Francy Chapter 1 Focus Questions What is science, its basic characteristics and goals? Science is a systematic approach for seeking and organizing knowledge about the natural world. The overall goal is to achieve a thorough understanding of the phenomena under study (socially important behaviors). What is a functional relation? What are the overarching attitudes of science? What is behaviorism and its main branches of study? How did applied behavior analysis get its start, develop over the years, and become known as it is today? What are the different types of behaviorism? How are they similar and different from one another? What are the defining characteristics of applied behavior analysis? Chapter 2 Focus Questions Why is it important to distinguish between the terms behavior, response, and response class? What does it mean to say behavior has a function? What effects do reinforcement and punishment have on subsequent behavior? Compare and contrast operant and respondent conditioning. What is a behavior principle and how is it similar or different than a behavior change tactic? What is the three-term contingency and why is it described as the ?basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant behavior?? How does applied behavior analysis deal with complex behavior such as verbal behavior? Chapter 6 Focus Questions What are the benefits of graphic display and visual analysis of behavioral data? What are the fundamental properties of behavior change over time? What are the different visual formats for the graphic display of behavioral data? What are the relative strengths and limitations of each visual format? What are the basic parts of a properly constructed line graph? What is the purpose of visual analysis? How is a visual analysis of behavioral data conducted? Chapter 7 Focus Questions What are the basic assumptions underlying the analysis of behavior? What are the levels of scientific understanding? What is a functional relationship and how is it demonstrated in behavior analytic research? What is the steady state strategy? What is baseline logic? What are the four types of baseline data patterns? What are the essential components of experiments in applied behavior analysis research? Chapter 8 Focus Questions Describe the three phases of an A-B-A reversal design. Discuss why reintroducing the B condition is the preferred tactic in demonstrating a functional relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Describe how an A-B-A-B reversal design incorporates baseline logic (prediction, verification, and replication). Discuss why a B-A-B design might be considered a preferable tactic in applied research. Identify possible limitations that may impact the analysis of a multiple treatment reversal design. State a practical advantage to the use of a noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) reversal technique. State a rationale for using either a DRO or DRI/DRA reversal technique. State a major strength of the A-B-A-B reversal design. Discuss two major limitations of the A-B-A-B reversal design. Kevin Chapter 3 Focus Questions Why is assessment a critical component of applied behavior analysis? The assessment is to help the BA to identify and establish problems behaviors and target behaviors that need to be changed. It seeks to help discover the function that a behavior serves in the person?s environment. What factors should be considered when determining which behaviors should be established, strengthened, or weakened? The BA should conduct interviews with significant others, family, and the person in addition to conducting direct observations, behavior checklists, etc. to assess the individuals? Bx. The BA should assess whether or not a Bx has a function in the environment and whether or not the Bx is healthy and socially appropriate. Why is it important to use observable and measurable terms to describe behavior and intervention outcomes? Observable and measurable terms aid the BA in recording reliable and accurate data, allow for replication, and clearly indicate the overall program effectiveness in addition to helping to ID and increase the chances of noting any behavior changes from baseline Terms: Anecdotal Observations (ABC recordings) ? basic form of direct observation; records descriptive, temporally sequenced account of all Bx of interesting and antecedent conditions and consequences for those Bx as they occur in the client?s natural environment; Overall description of Bx patterns Bx Checklist ? provides descriptions of specific Bxs in hierarchical order and the condition under which each Bx should occur. Behavioral Assessment ? involves various methods(Bx checklist, direct observations, etc.) used to identify and define targets for Bx change. Behavioral cusp ? Bx that opens the person?s world to new contingencies Ecological assessment ? used to ID the most pressing Bx problem and possible ways to alleviate it; detailed info gathered about the person and the various environments the person lives and works. Function based definition ? designated according to the effect on the environment (closing a door) Habilitation- the degree to which the person?s repertoire maximizes short and long term reinforcers for that individual and for others, and minimizes