researcher in Rome, well-know, contemporary Galileo
Creates the Kircher Museum. Museum extended the Catholic Church to a Universal Church. Kircher's science- science of the church.
Chair of math at the Jesuit College-linguishtics and math
Athansius Kircher -Turris Babel
Athansius Kircher- arca glottotactica
Turris linguis concordibus fabricata (the tower built with concordant tongues)
Father Alessandro Gottifredi- Sermon released at Pentecost day 1637
giovanni Lucido Palombara- Pentecost Sermon 1643
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Elephant with Obelisk
early 1660s
bernini
patron: alexander VII chigi
possible advisor: Athanasius Kircher (kirker?)

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sant andrea al quirinale
1658-76
bernini
patron: cardinal camillo pamphili and Jesuit order
important dates fo basilica of st peters:
324
1450s
early 16th
mid 16th
late 16th
early 17th
324. nov 18: legendary foundation of basilica by emp. constantine
1450s. nicolas V moves from lateran to vatican and restore sthe old basilica nad piazza
e16. Julius II commisions bramante to destroy old basiclica and plan new
m16. michelangelo works on new st peters
L16. giacomo della porta completes michelangelos work inclduing dome
e17. cavalier d'arpino decorates interior of dome
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santa maria maggiore facade
arch: ferdinando fuga
1740s
patrons: clement XI and XII (column from basilica of Maexnetius reuplifted by Carlo Maderno under Paul V Borghese in 1614)
statue of philip IV of spain
sfumato
  • typical of Leonardo da Vinci
  • smoky appearance, hazy
  • gradation of light and shade
apocrypha
  • body of literature that is not the Bible
  • popular stories that depict subjects such as the virgin, christ and saints
  • "an apocryphal subject"
disegno
  • "design/drawing"
  • reliance on prep drawings in process of making compositions
  • resulted in paragone; disegno vs colore
colore
  • "color"
  • Use of light and color in process of overlapping paint
  • Visari considered color inferior to disegno
  • "expressive use of color"
stanze
  • rooms; may refer to the papal suites decorated by Raphael
  • ex: "stanza della signatura"
martyrium
  • a place to commemorate a martyrdom
  • ancient architectural idea
  • ex: tempietto by Bramante
paragone
  • debate of which form of art trumped others (sculpture vs painting)
  • who can better outdo nature; this was definitely on artists minds
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Ghjvj
pand
  • somewhat like a flea market
  • where prints were sold; could buy a series or a set or a subscription
woodcut
  • relief technique; lower quality prints; not the same as etching; textile based bkrnd from India
  • high surfaces take the ink, whats carved is white; dry, rice paper
  • more lowly functions because it's easier to make
  • tools include burin, burnisher, scraper
engraving
  • higher value; much more difficult to make
  • intaglio technique; part scooped out is black
  • use damp paper to pick up; more accurate
  • tools include drypoint needle, burr
  • uses a printing press
humors
  • fluids in body control personality
  • black bile: liver, ELK, bitterness, melancholy, depression
  • yellow bile: liver, CAT, temper, impatience, pride
  • phlegm: lungs, OX, laziness, gluttony
  • sanguine: blood, RABBIT, lust
artists state
  • the final state they decide to use (final version of the engraving)
  • state is a certain point in the progress of creating the image, like a proof
  • could go through 4 or 5 til they get the right one
Baroque Naturalism
Verisimilitude, the quality of being truthful and probable, is adopted by all baroque artists and is key to naturalism during this time. Merge of baroque art and thought: the artistic vision of the age that gave birth to the physical sciences was shaped by a respect of a visible, material reality.
Baroque allegories
Generalizations about the human experience expressed sybolically concealed beneath a naturalistic, genre like exterior.
Baroque psychology 
Interest in psychology is manifested in portraiture and also in the vision of ecstasy of religious art
Baroque Infinite
A sense of the infinite and the intrusion of the infinite/divine into the everyday world of human existence; expressed several ways, but especially in terms of space, light, and time, and also by a sense of the indefinite.
Wolfflin's principles if art history
1. Diagonal recession in space contrasts with renaissance planar space2. Painterly forms contrast with the linearity if high renaissance
3. open compositions
4. Often unclear and atmospheric
5. Emphasizes multiplicity over unity

Flanders, Dutch Republic, Netherlands
Thirty years war, Treaty of Westphalia
-initially about catholic/Protestant debates, then about secular, dynastic, and nationalistic concerns- bourbon dynasty (France) and Hapsburg dynasties-treaty of Westphalia in 1648 ends the war
-2 main results:
1) Dutch republic establishes independence
2) freedom of religious choice throughout Europe- idea of united Christian Europe was abandoned, reality of secular political systems were accepted
Marie De Medici
Fleur-de-lis
Means lily flower and is associated with France 
Rubenesque/ruben
-Women with real curves; canons of beauty; Rubens ideal form of beauty -17th century Flemish painter-built on innovations of Italian renaissance and baroque masters- Michelangelo, titian, Carracci, Caravaggio
-international appeal and influence
-court painter for many, including Marie de Medici of France
-many apprentices helped him produce large quantity of work
-also an art dealer- for royal and aristocratic clients throughout Europe 
Calvinism
Camera obscura, color science
Vanitas, memento mori
-show pride of accomplishment of Dutch merchants-as shown through material goods-suit Protestant ethic- not overtly religious, but still moralizing

