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Great Bath, Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, ca. 2600-1900 BCE
Robed Male Figure, Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan, ca. 2000-1900 BCE, steatite, 6 7/8” high
Nude Male Torso, Harappa, Pakistan, ca. 2000-1900 BCE, red sandstone, 3 3/4" high
Seal with Seated Figure, Mohenjo-daro, Pakistan
ca. 2300-1750 BCE, steatite/alkali, 1 3/8” x 1 3/8”
ca. 2300-1750 BCE
Lion Capital, Sarnath, India, sandstone, 7’ high ca. 250 BCE, •Monolithic- One stone
•Maurya Dynasty- Erected by Ashoka king
Ashoka Pillar, ca. 250 BCE
Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, third century BCE
to first century CE, 50’ high
Exterior Diagram, Great Stupa, Sanchi, India
Stairway to upper level walkway,
Great Stupa, Sanchi
“Buddha’s footprint”, located on torana, Great Stupa, Sanchi
Yakshi, Detail from Great Stupa, Sanchi, India,
mid-first century BCE-early first century CE
Interior, Chaitya Hall, Karle, India, ca. 50 CE
Meditating Buddha, Gandhara, Pakistan,
Second century CE
Gray schist, 3’ 7 ½” high
The Life and Death of Buddha, frieze from Gandhara, Pakistan second century CE
2’ x 9’
Birth of the Buddha (at Lumbini, India)
Enlightenment of the Buddha
(at Bodh Gaya, India)
First sermon (at Sarnath, India)
Buddha Seated on Lion Throne,
second century CE,
2’ 3 ½”
Seated Buddha, Sarnath, India, 2nd half of 5th century, tan sandstone, 5’ 3” high
The Ajanta Caves, Ajanta, India,
second half of fifth century
Bodhisattva Padmapani, wall painting, Cave 1, Ajanta, India, second half of fifth century
Boar Avatar of Vishnu, Udayagiri, India,
early fifth century, 22’ x 13’
Dancing Shiva, rock-cut relief, Badami, India
Late sixth century
Shiva as Mahadeva, Elephanta, India, ca. 550-575,
basalt, 17’ 10” high
Vishnu Temple, Deogarh, India, early sixth century
Vishnu (Asleep), façade of Vishnu Temple,
Deogarh, India, early sixth century
Rock-cut Temples, Mamallapuram, India,
Left to right: Dharmaraja, Bhima, Arjuna, Draupadi
Rajarajeshvara Temple, Thanjavur, India, ca. 1010
Vishvanatha Temple, Khajuraho, India, ca. 1000
Sculptures on Temple
Wall, Vishvanatha Temple,
Khajuraho, India, ca. 1000
Shiva as Nataraja,
Naltunai Ishvaram Temple,
Death of the Buddha,
Gal Vihara, Sri Lanka,
11th to 12th century,
Borobudur, Java, Indonesia, ca, 800
Prasat Andet, Cambodia
early seventh century
Stone, 6’ 3” high
bronze, 8’ long
1st half of 12th century
King Suryavarman II,
first half of 12th century
Towers of the Bayon,
Cambodia, ca. 1200
Qutb Minar, begun early 13th century, and Alai Darvaza, 1311, Delhi, India. Early 13th century, 1311
· Mosque-place for worship
· Might of Islam
· Tallest Minarets (tower) in the world
· Persian and Arabic engraved inscriptions-cast shadow of Alai upon Delhi
· Built the city’s first mosque to mark the triumph of Islam in northern India.
· Combination of Hindu and Islamic architecture
Lotus Mahal, Vijayanagara, India; 15th or early 16th century
· Vijayanagar Empire was the most powerful Hindu kingdom in southern India during the 14th to 16th centuries
· Mix of Hindu temple features and Islamic architectural elements
· Vijayanagara- Means City of victory
· Major trading center
Akbar and the Elephant Hawai, by Basawan and Chatar Muni, India, ca. 1590, Opaque watercolor on paper, 1’ 1 7/8” x 8 3⁄4”
· The Mughal rulers of India were great patrons of miniature painting.