short and long term punishers Normalization ? a principle referring to utilizing more typical environments and, expectations, and procedures maintain Bxs that are as culturally normal as possible. Pivotal Bx ? spawns more complex Bx; increases the speed and ease of leraning and produces changes in untrained Bxs. (self-initiation) Reactivitiy ? the effects of an assessment procedure on the Bx being assessed; usually an obtrusive method and the person is aware of the BA and purpose Relevance of Bx rule ? only select a target Bx when it can be determined that the Bx is likely to produce reinforcement in the person?s natural environemt. Social validity Target Bx = the specific Bx selected for change Topography based definition ? ID the shape or form of the Bx (closing the door using a chair, asking someone to close the door) Prioritize target Bxs Threat to health or safety, frequency, longevity, potential of higher rates of reinforcement, importance, reduction of negative attention, reinforcement for significant others, likelihood of success, cost benefits Chapter 4 Focus Questions 4. What is the purpose of measurement in applied behavior analysis? It is the basis for talking about Bx. Measurement is how scientists operationalize empiricism. It is necessary for prediction, description, and control to be valid. It helps practitioners optimize their effectiveness. What are the measurable dimensions of behavior? Temporal locus (where Bx occurs) Temporal extent (duration) Repeatability or countability ? count is a simple tally of responses; frequency count during an observation period; rate of responding is a ratio consisting of the dimensional quantities of count and time; always reference the counting time What are the different procedures for measuring behavior? Time sampling ? recording Bx during intervals or at a specific moment in time Whole interval recording (observation is divided in brief time intervals used to measure continuous Bx) Partial Interval recording = record bx at any time during the interval; multiple occurrences scored as one Event recording ? procedure for detecting and recording the # of times a Bx is observed devices: wrist counters, digital counters, masking tape, paper clips, etc. Bx must have discrete beginning and ending, rate must not be too high Timing ? to measure duration, response latency, and IRT (interresponse time) Devices: computer systems, stopwatch, wall clocks, tape recorder, etc. Response latency ? a measure of the elapsed time between the onset of a stimulus and the beginning of a subsequent response. IRT ? amount of time that elapses between 2 consecutive instances of response class requires recording the precise time that elapses from the termination of each occurrence of the target BX to the onset of the target Bx Momentary time sampling ? records whether the target Bx is occurring at the end of the interval; best for continuous Bx Planned Activitiy check (PLACHECK) ? head counts to measure ?group behavior? How does a behavior analyst select the appropriate procedure for measuring behavior? Terms: Artifact ? something that appears to exist because of the way it is examined or measured Celeration ? the measure of the change in rate of responding per unit of time Discrete trial ? always prompted or a controlled opportunity to respond Free operant ? the Sd is presented continuously in a free environment without any prompts or invitations to respond Measurement by permanent product = measuring Bx after it has occurred by measuring the effects that the Bx produced on the environment; ex post facto Topography ? physical form or shape of a Bx Magnitude ? the force of intensity with which a response is emitted Trials to criterion ? a measure of the # of response opportunities needed to achieve a predetermined level of performance; typically calculated posto facto Chapter 5 Focus Questions Describe the relative importance of validity, accuracy, and reliability of behavioral measurement. To be a successful and useful research, it must be valid (does it measure what it says it measures), accurate (extent to which the observed value matches the trust state or value of the event as it exists in nature), and reliable (the extent to which the measurement value yields the same value when brought into repeated contact with the same state of nature) List and describe the various threats to measurement validity. Indirect measurement ? measuring a behavior other than the Bx of interest; Requires inferences to be made about the relationship between those Bxs; Must provide Measuring a dimension that is irrelevant or ill suited to the reason for measuring Bx. Measurement artifacts ? these give unwarranted or misleading pictures of the Bx due to the way measurement was conducted. Because continuous measurement is the gold standard, discontinuous measurement may yield artifacts instead of data. List and describe the three greatest threats to the accuracy and reliability of behavioral measurement. Human error ? biggest threat (poorly designed measurement systems, inadequate observer training, expectation about what the data should look like) Unintended influences on observers ? measurement bias, observer reactivity Discuss procedures used to minimize the threats to the accuracy and reliability of behavioral measurement. Design a good measurement system, train observers carefully and meticulously Evaluate the extent to which the data and accurate and reliable Use inter-observer agreement Identify benefits for obtaining and reporting interobserver agreement. Determine competence of new observers, detect observer drift, judge clarity of definitions and system, increase believability of data, a high IOA reflects accurate measure of data List and describe the criteria for obtaining valid IOA measures. 