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camille pissarro, illustration for the journal (left-wing newspaper) the turpitude socials, 1889
camille pissarro, peasant in the field, eragny, 1890.
millet working class.
harmony of man with nature. the colors are in harmony.
In the Time of Harmony: The Golden Age is Not in the Past, It is in the Future - Paul Signac, 1894.
rural leisure. not rural labor.
theres reading, dancing, sports/games, painting.
this is not social reality, but a social ideal.
the reformers want to satisfy their mind and soul needs. not just their working machine lifestyle of the moment.
paul signac, women at the well, 1892
no arbitrary color. grass is lemon yellow. there’s a repetition of color pattern. complementary contrast.
has the luminosity of impressionism. and pointillist application.
labor holds social relations together. if labor is shared (leftist) that will engineer more cooperative humans. in harmony with their surroundings.
before he was fully absorbed in the impressionists.
genre painting from the netherlands.. aware of french traditions aka realism. with the peasants and rural life. someone like millet.
he makes communal life and nature inseparable. he also uses tenebrism reminiscent to religious art.
The Sower, Van Gogh, 1888
Prior to arlesin Arles, he felt he saw with an eye ‘more Japanese’
loved to paint and draw trees, as in copies from Hiroshige
Copied directly from Japanizes
van gogh, olive grove, 1889
same procedure of painting the love he has for people, he applies to nature.
how does van gogh sanctify nature? how does he make it an icon? he uses the sun as an icon with it radiating down. the trees are subjects to the sun, which is god. the painting is church/mosaic like.
profile portrait of another symbolist: emile bernard.
the subtitle makes an interesting allusion to the social role of the artist.he also looks like a criminal which was what gauguin was portraying. there is still a japanesema influence because of the flat background and his eyes are almond shaped. he is depicting himself like a buddhist monk. removed from life. the painting is like a religious calling.
paul gauguin, vision after the sermon: jacob wrestling with the angel, 1888
gauguin, la orana maria (hail mary), 1891
arbitrary colorist is code for non-naturalist.
complimentary color juxtaposition.
madonna and child with the halos. alludes to classic renaissance representations of this tradition.
also like the gift of the magi type thing.
synethethize eastern motifs to western motifs.
paul gauguin, where did we come from? what are we? where are we going?, 1897
paul cezanne, gulf of marseilles from 1896
cool colors balanced with warm colors.
they both depict childhood places. they’re both water venues. there is atmospheric blending with the colors. but impressionist sunrise is much more. cezanne actually has some contour. there is a physicality in cezanne’s. there is something rly geometric in the buildings. this points to the formation to cubism.
his contribution is that he introduced structure and volume.
paul cezanne, mont sainte-victoire, 1887
famous mountain everything applied form the houses to here.
he wants to incorporate the art of the museums.
everything is modeled and geometric.
cezanne, still life with basket of apples, 1890-94
cezanne, large bathers, 1898-1906
the subject matter is very classic. but the colors are not classical.
rejects local color.
theres geometry with the pyramid composition.
we see fleeting fractured moments of solidity.
the spacial relations are complicated.
passage the bleeding colors where there are opening and “breaks” contours. the figures run into each other.
henri de toulouse-lautrec, le divan japonais, 1892-93
he was known for posters for moulin rouge and other places. there was drinking and semi-nudity in the place. it was an establishment that confronted morality, it became this decadence. this dark underworld. the semi-mode.
he is a watcher, he wants to capture this mood of the time. it’s embodied in “fan-de-siecle” which translates to the end of the century.
henri de toulouse-lautrec, at the moulin rogue, 1892-93
here you can see a lot of the fan-de-siecle.
lautrec is the profile figure in the back. some familiar patrons of the establishment that were friends with the artist.
the mood is seedy. everyone looks intoxicated.
the green fluorescence is artificial and sickly.
there’s alienation about the figures. they are detached from the social environment.
lautrec, in the salon of the brothel of the rue des moulins, 1894
the skin color is diseased. jaundice.
this is a far cry from olympia. they are gaunt and weary. there’s fragment and detachment.
everything is muddy colored. red is predominant.
everything looks crude and vulgar. the rendering of the expensive couches and wall decor is not as impressive.
auguste rodin, age of bronze, 1875-77
rodin is going to engage the classical tradition. he greatly admired michelangelo.
casual contraposto. he turns these figures into a naturalism. the nude figure has more expression with emotional waves.
yes, the work is made of bronze but it has another meaning. writers talk about gold, silver, and bronze ages. the golden age is the very best, what we strive for.