· Ex. showing the young emperor Akbar bringing the elephant Hawai under control is also an allegory of his ability to rule
· Mughal- decedents of Timur
· Representation of political might
Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaykh to Kings, by Bichitr, India, ca 1615-1618, Opaque watercolor on paper, 1’ 6 7/8” x 1’ 1”
· Allegorical portrait of the haloed emperor Jahangir on an hourglass throne, seated above time, favoring spiritual power over worldly power
· Influence of European and Persian styles
· Includes a portrait of the artist himself
· Bichitr is holding a picture of his self-portrait bowing
Taj Mahal, Agra, India, 1632–1647, white marble
· First Islamic dynasty in South Asia was the 13th-century sultanate of Delhi
· Mughal mausoleum.
· Mausoleum floats magically over reflecting pools in a vast garden
· Tomb is Throne of God above the gardens of Paradise on Judgment Day
· Tomb made for his favorite wife
· Kuren versus are inscribed
Krishna and Radha in a Pavillion, India, ca 1760, Opaque watercolor on paper, 11 1/8” x 7 3⁄4”
· The love of Krishna (the “Blue God”) for Radha is the subject of this colorful, lyrical, and sensual Pahari watercolor
· Krishna’s love was a model of the devotion paid to the Hindu god Vishnu
· Lightning- symbol of sexual excitement
Gopura, Great Temple, Madurai, India,
· The colossal gateway towers erected during the Nayak dynasty at the Great Temple at Mandurai completed 17th century
· Feature brightly painted stucco sculptures representing the vast pantheon of Hindu deities
· Dedicated to Shiva Minakasha
· Repainted every 12 years
Victoria Terminus, Frederick W. Stevens, Mumbai, India, 1878- 1887
· Victoria Terminus, named after Queen Victoria of England, is a monument to colonial rule.
· Designed by a British architect, it is a European transplant to India, modeled on late medieval Venetian architecture.
· Monument to colonial rule
Maharaja Jaswant Singh of Marwar, ca. 1880, Opaque watercolor on paper, 1’ 3 1⁄2” x 11 5/8”
· Jaswant Singh-ruler of Jodhpur, had himself portrayed as if he were a British gentleman in his sitting room, but the artist employed the same materials that Indian miniature painters had used for centuries.
· Jewels symbolize wealth and stature
Walking Buddha, Sukhothai, Thailand, 14th century, bronze, 7’
· Statuary type is unique to Thailand
· Displays a distinctive approach to body forms, body is soft and elastic, and the right arm hangs loosely, like an elephant trunk.
· Golden age of Tai art
Emerald Buddha, Emerald Temple, Bangkok, Thailand, 15th century, 2’ 6” high (wearing royal garment)
· Thai king dresses the Emerald Buddha, carved from green jade or jasper, in a monk’s robe and a king’s robe at different times of the year
· Image-symbolic role as both Buddha and king
· Tying together religious and political power
Schwedagon Pagoda, Rangoon, Myanmar, 14th century, gold, silver, diamonds, 344’
· Pagoda houses two of the Buddha’s hairs
· Silver and jewels and 13,153 gold plates sheathe its exterior
· Gold ball at the top is inlaid with 4,351 diamonds
· Pagoda- Portuguese name for stupa
· One of largest Stupas in the world
Dish, Vietnam, 16th century, stoneware painted with under glaze-cobalt,
1’ 2 1⁄2”
· Vietnamese ceramists exported under glaze pottery throughout Southeast Asia and beyond.
· Depiction of mynah birds on this dish contrasts with the formality of Chinese porcelains.
Ashoka at Kalinga, by Meera Mukherjee, India, 1972,
· Bronze Mukherjee combined the bronze-casting techniques of the Bastar tribe with the swelling forms of 20th-century European sculpture
· In this statue of King Ashoka meant to be a pacifist’s protest against violence
Yangshao Culture Vases, Gansu Province, China, mid-third millennium
· Earthenware, coil method, red and brownish-black on a cream- colored ground.
· Neolithic Chinese artists produced vessels of diverse shapes even before the invention of the potter’s wheel
· Decorated with abstract motifs, shapes found in nature
Guang, Anyang, China, Shang dynasty, 12th or 11th century BCE, 6 1⁄2” high
· Shang artists perfected the casting of elaborate bronze vessels decorated with animal motifs.