2 observers must use the same observation code and measurement systems Observe and measure the same participant and event, exactly the same time. Measuring data from permanent products, do NOT need to measure data simultaenously Observe and record the Bx independent of any influence from one another Describe the various methods for calculating IOA. = acceptable agreement rate is 80%, report in narrative form in words, use tables, graphs (how, when, how often ALWAYS) Event recording: 4 2 Total Count IOA: crudest and simplest Smaller #/Larger # *100 Mean Count per Interval Interval 1 + interval 2 + n interval/n interval * 100 Taking the average IOA across intervals and dividing by the total # of intervals Exact count per interval # of intervals of 100%/n interval *100 Trial by Trial = # of trial agreement/total # of trials *100 Must be discrete trial Timing: 2 Total duration = Shorter duration/longer duration *100 Mean occurrence per occurrence: more conservative and more meaningful R1 duration + R2 duration + n duration/n responses with duration * 100 Time Sampling: 3 Interval by interval : likely to overestimate the degree of agreement between observers measuring Bx that occur at very low or very high rates # of intervals agreed on/# agreed on + # disagreed on * 100 Scored interval: for Bx that occur at relatively low frequencies Scored only during intervals that showed Bx. # of Bx/# of intervals *100 Unscored interval: for Bx that occur at relatively high frequencies Scored only when the Bx is not occurring during an interval. # of nonoccurences/# of intervals *100 Identify the most stringent method and formula for calculating IOA for the following methods used for measuring behavioral data: event recording, timing, and interval recording or time sampling. ALL MULTIPLY BY 100% For event recording: Exact count per interval IOA (3 of intervals of 100% divided by n intervals * 100 For time sampling: Interval by Interval = # of intervals agreed on divided by # of intervals agreed on + # of intervals disagreed * 100 For Timing: Mean Duration per occurrence = Response 1 duration + response 2 duration +response 3 duration?..+n Response duration divided by n responses with duration * 100 Chapter 8 Describe the characteristics of an alternating treatments design. Efficient for comparing the effects of 2 or more treatments. Rapid alternation of 2 or more distinct treatments white their effects on the target Bx are measured. Different interventions are manipulated independent of the level of responding. A distinct stimulus is often associated with each treatment Describe how an alternating treatments design incorporates baseline logic (prediction, verification, and replication). The data points play 3 roles for these designs: they are the basis for predicting future paths; they are the potential for verifying that the treatment has an effect; they allow the opportunity for predicting any of the previous effects from the same treatment different from baseline. Discuss how the presence and degree of experimental control is determined when employing an alternating treatments design. Experimental control is determined by visual inspection of the differences among the alternating treatments. Where there is no overlap in data points and stable paths are noted among treatments, you have experimental control . Describe variations of the alternating treatments design. Single phase without a baseline condition ? compares 2 or more treatment conditions Single phase with one baseline control condition - 2 phase with initial baseline 3 phase with baseline and final best treatment phase Without no treatment control condition With no treatment control condition With baseline and final best treatment phase List and describe advantages of the alternating treatments design. Does NOT require treatment withdrawal Quick comparison of treatments is inherent in design Minimizes irreversibility problem ? can indivate differences in responding between the 2 conditions early in the experiment before returning to baseline Minimizes sequence effects ? increases internal validity bc alternating IVs randomly has no particular sequence. Can be used when data is unstable ? assumed that practice effects such as changing task difficult,y maturation, historical variables are equally represented in each treatment condition and will not effect any one condition more than the other. Intervention can begin immediately due to the capability of starting without an initial baseline phase Can be used to assess generalization of effects due to continually altering conditions List and describe possible limitations of the alternating treatments design. Multiple treatment interference ? refers to the confounding effects of 1 treatment on a subject?s Bx being influenced by the ffects of another treatment in the same study Unnatural nature of rapidity alternating treatments Limited capacity ? 