Tulipmania
Louis XIV, divine right, sun king
The French academy
Lourve, Versailles
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25-2: Peter Paul Rubens, Elevation of the cross, oil on wood, 1610-located now in the Antwerp cathedral; triptych; Flemish churches wanted to demonstrate their allegiance to the Spanish king so they commissioned pieces of art that weren't iconoclastic; lavish; dramatic; chiaroscuro; saturated, vibrant colors; Jesus has a different light on him because of how light the skin is compared to the other guys, very muscular figures, violence is a common theme; visual energy and action created by diagonals; emotional; real bodies; physical and emotional struggle; had same beliefs about the body like Michelangelo;
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25-3: Peter Paul Rubens, arrival of Marie de Medici at Marseilles, oil on canvas, 1622-1625- Marie married into royalty; Marie commissioned three large paintings that glorified her; use of cartoons (sketches of charcoal on canvases) in order to create more works in a decent amount of time; this is her arriving to marry the king of France; the person wearing the blue robe decorated with fleur de lis is supposed to be the allegory of France; history is blowing her horn above Marie; Neptune and the three graces are pushing her boat ashore; lavish decorations; very catholic painting
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25-9: Fran's Hals, Archers of saint Hadrian, oil on canvas, 1633-very patriotic through banners, flags, etc,; not much for facial expressions; very detailed in clothes; play between dark and light aspects; group portrait but not exactly traditional due to how they're arranged; spears create vectors that activate the space; seen as individuals due to modeling of faces with light; saint Hadrian is the patron saint so they are getting together to celebrate; they commissioned this and since they are each paying a portion, the more you pay the more and better you are seen; each person has their own space
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25-11: Judith Leyster, self portrait, oil on canvas, 1630-student of Hals; extremely vivid expression; subject of the painting that she's working on is different than other self portraits (most are shown painting themselves); the clothes that she's wearing show wealth; contrast from background due to color choice; posture makes her seem lighthearted and more relaxed; clothes that she's wearing probably weren't actually worn while she was painting;
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25-13: Rembrandt van Rijn, The company of captain Fran's banning cocq, oil on canvas, 1642-called the night watch until recently due to people thinking it was dark but it really isn't (the pain darkened over time); group portrait arranged; they're firing and reloading their weapons; fancy; detailed clothing; very realistic; mysterious women (unknown who she is);
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25-15: Rembrandt van Rijn, self portrait, oil on canvas, 1659-1660-holding a palette and brushes; can't see hands; also holding a rod that is meant to steady the hand while painting; ambiguous, stylistic, painterly painting style; looks unfinished at the palette because he adds paint directly from container to canvas; subject matters are himself and the process of making art; parts of painting are treated rather broadly while others are detailed; carefully shadowed and detailed face; verisimilitude; background has what is believed to be two hand drawn semicircles(represent that his ability and mastery of the arts has not wavered; soft atmospheric effects; interest in psychology;
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25-14: Rembrandt van Rijn, return of the prodigal son, oil on canvas, 1664-story of the prodigal son: son asked for inheritance and then goes off and lives a sinful life; son returns home and throws himself at the mercy of the court; interesting portrayal because it is more somber than dramatic; redemptive welcome; father shown welcoming son back silently; female figure in back that's very unrecognizable; focus on pyschological aspect; suggestion of infinite through the dark area; dark area works as backdrop; naturalism; son represents the world and how it has been ruined with sin and the father represents Jesus and is redeeming his son; "the church is always there to take you back" during this time period;
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25-19: Jan Vermeer, Woman holding a balance, oil on canvas, 1664-close, narrow view of woman in space; wearing beautiful, expensive, homely jacket; very modest middle class woman; mirror is symbolic of omnivoyant eye of god; painting in back shows the last judgement; light; illuminates her and softens her; light also that there is a world outside that window; balance is meant to show her comfortable position in life and to also weigh if she is only about material goods or virtues;
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25-20: Jan Vermeer, Allegory of the art of painting, oil on canvas, 1670-1675-artist shown painting a picture of a woman holding a book and trumpet; very ornate home; curtain helps create stage and establish front of the picture plane; tapestry in back is a map (which is important due to the expansion of the world); light coming in from an unknown source is always in Vermeers paintings; woman thought to be representing that she is educated since she's holding a book and trumpet; woman is wearing a laurel wreath on her head; she represents the muse of history (Cleo); the artist is dressed up like a historical figure; tapestry in back represents the expansion of history and land;
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25-1: Pieter Claesz, Vanitas still life, oil on panel, 1630s-window reflected in overturned glass; artist shown working at easel in glass ball; celebration of the material facts of objects in the world; vanity; material goods are only fleeting shown through skull (death); memorializes himself by showing himself; verisimilitude;
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25-23: Rachel Ruysch, Flower still life, oil on canvas, 1700-interested in flowers as memento mori because of how flowers always wilt and die; father was scientist of the natural world; organic; looks as if its reaching for the heavens; 
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25-24: Hyacinthe Rigaudon, Louis XIV, oil on canvas, 1701-fleur de lis; not meant for public, meant to only be seen by royalty; detailed, realistic; rich, sensuous colors; luxurious, feminine; softness to textures; Louis designed his shoes because he was very short; was a dancer in his youth; focused on verticality to make him look taller; wearing his coronation robes to show that he is the ruler of France; hair makes him look taller; ermine= sign if wealth because they're very hard to catch; portrait stood in for him while he was away; sense of infinite makes it baroque; allegory as the symbol of France;
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25-27: Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Charles Le Brun, Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 1680-extremely extravagant; gold; reflective; long and narrow space; Quattro riportato on the ceiling; painted barrel vault;
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25-31: Nicolas Poussin, Et in Arcadia Ego, oil on canvas, 1655-Poussin most famous French painter during this period; spent most of his life in Rome and was influenced by Raphael; committed to history paintings; the job of painting was to represent serious human actions (dignify humankind); revives roman/florentine tradition; pg.719; the essentials for painting: subject matter is grand, keep away from minutia, arrangement, measure form; obvious light source; statuesque woman (classical stance, stance repurposed from past classical art); pointing at tomb; woman thought not to be alive be amuse she is pale; Arcadia us an imaginary place that resembles Eden and is focused on a simple life; meant to show that death is always present even in Eden; vibrant local colors; arrangement of figures is very common and is known as parenthesis;
Rembrandt
-leading Dutch painter-known for versatility, master of light and shadow, portraiture-did gradation of light-not stark contrast between light and dark, closer to reality
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Vermeer
-painter of interior scenes, quietly opulent interiors of Dutch middle class, primarily women-people shown in household tasks or at leisure, also depictions of social values
-interest in light, color science (shadows have color, colors near each other reflect off on another)
-made living as an innkeeper and art dealers-artists would pay tabs at taverns or inns with art
Still life paintings
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The School of Athens
By Raphael- 1509. Vatican Palace. Commissioned by Pope Julius II. Ancient Roman architecture- New St.Peter's. Gathering of great philosophers and scientists whose self-assurance conveys calm reason. Harmonizing paganism and Christianity. Represents four distinct schools of knowledge, which is philosophy, poetry, Theology and law. Plato and Aristotle are the central figures, are pointing towards heaven and earth which represents thinking of the physical world versus the world of thought.