auguste rodin, burghers of calais, c. 1884-89
actual commission from calais, flanders. right across england/dover. crucial french port.
auguste rodin, gates of hell, 1880-1917
arguably his best known piece.
the theme is based on dante’s inferno. it has a medieval reference. ties in with symbolist aesthetic of the period, this interest of pre-modern.
based the format with lorenzo ghiberti’s gate of paradise in florence baptistry, 1425-1452
recognizable figure, melancholia, the “thinking” man crouched down. becomes a code for the plight of the artist/created genius. he called it the poet.
auguste rodin, the kiss, 1889
redemptive content. one of the motifs in the gates of hell.
gustave moreau, thracian girl carrying the head of orpheus, 1865
severed head motif is a symbol, commentary about the artist, the singing head is a sign of immortality. the idea of death and rebirth and recreation. it is a metaphor for the social role of the artist. the modern symbolist is an alienated outcast who is persecuted and misunderstood. to the point of being a martyr figure, dying for their creative cause. it’s a me rose, personal statement.
moreau, salome dancing before herod, 1876
he was praised, but not wildly popular. he received popularity late in his life due to this work.
salome becomes a very popular theme and story. because it deals with decadence, underground, and sexuality that is involved in these periods of high opulence. it ties in with some of the anxieties of the females and their independence. femme fatale.
moreau, the apparition, 1876
the aftermath of beheading of john the baptist.
the head can symbolize the persecuted artist and its immortality.
this work is celebrated by one of the decadence writers of the time j.k. huysmans from belguim. a rebours is novel. 1884.
odilon redon, head of a martyr, 1875-1880
charcoal drawing. worked in various media.
symbolists love the power of suggestion. he keeps the identity vague. the head has a faint halo.
artists retreated from society.
redon, smiling spider, 1881
looks human/monkey like. mixing animal and other attributes.
vs. the masks of 1831 by daumier
put into context, the process of degeneration.
redon, there was perhaps a first vision, 1883
lithograph from the portfolio origins, no. 2 (1883)
he was very familiar with darwin’s origins of species.
redon, the marsh flower, a sad and human face, 1885
lithograph from the portfolio a homage to goya, 1885
we have human face growing from the plant. certainly an idea from the origin of species. emerging from the primitive waters. remote form civilization.
vs. sleep of reason produces monsters. he is seeing something about the dark side of nature that is very enticing.
redon, tadpole, 1883
lithograph from the portfolio noire, 1883
same kind of thinking.
nature is musky and dark.
redon, germination, 1879
lithograph from the series called in the dream, plate 2, 1879
he is getting into this invisible world. the world of microbiology.
the infinitely small to the infinitely large. these microbes expand into this infinite world.
redon, the raven, 1882
lithograph from portfolio edgar allan poe, 18882
baudelaire translated poe from eng. to french.
redon, the eye like a strange balloon travels towards infinity, 1882
lithography from edgar allan poe, 1882
this is symbolism. the eye is a metaphor of the introspective, imaginary eye. it can grasp not infinite (nature) but infinite (imaginary).
victor horta, stairway of the tassel house, 1894-94, in brussels, belguim
classic interior of the art style, art nouveau.
jean delville, head of orpheus, 1893
influenced by the pre-Raphaelites perhaps.
gustave moreau was an inspiration with his thracian girl carrying the head of orpheus.
the use of the color gives it a magical iridescence. or the inner imagination. tight brushwork.
this is the orpheus that is withdrawing from the rest of society. with eyes closed, it is envisioning the mind of the artist within.
james ensor, entry of christ into brussels, 1888
religious subject matter. christ entering jerusalem.
he is doing a reworking of the traditional biblical story.
christ is swallowed up in the crowd.
the banner says “long live the social” it could mean mass society from below. the popular culture or socialism.
beethoven frieze by klimt.
Gustav klimt, choir of heavenly angels, from the beethoven frieze, vienna, 1902
it makes specific reference to the night symphony aka the final movement. the choir.
they felt art and music especially can play a role in regenerating life.
klimt, the kiss, 1907-08
the theme was very common as we saw in rodin.
he embraces the a new interest in the sexual.
freud is writing at this time with his interpretation of dreams.
theres this thinking of rethinking nature and giving sexuality a meaning. driven by not rational but the pleasure instinct.
he takes an archaic, byzantine look and makes it modern with the subject and the ornament.
edvard munch, self-portrait with cigarette, 1895
munch, sick child, 1885-86
munch, spring day on karl johan’s street, 1890-01
this is one of the major streets in oslo.
influenced by impressionism and pointillism. neoimpressionist. (it is structural with the roads and the paired up figures)
munch, evening on karl johan’s street, 1893
mask like qualities to reinforce the impersonality.