4 man ? too many treatments can decrease the subjects? ability to discriminate between treatments and reduce the design?s effectiveness Selection of treatments should be largely different from one another ? some interventions may not produce important Bx changes unless and until they have been employed consistently over a continuous period of time Draw a graphic representation of an A-B-A and an A-B-A-B reversal design. Pg 178 to 181 Draw a graphic representation of an alternating treatments design. . Pg 190 to 194 Given graphs illustrating reversal and alternating treatments designs, identify the presence or absence of a functional relationship. Chapter 9 Focus Questions What are the features of the multiple baseline design? Baseline measurements are taken simultaneously with 2 or more behaviors. This design can take 3 forms: across bx design of 2 or more bx of the same subject; across settings design of 2 or more settings with the same subject; and across subjects design with the same bx with 2 or more participants Graph on pg 202 Bxs ? each subject serves as own control. After steady state responding is acquired, IV applied to 1st Bx. After steady state responding acquired for 1st bx, then apply IV to 2nd Bx. Settings ? after stead state responding for baseline acquired, apply IV to 1st setting, repeat for other settings Subjects = after steady state responding, apply IV to 1st subject and others are kept at baseline, repeat process for other subjects. MOST WIDELY USED Used when target Bx is likely to be irreversible OR when it is impractical or undesirable or unethical to use reverse conditions Multiple Probe design ? analyzes relation between independent variable and acquisition of new skill sequences of a successive approximation or task sequence; intermittent Measures provide basis for determing whether Bx chance has occurred prior to intervention. 3 key features: 1) initial probe is taken to determine the subjects level of performance on each Bx in the sequence, 2) a series of baseline measures is obtained on each step prior to training on that step, 3) after criterion level performance is reached on any training step, a probe (or intermittent measure) is obtained to determine if performance change has occurred anywhere Appropriate for analyzing shaping Delayed Multiple Baseline Design ? an initial baseline and intervention are begun and subsequent baselines are added in a staggered or delayed fashion Employs full scale multiple baseline approach except baseline data initiated after applying the IV to Bxs, settings or subjects CANNOT be used to verify predictions based on earlier tiers of the design Allows the BA to conduct research in environments that other tactics cannot be implemented such as: where reversal designs are not possible, when limited resources or ethical concerns preclude a full scale MBD, a ?new? Bx setting or subject becomes available. Disadvantages ? tendency for phases to contain fewer data points, can mask the interdependence of DV, not sufficient if BA has to wait an extended period of time to modify important Bxs quickly Advantages: Does NOT require withdrawal Ideal for multiple Bx changes Useful in assessing occurrence of generalization of Bx change Easy to conceptualize, therefore useful for teachers and parents not trained Limitations: Does NOT demonstrate experimental control Provides info about effectiveness of treatment being withheld for some Bxs/settings/subjects for a long time Need to consider the time and resources for MBD What are the features of the changing criterion design? It is essentially a variation of multiple baseline design. Prediction and verification through varying lengths of phases means you have evident verification. Thus, prediction can be made. CCD can be effective for showing repeated production of new rates of Bx as a function of IV manipulation. Requires manipulation of length of phase ? each phase serves as baseline for next phase so must be long enough to get stable responding. Should vary considerably to increase validity magnitude of criterion change ? use varying sizes for greater experimental control Smaller changes can be used with very stable responding, larger changes needed to find Bx change # of criterion changes ? more times new critera is introduced, better experimental control If limited time for study, the greater the number of phase, the shorter phases can be Has high experimental control due to the measures obtained for each Bx in the design are a function of the controlling variables for that Bx and not artifacts. Cannot be used for shaping Bxs, but best used for evaluating instructional techniques on stepwise changes in rate, frequency, accuracy, duration, latency of single target Bx What is the importance of systematic manipulation of independent variables? (on the quiz she asked how is it accomplished in multiple baseline & changing criterion) Allows for better experimental control which helps to isolate the effects of the IV on the behavior and better prediction and then replication. The systematic manipulation is useful because once you have steady