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Raphael,
Sistine Madonna
1513. High Renaissance. Vision framed by curtain and ledge., separating dream and reality, world within world. (Hans Belting) shows turning point, became vision through pushing pictorial field, relate to curtains not virgin, idea becomes dialogue with viewer, idea needs artist. Author consciously creating something to state presence. Commissioned for Benedictine monks. Last work that Raphael painted before his death.
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Disputation of the Holy Sacrament
1509 - Raphael. Renaissance. Fresco in the Stanzo di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace, Vatican City. Spans heaven and earth. Christ is surrounded by Virgin Mary, John the Baptist, Adam, Moses, Jacob. God sits beside reigning over golden light. The alter is flanked by theologians debating transubstantiation. Painted in the private papal library where the supreme papal tribunal met. Several popes are also in the paintings as representatives of church.
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Michelangelo
Creation of Adam, Sistine chapel ceiling
Fresco
1500s
Sistine Chapel, Rome
Most famous section of the chapel ceiling, which illustrates the creation of Adam by God from the genesis. There are hands are almost touching, representing that they are not on the same level. Adam was probably inspired by Chiberti's Adam on his Doors of Paradise piece. The painting itself only took three weeks to complete. He modeled many of the Christians on idealized nudes of classical antiquity. 
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Pope Sixtus IV with his Nephews, Melozzo da Forli
Renaissance art. Executed in 1477 as the central scene of the Vatican Library. Shows Sixtus IV, faced by the kneeling humanist Bartolomeo Platina, as well as many of the popes family. Characteristics are very accurate, so can be considered a portrait of the people. Placed within an imposing architecture, which confers the monumental dimension on the scene, emphasizing solemnity. Platina points to an inscription composed by himself that exalts Sixtus IV.
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Perugino's: Christ Giving the Keys to the Kingdom to St. Peter
Commissioned in 1480, when Perugino was decorating a chapel in Old St. Peter's Basilica. The keys represent the power to forgive and share the word of God, which is the "Key" to heaven. The principal group, showing Christ handing the keys to St. Peter,is surrounded by the apostles, including Judas. The presence of the Roman arches are situated so that it would be appreciated by a Roman audience. An example of early Renaissance perspectival techniques which created a three dimensional space. 
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The Last Judgment
Michelangelo. Renaissance. Executed on the sistine chapel in vatican city. Took four years to complete, between 1536 to 1541. It is a depiction of the second coming of christ and the final and external judgment of god onto humanity. Accused Michelangelo of being insensitive to proper decorum, because he flaunted personal style over appropriate depictions of content. This was particularly because of the nudity, which was later painted over by another artist. Some believe that Michelangelo painted himself in the face of St. Bartholomew, out of his contempt for having to paint the last judgment.
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Pieta
1498-1499, marble. Is now in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome and was for Cardinal Jean de Billheres (funeral monument). first time in renaissance art that this particular scene of the passion is depicted. the moment when christ is taken down from the cross and is being held by the virgin mary
her hand invites the audience in,
her face represents the youth of mary's life.
did not want it to represent death
came back later to put his name on a sash across her chest. important because it balances the Renaissance ideals of classical beauty and naturalism.
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Caravaggio - The Calling of St. Matthew 1600

The Council of Trent: using art to win back Catholicism in the counter-Reformation, uses paintings of people being converted to Christianity.