· Animal forms, real/imaginary, on libation guang are probably connected with the world of spirits.
· Shang dynasty/bronze age-warlike society, thought to be a mythical dynasty
· Used for ritual purposes
· Hold wine and grain
Standing Figure, Sanxingdui, China, ca. 1200-1050
· Excavations at Sanxingdui revealed a Chinese civilization contemporary to the Shang but with a different artistic aesthetic.
· Has elongated proportions/ large, staring eyes
· Highly stylized
· Identity of figure unknown
· Standing on an animalistic platform
· Has surface inscriptions
· Might have been holding an elephant tusk
Bi Disk with Dragons, Jincun (?), China, Eastern Zhou dynasty, 4th-3rd centuryBCE, Nephrite, 6 1⁄2”
· Hours of grinding, piercing, engraving,polishing
· Dragons-symbols of good fortune/rain and flew between Heaven and Earth.
· Zhou Dynasty- Longest dynasty in China
· Jade has magical qualities to protect the dead/ symbolizes fortitude and moral perfection
· When you defeat your enemy you’re supposed to turn over your disk, it’s a status symbol
Army of the First Emperor of Qin, China, Qin dynasty, ca. 210 BCE, painted terra cotta
· First Emperor was buried beneath an immense mound guarded by more than 6,000 life-size terracotta soldiers.
· Produced from common molds, but every figure has an individualized appearance.
· Standardized written language, centralized the government under strict state authority
· Lintong army, Qin Shi Huangdi- emperor
Funeral Banner, (tomb 1 of Dai), Mawangdui, China, Han Dynasty, ca. 168 BCE, painted silk, 6’ 8” x 3’
· T-shaped silk banner draped over coffin of Marquise of Dai
· Center-awaiting her ascent to immortality in Heaven, the realm of the red sun/ silvery moon.
· Known as the Lady in Xin
· Top portion (heaven) & Lower portion (earthly realm) 1st portrait in Chinese art
· Bottom portion (funeral)
The Archer Yi (?), Wu family shrine, Han dynasty, 147- 168 CE, stone relief rubbing, 3’ x 5’
· The Wu family shrines depict historical, legendary, and contemporaneous subjects.
· The hero Yi shoots down suns to save the Earth from scorching.
· Secular family sponsoring art
· Political message- hero Yi killing the tyrannical emperor
Model of a House, Han dynasty, first century CE, painted earthenware, 4’ 4” high
· Provides info about the form, coloration, and construction methods of Chinese architecture.
· Flat profile of the rooflines is typical of earlier Chinese buildings.
· No wooden structures that have survived this period
Shakyamuni Buddha, Zhao dynasty, Period of Disunity, 338, gilded bronze, 1’ 3 1⁄2”
· Earliest datable Chinese Buddha image is stylistically indebted to Gandharan prototypes
· The sculptor, unfamiliar with Buddhist iconography, misrepresented the dhyana mudra (supposed to be right hand on top and open)
· Buddha is described as golden and radiating light
Lady Feng and the Bear, by Gu Kaizhi from Admonitions of the Instructress to the Court Ladies, Period of Disunity, late fourth century, hand scroll, ink and colors on silk, approx. 9” x 11’
· Lady Feng’s act of heroism to save the life of her emperor-a model of Confucian behavior.
· Narrative text-Used to instruct wives on how to conduct themselves
Shakyamuni and Prabhutaratna, Northern Wei dynasty, 518, gilded bronze, 10” high
· Sculptor transformed the Gandhara- derived style of earlier Chinese Buddhist art.
· Bodies have elongated proportions, the garment folds form sharp ridges, nearly symmetrically balanced
· Symbolizes the continuity of Buddha’s thought across ages
· Nimbus flame represents their holiness
Vairocana Buddha, Longmen Caves, Luoyang, China, Tang dynasty, comp. 675, 44’ high
· Empress Wu Zetian sponsored these colossal rock-cut sculptures.
· Tang artists represented the Mahayana Cosmic Buddha in serene majesty, suppressing surface detail in the interest of monumental simplicity.