responding after manipulation, prediction if verified. Also, changing criterion design shows repeated production of the new behavior as a function of the manipulation of the IV. What practical and ethical considerations do behavior analysts need to consider when selecting an experimental design? Withholding treatment that is effective in order to maintain the integrity of a treatment design; multiple baseline designs are appropriate and best suited for teachers, community members, etc who do not have the luxury of isolated subjects or settings as well as the possibility to develop multiple behavior changes; multiple baseline designs should be used when the need to control practice or reactivity effects due to length of time of baseline behavior; social significance may sometimes be more appropriate than the requirements of the design; Changing criterion design is useful for Chapter 10 Focus Questions Why is the individual subject of central importance in applied behavior analysis? The individual subject is by definition, where behavior can be found. So to be most useful, a treatment must be understood at the individual level. Group research indicates the mean behavior of a group and individual differences contribute to that behavior, but is not representative of individual performance. Also, group data masks variability in the data. Why is it important for researchers to be flexible when designing research experiments? There are no rules of experimental design in Behaivoral research. Effective behavioral research must be uniquely designed for each case and must employ the baseline logic of prediction, verification, and replication. Any number or sequence of IV manipulation that produces data that addresses the research questions can be used. How does assessment of internal validity contribute to the strength of a research experiment? To have high internal validity, the design must demonstrate a reliable effect on the DV AND eliminate or reduce the possibility that factors other than the IV produced the behavior change. The idea that the researchers control the subjects behavior has to be inherent into the experimental control of the design. The better the control, the higher the internal validity. What is the importance of social validity in research? Social validity is the extent to which the results of a study directly impacts the consumers of a behavior change program and/or a group of indirect consumers. These consumers should be asked about satisfaction of the relevance and important of the goals of the program, the acceptability of the procedures, and the value of the behavior change outcomes achieved. However, ?social validty? should be viewed more as ?consumer satisfaction? because it is basically a compilation of consumer opinions. How does evaluating the external validity of a study contribute to the field of applied behavior analysis? The nature of high external validity implies that the functional relation can be assumed to be effective in a variety of settings with similar subjects. If a functional relation can be shown with multiple subjects in a variety of settings, this increases the likelihood that the functional relation will be exerted with other subjects with similar characteristics. The essence of ?applied? asserts that generalization is a common thread when using experimental analysis to the real world settings. The generality of research in ABA is assessed, established, and specified by the replication of experiments How does evaluation of research strengthen the field of applied behavior analysis? Emphasizes the importance of internal validity, social validity, external validity, graphic display, evaluating the experimental design, identifying Type 1 and 2 errors, and the need for more thorough analyses of socially important Behavior. Chapter 11 Focus Questions What is positive reinforcement and what are different types of positive reinforcers? PR occurs when a response is immediately followed by the presentation of a stimulus, which results in an increase in frequency of the response or similar responses. Different types of reinforcers are unconditioned (through evolution) and conditioned (through organisms history), and generalized conditioned reinforcers What are the three- and four-term contingencies and how do they relate to the concept of positive reinforcement? 3 term = SdR SR+ = a response is emitted in the presence of a Sd, which is followed closely in time by a stimulus change (SR+) which results in an increase of the response when the Sd is presented. This is related to PR because the Sd has been conditioned in the organism, and when presented with the R which elicits the SR+ effectively, it will likely increase in frequency in the future due to the nature of the expectancy. 