Uses Chiaroscuro. St. Matthew=tax collector, Jesus & St. Peter (hardly seen) come to call him to become apostle, shaft of light coming in leads right to M's head, we only see Jesus’ nose, cheek, neck, pointing: typical Baroque dramatic moments Faint halo, extreme realism, got models from the street. Looks like tavern or office. Neoclassicism. 
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Crucifixion of St. Peter in the Cerasi Chapel,
Caravaggio
Neoclassicism. Depicts the martyrdom of St. Peter, Peter asked that his cross be inverted so as not to imitate Jesus Christ. The romans struggle to erect the cross, as if their crime already weighs on them. Painted with another painting which depicts Paul, and together they represent the foundations of the catholic church. Peter was the "rock" upon which Christ declared his Church to be built. 
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Gianlorenzo Bernini, David, 1620
A life size marble sculpture, which was one of many commissions to decorate the villa of a cardinal. The subject is biblical david, about to throw the stone that will bring down goliath, which will allow David to behead him. Broke new ground in its implied movement and its psychological intensity. Abandoned his work on Apollo and Daphne to work on it. A work of Renaissance art. Different because it is not self contained, but instead interacts with the space around it.
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Bernini, Ecstasy of St. Theresa
The effects are theatrical, the Cornaro family seeming to observe the scene from their boxes, and the chapel illustrates a moment where divinity intrudes on an earthly body. Saint teresa was a nun who was made a saint because of her spiritual visions. The figures in the theater boxes are various members of the Cornaro family, who appear to have the best seats in the house. Baroque style. 
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Chair of St. Peter, Bernini, 1600s
a relic conserved in St. Peter's Basilica, enclosed in a sculpted gilt bronze-casing. The cathedra, or chair, was once used by the popes. Inside the chair is a wooden throne, which according to tradition was used used by St. Peter. Symbolically Bernini designed the chair to not be earthly, so it is made entirely of scrolling members, with a pattern of Christ giving the keys to Peter. Made in Baroque style, he manipulates the effects of light with his use of a window overhead.
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David, The Oath of the Horatii (1700s)
a large painting now housed in the Louvre. Best known neoclassic painting. Depicts a scene from a Roman legend about a dispute between Rome and Alba Longa, when three brothers agree to end the war by fighting brothers from Alba longa. Willing to sacrifice their lives for the Good of Rome, and show pietas. Painted when revolution was looming in france and devotion to state was highly emphasized. The weeping women shows their weakness. The men are painted straight up and down to depict their strength. 
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Tennis Court Oath, David, (1700s)
Neoclassic. A pivotal event during the first days of the french revolution. A pledge signed by members from the Third Estate for the revolution, which was held in a makeshift tennis court. At the center, three figures embrace (a monk, a protestant, and a patriot) who represent the unity of all for national regeneration. A lightning bolt strikes the roof of the royal chapel, which is davids commentary on the crisis of divine-right monarchy.
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Napoleon Crossing the Alps, David, (1800s)
Neoclassic. Signals the dawning of a new century, after a decade of terror following the revolution france was now under Napoleon. Napoleon refused to sit for it, and is a portrait of authority. He has his arm raised to point to the summit, and includes the audience in the scene. Napoleon and his horse dominate the picture, which shows his true power eclipsing all else. Some critics view this painting as the beginning of the end for Davids career. 
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Victor Emmanuel Monument - 1885
The kingdom of a unified Italy was formally declared in the year 1861 and Victor Emmanuel became the first king. Located on the northern slope of the Capitoline Hill which was cleared to make way for the monument with Roman ruins and medieval churches destroyed in the process. It dominates the Piazza Venezia.
Also, the tomb of the unknown soldier is guarded by two sentries of honor and the enormous statue of a rider and horse in the centre.
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Palazzo della Civilta Italiana, modern
An icon of fascist architecture. Lies in a district of rome, and is a symbol of monumentality. Constructed as part of the program EUR which was a large business center, initiated by Mussolini for the world exhibition. The palazzo is its most iconic building. It represents the fascist architecture at the EUR.
Baroque Art
a period of artisticstyle that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance and music. Encouraged by the roman catholic church which decided that the arts should communicate religious themes.
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High Renaissance Art
-Perfection
-Refinements, proportion, perspective, anatomy
-Oil paints invented, vibrant colors, transparent layers, luminescent, capable of better detail
-Glances and gestures capture the soul (Da Vinci)
-Exquisite modeling of light
-Opening the window on the world
-Children look like children
-Accurate faces, idealized