· Completed over 200 years
· Buddha of boundless space and time
Paradise of Amitabha, cave 172, Dunhuang, China, Tang Dynasty, mid-eighth century, wall (cave) painting, 10’ high
· Aided Tang worshipers at Dunhuang in visualizing the wonders of the Pure Land Paradise promised to those who had faith in Amitabha, the Buddha of the West.
· Wealthy trade center and community for Buddha’s
· Tang era splendor and religious teaching
· Buddha of the West- Amitabha
Schematic of Foguang Si (Buddha Radiance Temple), east main hall, Mount Wutai, China, Tang dynasty, ca. 857
· A complex grid of beams and purlins and a thicket of interlocking brackets support the 14-foot overhang of the eaves of the timbered and tiled curved roof
· One of the oldest surviving Buddhist temples in China
Emperor Xuan and attendants, (detail), The Thirteen Emperors,Tang dynasty, ca. 650, hand scroll, ink& colors on silk, 1’ 8” x 1’ 5”
· Portrays 13 Chinese rulers as Confucian exemplars of moral/political virtue.
-Yan Liben-Tang painter, master of line drawing&colored washes.
· Prime minister&artist known for line drawings and color wash- Yan Liben
Palace Ladies, (detail), wall painting, tomb of Princess Yongtai, Quinxian, China, Tang dynasty, 706, approx. 5’ 10’” x 6’ 6”
· The paintings in this Tang princess’s tomb depict scenes of pleasant court life.
· Muralist used thick, even contour lines and did not provide any setting, but the composition effectively conveys depth.
Neighing Horse, Tang dynasty, eighth to ninth century, glazed earthenware, 1’ 8”
· Tang ceramists achieved renown for their earthenware figurines created by a mold then decorated with colorful lead high glazes that ran in dramatic streams down the sides when apiece was fired, as in this statuette.
· Horses are highly valued
Travelers among Mountains and Streams, Northern Song period, early 11th century, hanging vertical scroll, ink&colors on silk, 6’ 7” x 3’ 4”
· Fan Kuan- studies effects of light on rock formations and trees. Affects of sunlight&moonlight
· One of the first masters at recording light, shade, distance, and texture.
· Idealistic style, more about the meaning then the observation
Auspicious Cranes, attributed to Huizong, Northern Song period, 1112, section of hand scroll, ink and colors on silk, 1’ 8” x 4’ 6”
· The Chinese regarded the 20 white cranes that appeared at Huizong’s palace in 1112 as an auspicious sign.
· This painting of that event is a combination of composition and realistic observation.
· Painted by the emperor Huizong
· Heaven was a blessing by his rule
Meiping Vase, from Xiuwi, China, Northern Song period, 12th century, stoneware, Cizhou type, with sgraffito decoration, 1’ 7” high
· Chinese potters developed the technique of sgraffito (incising the design through a colored slip) during the Northern Song period.
· This Cizhou vase features vines and flowers created by cutting through a black slip.
· Meiping- high shouldered
Foguang Si Pagoda, Yingxian, China, Liao dynasty, 1056
· The tallest wooden building in the world is this pagoda in the Yingxian Buddhist temple complex.
· The nine-story tower shows the Chinese wooden beam-and-bracket construction system at its most ingenious.
· House for sacred images and text
On a Mountain Path in Spring, by Ma Yuan, Southern Song period, early 13th century, album leaf, ink and colors on silk, 10 3⁄4” x 17”
· Reduced landscape on this silk album leaf to a few elements & confined them to one part of the page.
· A tall solitary figure gazes out into the infinite distance.
· Poem was written by the emperor
· Landscape painting represents peace and unity with nature
Sixth Chan Patriarch Chopping Bamboo, by Liang Kai, Southern Song period, early 13th century, hanging scroll, ink on paper, 2’ 5” high
· Liang Kai-master of expressive style of ink painting. Depicted the Sixth Chan Patriarch’s “Chan moment,” when the chopping sound of his blade propelled the patriarch to enlightenment.