4 term = begins with an MO, such as an EO, which makes the Sd more likely to evoke a response that leads to a SR+. The EO temporarily increases the desire for the stimulus change and it?s effectiveness as a positive reinforcer. How can positive reinforcers be identified for individuals? A positive reinforce can be anything that works to elicit an increase in the frequency of a behavior. Conducting stimulus prefererence assessments and reinforcer assessments simultaneously is the best method to discovering the most suitable PR. Once identified, how can positive reinforcement be implemented most effectively? The most effective way to implement correctly is by starting with setting setting easily achievable criterion for reinforcement, using high quality reinforcers with sufficient magnitude, combine response prompts and reinforcement, reinforce every occurrence of the Bx initially, provide contingent descriptive praise and attention. Chapter 15 Define negative punishment the removal of a stimulus or event that leads to a decrease in the frequency of Behavior Define non-exclusion time-out a form of NP that removes the individual from the opportunity to receive reinforcement in order to decrease the frequency of a Bx but does not remove the individual from the environment. Planned ignoring, contingent observation, withdraw of a specific positive reinforcer, time out ribbon are all non-exclusion time out Define exclusion time-out a form of NP that completely removes the individual from the environment for a specified amount of time, contingent on the occurrence of the target Bx. State the procedures for implementing planned ignoring exists when social reinforcers are removed for a specified period of time contingent on the occurrence of the inappropriate Bx. State the procedures for implementing contingent observation individual is instructed to not participate however, is in the same environment. Basically being told to sit and watch. State the procedures for implementing withdraw of a specific positive reinforce teacher analyzes the situation and identifies the reinforcer that initiates the inappropriate Bx and removes only that specific reinforcer followed by a decrease in the Bx. State the procedures for using a time-out ribbon a ribbon worn on the individual?s arm that indicates when they are eligible to receive reinforcement. Without the ribbon, all forms of social interaction are removed for a specific period of time State the procedures using a time-out room the time out room is separated from the rest of the usual setting and is an area with minimal objects and no opportunity for reinforcement or stimulation where the individual is placed for a specified period of time State the procedures for implementing a partition time-out the individual is placed within a cubical or half wall that separates them from the rest of the individuals but is still able to receive instruction on a restricted basis. List the decisions a practitioner must make prior to, during, and after a time-out application The time in environment needs to be enriching and reinforcing Inappropriate Bxs leading to time out should be clearly defined as well as the duration of time and the criterion for gaining entry into time in environment. Apply the time out consistently with Bx and individuals. Obtaining permission to implement the policies and clearly explain the rules of time out. Define response cost Essentially a fine of reinforcement that decreases the frequency of the target Bx. Could be money, play time, interaction, etc. List the undesirable aspects of negative punishment. Repeated exposure acts as a reinforcer instead of punishing the Bx. Increased aggression and passiveness Increased avoidance Response costs call attention to the undesired Bx, so the attention may result in a positive reinforcer Withdrawing positive reinforcers can affect the frequency of other Bxs. Effects of the response cost is also unpredictable Chapter 14 Focus Questions What influence does punishing stimuli have on behavior? It decreases the Bx through the presentation of an aversive stimulus immediately following the Bx OR it with the removal or withdrawal of a stimulus immediately following a Bx. What factors influence the effectiveness of punishment? Immediacy of onset of the punisher ASAP after target response; intensity of the punisher; every occurrence of the target Bx is followed by a punisher; reinforcement of the target Bx is reduced and then reinforcement of an alternative Bx is given. What are the potential side effects of punishment use? Aggressive and emotional reactions; escape and avoidance Bxs; Behaviorial contrast (certain situations where the target Bx is punished and decreases compared to certain situations where the target Bx is unpunished and then increases); modeling of undesirable Bx; overuse of punishment followed by negative reinforcement of the punishing agent. Identify examples of positive and negative punishment. What are the guidelines that should be considered for the use of punishment as an intervention? Select appropriate appropriate punishers through assessment and ID least intrusive punishers. Also, use sufficient quality and magnitude of punisher as well as a variety of punishers to fight habituation Deliver punisher as early in the response sequence as possible Punish each occurrence of the Bx Gradually shift to intermittent schedule if possible Supplement punishment with complimentary interventions such as DRI, extinction, and antecedent interventions Watch and be prepared for side effects Record, graph, evaluate daily What are the ethical issues that must be addressed for punishment to be used as an intervention? Do no harm is first priority Client?s right to effective treatment ? difficult