NeoClassical Art
  • Revival of the classical style
  • Order, clarity, restraint
  • Control represents intellect, reason and logic
  • As opposed to Rococo for the elite, this is the art of the "people"
timeline
high renaissance (1480-1520)
mannerism (1520)
reformation (1517-end of 16c)
counter reformation (mid 16c)
baroque (17c)
Rococo (early 18c)
16th C art in Italy
  • popes/church important patrons (Julius II, Urban VIII)
  • raphael, leonardo, michelangelo important artists
Europe 16c
  • warfare (expansionist ambitions)
  • transformation of culture- social, intellectual, religious
  • main power Holy Roman Empire
  • arts as highly researched
Mannerism
  • 1520
  • artificiality/perfection more valued than order/lifelike qualities of HR
  • Pontormo, Parmigianino important artists
early 16c Venice
  • saw themselves as superior to Rome/Florence
  • wealthy art patrons
  • oil/canvas painting
  • Giorgione & Titian important
late 16c Venice
  • supreme power, lavish lifestyle
  • oil paintings: color, light, loose brushwork
  • Tintoretto important artist
16c art in N Europe
  • reformation begins in germany- break from catholic church
  • protestantism prevalent in N Europe by end of 16c
  • iconoclasm of religious art, so more portraiture
  • Albert Durer important artist
counter reformation
  • mid 16c
  • response to reformation
  • art as propaganda, religious art
17c art in Europe
  • arts used by church to convince/inspire, propaganda
  • Rubens and Caravaggio important
Baroque
  • 17c
  • intense emotional responses
  • idealization based on observation
  • Carraci important artists
Spain 17c
  • golden age for art
  • despite weakening empire
  • Diego Velazquez important artist
France 17c
  • early: continuous wars
  • arts under royal control
  • late: transfer of power/cultural authority from Italy to France
  • Poussin important artist
Rococo
  • early 18c France origin, spread quickly
  • refined fanciful style
  • Versailles to Paris culture transfer
  • shift: art produced for patrons to art produced for sale
  • Jean-Antoine Watteau important artist
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CIMABUE, Madonna Enthroned with Angels and Prophets, 1280-90, tempera on wood, Uffizi Gallery, Florence
  • Gave a physical architecture, sense of depth
  • More people in painting other than virgin and child
  • Color to make it dynamic, rep. more naturalistic
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GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Madonna Enthroned, 1310, tempera on wood, Uffizi Gallery, Florence
  • Cimabue taught Giotto
  • More intuitive, halos overlap, light and shade, everyone looking at throne, hierarchical scale
  • Floors not gold, it's coming towards us, subdued natural palette
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Interior of Arena Chapel (Cappella Scrovegni), Padua, Italy, 1305-6
  • Fresco cycles, some narrative
  • Scrovegni, money lender (sin), paying his way to better afterlife
  • Blue stone lapis + egg = tempera, very wealthy, giornata, chiaroscuro but not quite reality
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GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Lamentation, Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy
  • Includes landscape, blue sky instead of gold, chiaroscuro (light/dark, shadow)
  • Starting to try to accomplish depth
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FILIPPO BRUNELLESCHI, Sacrifice of Isaac, competition panel for east doors, baptistery of Florence Cathedral, Florence, Italy, 1401-2, gilded bronze relief, quatrefoil shape
  • Ultimately did not win, 1/7 total but only 2 remain
  • Too much going on, not enough focus on Isaac
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LORENZO GHIBERTI, Sacrifice of Isaac, competition panel for east doors, baptistery of Florence Cathedral, Florence, Italy, 1401-2, gilded bronze relief, winner, less bronze, lighter
  • Classically muscled, contraposto, organized landscape around central scene
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EPIGONOS(?), Gallic chieftain killing himself and his wife, Roman marble copy after a bronze original from Pergamon, Turkey, 230-220 BCE.
  • Ghiberti simulated this scene in his relief for the baptistery doors, classically muscled, contraposto
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LORENZO GHIBERTI, east doors "Gates of Paradise", baptistery, Florence Cathedral, Florence, Italy 1425-52, guilded bronze relief, modern copy today 1980, original panels in Duomo Museum
  • Squares instead of quatrefoil, more surface area; classical drapery/architecture,
  • FIRST TO "MIRROR REALITY", depth via relief
  • single point perspective, simultaneous narrative
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LORENZO GHIBERTI, Isaac and his Sons, east doors, baptistery, Florence Cathedral, Florence, Italy, 1425-52, guilder bronze relief
  • Simultaneous narrative
  • Single point perspective
  • Figures in high relief, architecture in low relief, gives a sense of depth; first to depict reality
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MASACCIO, Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden, Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine, Florence, 1425, fresco
  • Some of the most dramatic expression of emotions, very humanizing, we feel sympathy
  • Stirring emotions is a Renaissance concept, great at casting shadows, Eve = Venus Pudica
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The Medici Venus (Venus Pudica), 1st century AD, marble, 5ft high, Uffizi Gallery, Florence
  • Pose mimicked often in Renaissance art and sculpture
  • "modest venus"
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MASACCIO, Holy Trinity, Santa Maria Novella, Florence, 1428, fresco, 21'x10', patron = Lorenzo Lenzi
  • Father, son and holy ghost, John the Evangelist, Mary, donor, donor, on sarcophagus, font classical
  • NO hierarchical scale, contributes to naturalism, triumphal arch, coffered barrel vault, ALL classical architecture, Masaccio learns from Brunelleschi, rely on geometry, godly form (geometry and astronomy) used astrolabe
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BRUNELLESCHI, Florence Cathedral dome, 1420-36
  • Largest dome at the time, spanned biggest open space, architectural feat!
  • Doubled walled dome, horizontal courses up dome, not buttressing
  • Math, science, design
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BENOZZO GOZZOLI, Procession of the Magi to Bethlehem, Palazzo Medici Chapel, frescoes, 1459. Left wall, Procession of Young King.
  • Medici faces in the biblical scene, NOT like other donor portraits, likening themselves to princes