· Style favored by Monks in China, Korea & Japan
· Illustrates doing mundane tasks can be the portal to spiritual awakening
Lohans Giving Alms to Beggars, by Zhou Jichang, Southern Song period, 1184, ink and colors on silk, 3” 8” x 1’ 9”
· In this hanging scroll made for a Buddhist monastery, Zhou Jichang arranged the fore-, middle-, and background vertically to elevate the lohans in their bright attire above the ragged, dirt-colored beggars.1/100 scrolls that people could purchase
Crown, from tomb 98, Hwangnamdong, Korea, Silla kingdom, 3 Kingdoms Period, 5-6 century, gold&jade, 10 3⁄4” high
· From a Silla tomb attests to the wealth of that kingdom and the skill of its artists.
· Uprights may be stylized tree and antler forms symbolizing life and supernatural power.
· 3 Korean Kingdoms rule: Koguryo, Paekche, Silla (Silla eventually ruled alone)
· 1/10 existing Korean crowns
Shakyamuni Buddha, Sokkuram, Korea, Great Silla, 751-774, granite, approx. 11’ high
· This Korean cave temple was constructed using granite blocks.
· Buddha at the moment of his enlightenment.
· One of the only surviving Buddhist temples
· Private chapel for the royal family
Maebyong Vase, Koryo period, ca. 918-1000, Celadon with inlaid decoration, 1’ 4” tall
· Celadon wares feature highly translucent iron-pigmented glazes with incised designs.
· This green maebyong vase is decorated with engraved cranes highlighted by white and colored slip in the incised lines.
Court of the Lions, Palace of the Lions, Alhambra, Granada, Spain, 1354–1391
Dome of the Rock,
Islamic practice does not significantly distinguish interior and exterior
Interior of the Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem, 687–692
Detail of a mosaic in the courtyard arcade of the Great Mosque,
Damascus, Syria, 706–715
exclude any zoomorphic forms.
Great Mosque, Damascus,
Frieze of the Umayyad palace, Mshatta, Jordan, ca. 740–750
Great Mosque, Kairouan, Tunisia, ca. 836–875
still houses its carved wooden minbar of 862
incorporates the distinctive Islamic elements of mihrab, mihrab dome,
minbar, and minaret
Malwiya Minaret, Great Mosque, Samarra, Iraq, 848–852
Mausoleum of the Samanids, Bukhara, Uzbekistan, early 10th century
Prayer hall of the Great Mosque,
Córdoba, Spain, 8th to 10th centuries
Maqsura of the Great Mosque, Córdoba, Spain, 961–965
Córdoba maqsura is a prime example of Islamic experimentation with highly decorative, multilobed arches
The mosaicists and even the tesserae were brought to Spain from Constantinople by al-Hakam II, who wished to emulate the great mosaic-clad
monuments his Umayyad predecessors had erected in Jerusale and
Dome in front of the mihrab of the Great Mosque, Córdoba, Spain, 961–965
mosaics are the work of the same Byzantine artists responsible for the maqsura’s decoration
Confronting lions and palm tree, fragment of a textile said to be from Zandana, near Bukhara, Uzbekistan, eighth century. Silk
Sulayman, Ewer in the form of a bird, 796. Brass with silver and copper inlay
Similar motifs appear in Islamic textiles, pottery, and architectural
Koran page with the beginning of surah 18, “Al-Kahf” (The Cave), 9th or early 10th century. Ink and gold on vellum
Muqarnas dome,Hall of the Two Sisters, Palace of the Lions, Alhambra, Granada, Spain, 1354–1391
Madrasa-mosque-mausoleum complex of Sultan Hasan, Cairo, Egypt, begun 1356
Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc,Maya, lintel 24 of temple 23, Yaxchilán,- Mexico, ca. 725 CE. Limestone
documents the central role that elite Maya women played in religious bloodletting rituals
Tikal is one of the oldest and largest of the Maya cities
Machu Picchu (view from adjacent peak), Inka, Peru, 15th century
Remains of the Temple of the Sun (surmounted by the church of Santo Domingo), Inka, Cuzco, Peru, 15th century. Exterior (left); interior (right)
Remains of the Temple of the Sun (surmounted by the church of
Santo Domingo), Inka, Cuzco, Peru, 15th century. Exterior (left);
María Montoya Martínez, jar, San Ildefonso Pueblo, New Mexico, ca. 1939. Blackware
• Pottery is traditionally a Native American woman’s art form
• María Montoya Martínez won renown for her black-on-black vessels of striking shapes with matte designs on highly polished surfaces
Mask, Yupik Eskimo, Alaska, early 20th century.Wood and feathers
Karl Bodmer,Hidatsa Warrior Pehriska-Ruhpa (Two Ravens), 1833.Watercolor
Honoring song at painted tipi, in Julian Scott Ledger, Kiowa, 1880. Pencil, ink, and colored pencil
Plan of the Umayyad palace, Mshatta, Jordan, ca. 740–750
Plan of the Great Mosque, Kairouan, Tunisia, ca. 836–875.