to tackle because of the stigma of punishment, however, if research shows tht it?s effective then withholding treatment is unethical Doctrine of least restrictive alternative holds that less instrusive procedures must be tried first, then more intrusive treatments Explain the knowledge base punishment in the current body of literature. ABA should regard and appreciate it is a viable and successful option Default technology ? an intervention that should only be used if all other treatments fail Chapter 13 Focus Questions What is a schedule of reinforcement, and what are some different schedules of reinforcement? A schedule of reinforment is a pattern in which the probability of an organism receives reinforcement following a response and can be based on time, number of responses, or a combination. FI ? reinforcement occurs after a specific duration of time has elapsed. VI ? reinforcement occurs after a variable duration of time since the last reinforcement. FR ? reinforcement occurs after a specific number of responses occurs. VR ? reinforcement occurs after variable number of responses has occurred since the last reinforcement, such as on the mean What is naturally occurring reinforcement and why is it important? This is the goal of reinforcement. When you have naturally occurring reinforcement, then the organism is reinforced through means of their own accord, not for a tangible reward. This could include personal enjoyment and personal satisfaction. What are the effects of various schedules of reinforcement? What are concurrent, discriminative, and non-discriminative schedules of reinforcement? Concurrent schedule occurs with 2 or more contingencies, indepdnedpently or simultaneously, and for 2 or more Bxs. Discriminative schedules are multiple (2 or more basic schedules in an alternating, random sequence with a discriminative stimulus is correlated with each schedule) and chained (2 or more responses in successive order must occur before reinforcement with a discriminative stimulus correlated with each schedule). These have discriminative stimulus correlated with each schedule. Non-discriminative schedules are mixed (same as multiple without the discriminative stimulus), tandem (same as chained except without the discriniative stimulus), alternative (reinforcement occurs whenever the requirement of either of ratio or interval schedule is met regardless of which of the component schedules requirements is met first), conjunctive (reinforcement occurs after the completion of a ratio and an interval schedule is met), Chapter 12 Focus Questions What is negative reinforcement and how is it similar to and different from positive reinforcement? A contingency in which the occurrence of a response produces the removal, prevention, or termination of a stimulus which leads to an increase in the future frequency of the Bx. Different in that negative denotes the removal or postponement of a stimulus that was present prior to responding. Similar in that both contingencies seek to increase a Bx. What are the 4 components of a negative reinforcement contingency? EO Sd R Sr- Loud noise outsidewindow is open close window = noise subsides How is negative reinforcement similar to and different from punishment? The end result of punishment is a reduction or decrease in Bx. NR seeks to increase Bx by the removal or postponement of a stimulus. How are escape and avoidance contingencies different? Escape is based on the idea of terminating an ongoing stimulus. For example, a child sits in a room with bright lights and turns them off to escape the light. Avoidance Bxs are based on the postponement or prevention of the presentation of a stimulus. Most Bx maintained by NR is characterized by Avoidance. For example, you?re walking to your car drunk to drive home, then see a cop with his blue lights on, so you call a cab to avoid a DUI. What are the characteristics of negative reinforcement, and how can it be used most effectively to promote learning? Responses acquired and maintained by NR ? any response that terminates the stimulation will be strengthened meaning a wide range of Bxs can be maintained by NR. Events that serve as NR are aversive ( an EO from NR that follows a Bx can serve as a punisher) Source of NR ? social NR (calling a physican when you have a headache) and automatic NR (taking pain meds to alleviate a headache) Identifying the context of NR ? requires the specification of the stimulus condition before and after responding. What are some examples of how negative reinforcement can be used to produce therapeutic effects for individuals? Pediatric feeding problems, improving student performance as a result of error correction, giving additional work Strengthening more socially appropriate Bxs through NR How can negative reinforcement produce undesirable, problem behaviors? Escape and avoidance Bxs may develop instead of successful NR. What are the ethical issues involved in negative reinforcement? The severity of the antecedent event due to the nature of the aversive events. Harmful events cannot be justified as part of the Bx change program. The presence of aversive stimuli can itself generate bxs that compete with the acquisition of the desired Bx.
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