  • Crafting impressions of themselves, in private chapel in their palace
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MICHELOZZO, Palazzo Medici, begun 1444
  • 1434 Medici no longer exiled, Cosimo ruler (son Piero gson Lorenzo the Magnificent) "new $"
  • Triggers chain reaction, tall, imposing, 3 stories
  • Arches and arched windows (classical), yes to be applied to a new building, central courtyard, RUSTICATION makes it feel impenetrable, sculptures in courtyard
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FRA FILIPPO LIPPI, Adoration of the Christ Child, late 1450s, oil on panel, altarpiece, Palazzo Medici chapel, Florence.
  • includes child John the Baptist, St Bernard which are important to patrons, city of Florence
  • This is the main altarpiece in the chapel
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PAULO UCCELLO, Battle of San Romano, 1430s? Palazzo Medici
  • Purchased by Lorenzo to decorate his private study in the Palazzo Medici
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DONATELLO, David, 1440, bronze, placed in the center of the Medici Palace courtyard, later placed in Palazzo della Signoria, FIRST NUDE sculpture
  • *Hero of Old Testament in NUDE; only Adam and Eve nude, David becomes allegory of heavenly love
  • David = figure of Medicis and Florence, Donatello clearly well read, patron and artist working together, general public wouldn't understand
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ANTONIO POLLAIUOLO, Hercules and Antaeus, 1475-80, bronze
  • Replica in mini of painting made in 1460 by Piero and Antonio Pollaiuolo in Palazzo Medici
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DONATELLO, Judith and Holofernes, late 1450s, Piazza della Signoria, bronze, originally in Palazzo Medici courtyard
  • "Piero son of Cosimo has dedicated this statue of this woman to that liberty and fortitude bestowed on the republic by the invincible and constant spirit of the citizens"
  • Unlikely hero, old testament, when Medici kicked out, relocated 1494 new inscription"head of pride"
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LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI, Palazzo Rucellai, Florence, 1452-70, facade
  • What's behind the courses doesn't match, pilasters (embedded column), compete with Palazzo Medici
  • NO rustication, many windows, very ornate, uses classical orders in capitals, mimics colosseum, doric on ground, ionic in middle, corinthian on top, shows patrons knowledgable
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BOTTICELLI, Primavera, 1478, tempera on wood panel, commissioned for Palazzo Medici
  • Very large, representing an abstract classical poetry subject, mythological, standards of beauty maintained; Characters don't really relate to each other or their environment, uses contraposto, "calligraphic", delicate, soft, dainty
  • Pale (oranges) refer to Medici; Neoplatonic images like David
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BOTTICELLI, Birth of Venus, 1484, tempera and oil on canvas
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LEON BATTISTA ALBERTI, Sant'Andrea, Mantua, begun 1470, commissioned from Ludovico Gonzaga
  • Inside, coffered barrel vaults
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MANTEGNA, Camera Picta, Palazzo Ducale, Mantua, 1465-74, fresco
  • Bedroom/study/place of gathering
  • Shaping real, decorated vaults, OCULUS (perspective, amazing foreshortening)
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MANTEGNA, Camera Picta, Court Scene, Palazzo Ducale, Mantua, 1465-74, fresco
  • family exchanges, business (but what kind?)
  • Pilasters in front, illusion as if he's an architect
  • Medici lost in crowd cause it's biblical - Gonzaga take up the whole room - this is their daily life - as if it's as important as fresco cycles of biblical scenes
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MANTEGNA, Camera Picta, Meeting Scene, Palazzo Ducale, Mantua, 1465-74, fresco
  • Looks like pilasters in front
  • Like Gonzaga daily life is as important as the typical fresco cycles of biblical scenes
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MANTEGNA, Camera Picta, vault with painted oculus and fictive stucco medallions with busts of Roman emperors, 1465-74, fresco
  • TONDO: a round thing (pl. tondi); OCULUS - incredible foreshortening and perspective
  • Roman emperor busts, actually Gonzagas and friends
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PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA, Portrait of Federigo da Montefeltro and Battista Sforza, 1472, oil on panel, Uffizi Gallery, Florence
  • Made from death mask of wife, lots of scars on right side of his face, profile view typical, facing wife is strange, accessories indicate their status
  • Advantages of oil: sleeve, hair, landscape "atmospheric perspective"
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PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA, Portrait of Federigo da Montefeltro and Battista Sforza, Triumphs of Fame and Chastity, 1472, Uffizi, Florence
  • "... celebrates holding scepter, highest dukes, outstanding triumph, kept her modesty, adorned with the praise of the acts of her great husband"
  • Landscape = places they've conquered, his virtue in military, hers in life, fxn intellectual
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PIERO DELLA FRANCESCA, Madonna and Child with Saints and Federigo da Montefeltro, (Brera Altarpiece), 1475, oil and tempera
  • Montefeltro really in scene (weird)
  • Christianizing classical structure; christ child looks kinda dead, shiny armor looks legit, grounded space
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JACOPO DE' BARBARI, birds eye view of Venice, woodcut, 1500, approx. 4'x9'
  • 1406, Venice gains control of Padua, St. Marks relics said to be in Venice, very wealthy port
  • "Other worldly" - doesn't look Italian
  • Padua = mainland part of Venice
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VITTORE CARPACCIO, Lion of St Mark, Doge's Palace, oil on canvas
  • St. Theodore is other patron saint
  • Lion = symbol of St Mark and the symbol of Venice
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Rio facade of Palazzo Ducale, begun mid-14th century, additions in 15th century, rebuilt 1570-80s
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Basilica of San Marco, Venice, begun 1063
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GENTILE BELLINI, Procession in Piazza San Marco, 1496, commissioned by Scuola di San Giovanni Evangelista, oil on canvas
  • "True cross", showing legitimacy of their relic