Plan of the madrasa-mosque-mausoleum complex of Sultan
Hasan, Cairo, Egypt, begun 1356
Detail of kiva mural from Kuana Pueblo, Ancestral Publoan, New Mexicon, late 15th century
Auuenau, from Western Arnhem Land, Australia. Ochre on bark
Dreamings=mythic narratives,trace moves of ancestors thru landscape, specific to lineage
elongated, X-ray style
animal/human forms, fluid/dynamic quality
Untitled. Synthetic polymer paint on canvas
Emily Kame Kngwarreye
reveal background as fabric artist
inspiration from landscape
dots from curvilinear bands
huge size=vastnessof Aust, countryside
Asmat bisj poles, Buepis village, Fajit River, Irian Jaya, Melanesia. Painted wood pg.228
carved mangrove trees-top=buttress root
erected during head hunting to pledge avenging a relative's death-how a team assembled
superimposed dead figures, fruit-eatingbird/animal (bk cockatoo,hornbill,flyingfox, female mantis)
Iatmul ceremonial men's house, East Sepik, Papua New Guinea, Melanesia pg.229
social center for every Iatmul village
reinforces kinship links=initiation, comm. issues, ancestor ceremonies
no women allowed-men=control/power
protective mantle for ancestors-life/rebirth themes
Elema hevehe masks retreating into the men's house, Papua New Guinea, Melanesia
hevehe-female water spirits
org. by male elders-took 10/20yrs, only trained men
masks=9-10ft. tall, specific clan designs
ritually burned masks so spirits could return
Abelam yam mask, Papua New Guinea, Melanesia. Painted cane
only initiated men w/ strict conduct could farm
ancestors help yams grow, long yams=display names
mask=people closely id w/ their food source
Tatanua mask, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, Melanesia. Wood, fiber, feathers, shell, lime
malanggan=festivals/carvings in deceased honor
transition of soul, social solidarity, stim. economy
mask=rep. spiritsof specific deceased people
hair matches common hair style
black, white, yellow, red=colors of the people
store for future use
Canoe prow &splashboard, Trobriand Islands, PNG, Mel. Wood &paint
kula-exchange of white conus-shell arm ornaments for red chama-shell necklaces
had to go on dangerous voyages to trade
to ensure successful voyage=spells on piece
human,bird,serpent motifs=sea spirits
Canoe prow ornament, from Chuck, Caroline Islands. Painted wood
largest island group in Micronesia-master canoe builders
for war canoe-protection
two sandpipers/human fig. w/ bird arms
Men's ceremonial house, from Belau (Palau), Rep. of Belau, Micronesia
bai=house, effort into creating/maintaining
worked/fitted/joined=easy to assemble
gable=low relief, narratives,shell $-history/myths
faces=Blellek- warns women to stay away or he will molest them
Dilukai, from Belau (Palau), Rep. of Belau, Micronesia. Wood, pigment, fiber
surmounts the main bai enterance
face faces East=absorb sun's life-giving rays
ngatu w/ manulua designs, Tonga, Poly. Barkcloth-paper mulberry tree, Mele Sitani for King Tupou IV
tapa-clothing, bedding, spiritual dimension-confer sanctity(wrapped dead in it) complex/time consuming 4 funerals/marriage/king coronation
manulua=2birds=chieftain status from 2 parents
1. Birth – Lumbini
2. Enlightenment – Bodh Gaya
3. First Sermon – Sarnath
4. Death - Kushinagara
Africa, mid-19th century,
pigments on rock, approx.8’ long ition
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