vacant, zombie-like gaze
surrenders to that dark demi-mode of the modernity.
munch, the scream, 1893
munch, allegorical portrait of friedrich nietzsche, 1906
he could not depict him properly bc he never saw him with his “outer eye”
he is rejecting the world of mere appearances aka naturalism
“artistic genius and madness work hand in hand” thats the nietzche that hans olde and munch were attracted to. the essence of the diocesan taking over the human.
munch, the dance of life, 1900
depicts the cycles of life allegorically
center we see munch dancing with one of his former lovers
love attraction and marriage are natures way of manipulating us in order to continue the species
mainly in general, the theme of the dance of death.
the strife of life. the color denaturalized. the faces gaunt.
munch, the sun, 1911-12
vs van gogh the olive grove. sanctify nature in this primitive or pantheistic way.
complimentary contrast. it is his inner soulful response to nature.
the sun touches all surfaces of the earth with its rays.
taking the spirit and displacing it from god and the divine and placing it in nature.
(Art of the floating world) type of Japanese prints that depicted common place subjects in contemporary Japan
Edouard Manet , Concert in the Tuileries, 1862
one of the most influential writers. linked with e. manet. he’s a poet. le flour de mal. the flowers of evil. = the theory of correspondence. sound can evoke vision etc.
“modernity” it has two aspects.
1. capturing the fleeting, the ephemeral, and the contingent.
2. also has to have, the eternal. and the immutable. the soul of the artist. the inner responsiveness of the artist in the art. not a recorder/photograph.
wasn’t a painter, a fashion magazine editor.
stroller. part of the leisure. these “detectives” look at clothing and details that may reveal hidden intentions.
SALON DES REFUSES
e. manet was denied bc of his luncheon on the grass. in defiance, he gathered other rejected artists and established his own salon in 1863.
poet. zola was also an active art critic. he was a defender of manet.
how monet painted. outside in the open air.
BARON GEORGES HAUSSMANN
rebuilding campaign. bureaucrat in napoleon’s govt. vast engineering exp. he was in charge of the rebuilding effort of paris.
art that is more of an impression. they were a group of like-minded artists that had organized themselves.
THE ANONYMOUS SOCIETY OF ARTISTS, ETC.
what impressionists called themselves.
BOULEVARD DES CAPUCINES
monet painting. 1873. it has sketch life qualities. the idea of the transient is found here. captures what the city is about: constant flux and change.
the point of view with the landscape comes from japanese prints. ukiyo-e.
juxtaposing the complimentary colors
Refers to the increase in saturation when two colors opposite to each other on the color wheel are juxtaposed. They appear to vibrate or flicker when set side by side. The Impressionists used it to intensify the luminosity of their composition.
a suburb in paris where a lot of painters, namely monet, painted.
A technique of Neo-Impressionist painting juxtaposing tiny dots of various pure colors, which become blended in the viewer's eye. It was developed by Georges Seurat with the aim of producing a greater degree of luminosity and brilliance of color.
A trend to take art back to its origins. Primitivism stems from a desire to start again from the beginning, to forget the history of art, and, in so doing, to remake contact with elemental forms of conceiving and making art.
Method of painting evolved by Paul Gauguin, Émile Bernard, and others in the 1880s to emphasize two-dimensional flat patterns, thus breaking with Impressionist art and theory. The style shows a conscious effort to work less directly from nature and to rely more upon memory.
any of various religious or philosophical systems claiming to be based on or to express an intuitive insight into the divine nature.
Try to unite Eastern and Western religious traditions by finding commonalities.
A nineteenth-century Irish poet, novelist, and playwright who mocked social conventions and outraged English society with his unconventional ideas and behavior.Believed that art did not need a reason to be good--it was good simply because it was art
Story by Oscar Wilde.
He had been thinking for some time of writing a new treatment of the Salomé story, and he wanted to try his hand at writing it in French.
A French novelist who published the novel À rebours (published in English as Against the Grain or Against Nature).
Was the most significant of a number of Secession groups established in the 1890s in Germany and Austria that were set up in opposition to the traditional outlook of the official academies, led by the artist Gustav Klimt
Term coined by the German composer Richard Wagner in 1849 to describe his concept of a stage presentation in which art, music, literature, and architecture would all be made to work together to express a single powerful idea. Today the term is used more broadly, to refer to any artistic projects in which several art forms are combined to achieve a totalizing effect.
The four-opera group The Ring of the Nibelung and the single opera Tristan und Isolde are among his best-known compositions.
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