  • Scuola = confraternity, non-members of clergy pray together
  • Large scale, extremely refined details
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GIOVANNI BELLINI, San Giobbe Altarpiece, before 1478, commissioned by the confraternity of St. Job, Venice, oil on panel
  • Sacred conversation, Virgin and Child, St Sebastian (plague), St Francis, Angels
  • Bishops thing incredibly detailed, architecture reminds you of an apse of San Marco, real
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GIOVANNI BELLINI, Madonna and Child, 1475, tempera on panel
  • Not as successful as his oil but christ actually looks like a baby
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ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN, St Luke Portraying the Virgin, 1435-40, oil on panel
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LIMBOURG BROTHERS, Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, Fall of Man and Expulsion, fol.25v, 1404-15
  • Really strongly saturated, bright colors, inherent to production of illuminated manuscript
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LIMBOURG BROTHERS, Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, Annunciation, fol. 25r, 1404-15
  • Really strongly saturated, bright colors, inherent to production of illuminated manuscript
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LIMBOURG BROTHERS, May, calendar of the Tres Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, 1404-15
  • Really strongly saturated, bright colors, inherent to production of illuminated manuscript
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JAN and HUBERT VAN EYCK, Ghent Altarpiece (closed), Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium, 1432, oil on wood, 11'x15'
  • Annunciation (physically see words - gothic), baptist on left, evangelist on right, in GRISAILLE! flanked by donors
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JAN and HUBERT VAN EYCK, Ghent Altarpiece (open), Saint Bavo Cathedral, Ghent, Belgium, 1432, oil on wood, 11'x15', bright, no gold, exhaustive detail
  • Old testament and new together in one painting
  • Adam and Eve vs. Masacchio's depiction (tracing back to original sin), used model
  • Adoration of the lamb: every detail in background! intuitive perspective, surface realism
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FRA ANGELICO, San Marco Altarpiece (Virgin and Child with Saints), 1438-43, tempera on panel
  • Subdued palate, less jewel-like, tempera, gold color, stress on mathematic perspective/space
  • Curtains pulled, like actually watching show, classical architecture, structural naturalism
  • Weight of forms, no patrons, everyone has halo, BUT Cosimo/Damion are saints of Medici fam, pale
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JAN VAN EYCK, Man in a Red Turban, 1433, oil on wood, 10"x7", National Gallery, London, Signed
  • "Rebirth of painted portraits", signed, 3/4 pose, "As I can" in Flemish but classical font
  • Italians make you think not looking at painting, Flemish ok with it, not invited in but still engaged
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FRA FILIPPO LIPPI, Portrait of a Woman and Man at a Casement, 1444, tempera on panel
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JAN VAN EYCK, Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride (Arnolfini Portrait), 1434, oil on wood, 2.5'x2', National Gallery, London, signature = "witness"
  • Relation to medieval mercantile culture, partnership more than marriage
  • Mirror (insane), dowry?
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ROBERT CAMPIN (Master of Flemalle?), Salting Madonna, 1430, oil on panel, in a northern home
  • Very different interpretation of mother and child, religion is more one on one with viewer
  • Incredible detail out the window in background, places the painting (Campins hometown)
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MASACCIO, Virgin and Child with Angels, 1426, tempera on panel
  • Italian interpretation of the virgin and child, subdued palate, gold background, not really attainable although the setting may look more realistic
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ROBERT CAMPIN (Master of Flemalle?), Merode Altarpiece, 1424, oil on panel, triptych
  • Patrons looking in the door, customize altarpiece for patrons, very mercantile
  • Joseph at work may look secular but it has religious symbolism (hammer and nails, mouse trap), disguised symbolism, 3 flowers trinity, closed lily (virginity), open book (Virgin), 7 rays, coat of arms on back window, Mary red Pre-Gabe
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ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN, Annunciation, 1435, oil on panel, Lourve, Paris
  • Same spatial relationship as Campin, lilys, book
  • Iconography doesn't always have to be religious/biblical
  • Marriage chamber, rich colors
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ROGIER VAN DER WEYDEN, Deposition, 1435-38, oil on panel, 7'x8', been to Italy, see Lippi, uses SYMMETRY
  • Very strong colors, like a scene from a play, squeezing everyone into this little box
  • Surface realism (perfect tears), calligraphic tradition, illustrative, no perspective, forward leaning, too big for the box! If they stood up, hit their head; not about ideal proportions, naturalism
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HUGO VAN DER GOES, Portinari Altarpiece (closed), 1475-76, oil on panel, Uffizi, Florence
  • For Italian head of Medici bank in Bruges, to Santa Maria Novella, not domestic, private chapel
  • Grisaille of Annunciation, closed during week, open on weekends, not realistic positions, don't look like sculptures, blinding light on them
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HUGO VAN DER GOES, Portinari Altarpiece (open), 1475-6, oil on panel, Uffizi, Florence
  • Humble demeanor of peasants contrasts with regal virgin, saints, donors
  • Hierarchical scale on side panels
  • Grape vines on flower pot = wine, wheat = body
  • View a part of theatrical action, tilted toward viewer, first N. altarpiece in Italy. Why? Hip/cool
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DOMENICO GHIRLANDAIO, Adoration, oil on panel, 1482-5, Sassetti Chapel, Santa Trinita, Florence
  • Italian directly influenced by van der goes
  • Ghirlandaio = Michelangelos teacher
  • Christ on dress, architecture, like Gozzoli but also like Van der Goes, sarcophagus = trough = resurrection and death
  • Devotionally complicated like Northern
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Carlo Maderno, facade of saint peters, Vatican city, Rome, Italy. 1606-1612

pope Paul v commissioned in 1606.

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Aerial view of saint peters Vatican city, Rome, Italy. Piazza designed by Gianlorenzo Bernini, 1656-1667

piazza symbolizes the welcome the Roman catholic church members. bernini's design accommodated two preexisting structures, an ancient obelisk Romans got from Egypt and a fountain Maderno designed.

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gianlorenzo bernini, baldacchino, saint peters, Vatican city, Rome, Italy, 1624-1633, gilded bronze, 100'high.

marks saint peters tomb and the high altar of the church. provides a dramatic, compelling presence. columns create a visual frame representing the throne of saint peter.

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gianlorenzo bernini, David, 1623. marble, 5'7 high, galleria borghese, Rome

david during the battle with goliath, while other artists portrayed david before.and after they fight. David is in motion that will launch the stone from the sling shot. expansive and theatrical.

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gianlorenzo bernini, ecstasy of of saint Teresa . formaron chapel, santa Maria fella vittoria, Rome, Italy, 1645-1652.

marble height of group 11'6". displays emotion and motion of Italian baroque art. depicts the nun saint Teresa, of the carmelite order feeling a persistent pain , fire-tipped arrow of divine love that an angel repeatedly thrust into her heart.

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francesco borromini, facade, plan and interior of san Carlo alle quarrel fontane. Rome, Italy. 1665-1676

emphasized the three dimensional effect with deep niches. designed to create a fluid transition between the interior and exterior space of the outside.

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caravaggio, conversion of saint Paul, can. 1601. oil on canvas.

painted for cerasi chapel in the Roman church of Santa Maria del popolo. sharply lit figures emerged from the back as if there is light from a chapel window.

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caravaggio, entombment, from chapel of pierdo vittrice, santa Maria in vallicella, Rome Italy. ca. 1603, oil on canvas

positioned figures on a stone slab, appears that Christ's body will be laid infront of the viewer. Painting is placed behind the chapel's altar, Christ is being laid on altar.

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artemisia gentileschi, Judith Slaying Holofernes, ca. 1614-1620. oil on canvas, galleria degli uffizi, Florence

used "dark" subject matter Caravaggio favored: tenebrism. Old testament of Judith, relates the delivery of Israel from it's enemy, Holo. Judith and and maidservant beheaded holo while he's asleep.

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Francisco de zurbaran, saint serapion, 1628. oil on canvas . wadsworth antheneum, Hartford.

Spanish painter who did dramatic work. painting of the saint, whom suffered martyrdom while preaching the gospel to Muslims. he was tied to a tree and beheaded. emerges from a dark background, light shone to bring attention to the death.

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Diego Velázquez, water carrier of Seville, ca. 1619.
oil on canvas, Victoria& Albert Museum, London.

painted with clarity and dignity, water droplets are shown on the water jugs to add credibility. the plebeian nature of the figures and the contrast of darks and lights reveal artwork similar to Car.

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