Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of stigma?
A label applied to a group of people that breaks the law
Mental illness in the 21st century
An illustration of abnormal behavior would be
All of the above (soiling oneself at least once a month, experiencing anxiety while leaving the house, and experiencing hallucinations)
The best definition of abnormal behavior takes all of the following into account EXCEPT
Which is a limitation of "harmful dysfunctions" as a definition of abnormality?
The dysfunctional mechanisms are largely unknown
Variations in cultural background make it difficult to define abnormal behavior as simply behavior which
involves a deviation from social norms
Defining abnormal behavior on the basis of personal distress is problematic for which reason?
Some abnormal behavior does not involve personal distress
Cindy is an accomplished lawyer who sought psychological help in dealing with the stresses of balancing work and family responsibilities. Which definition of abnormality applies to Cindy?
After presenting characteristics of abnormality, the text concludes that
together the characteristics give a partial definition of abnormality
Demonology is the
idea that an evil being may live in a person and control his or her mind and body
Hippocrates' early views on abnormality contributed to an enduring emphasis on
Hippocrates influenced psychology by
distinguishing medicine from religion and magic
Expelling evil spirits by chanting and torture is known as
Hippocrates suggested which of the following treatments for mental illness?
relaxation and care in choosing foods
Hippocrates' view of mental illness was superior to demonology in that it
All of the above are correct (it promoted a scientific study of abnormal behavior, it made connections between brain and behavior more clearly determined, and it allowed for clearer description of symptoms)
Which of the following best describes treatment of disordered people during the Dark Ages?
Monks in monasteries prayed over them
A detailed re-examination of the witch hunts during the Middle Ages revealed that
most of the accused were not mentally ill
During the witch hunts of the inquisition most insane people were
confined in lunatic hospitals
The "Malleus Maleficaum" was a
witch hunt manual
Edith was accused of being a witch in 1532. She most likely lived in
Through the use of modern analyses, it was found that the majority of the witches of the latter Middle Ages were psychotic because
None of the above are correct; witches of this period are NOT thought to have been psychotic
Which of the following suggests that many "witches" condemned during the inquisition were, in fact, mentally disordered individuals?
The witches "confessed" to delusions and hallucinations
In the Middle Ages, mental illness
resulted in the sufferer being confined to an asylum
Early asylums were developed
for the confinement and care of the mentally ill
What treatment was provided by early asylums?
confinement with no clear treatment program
Some of the first asylums for the mentally ill
were tourist attractions
is the term associated with the chaotic conditions at early asylums
In 1791, John was committed to an asylum in the United States. Which treatment was he likely to experience there?
Who is associated with creating more humane environments at mental hospitals?
Treatment for the mentally illl became more humane when
treatment was introduced that focused on the individual
Moral treatment was largely abandoned because of the development of
large impersonal hospitals
An advantage of moral treatment was
that limits were established to restrict the number of patients hospitalized at any given time
Moral treatment involved
encouraging patients to engage in purposeful activities
Elizabeth was receiving moral treatment while in an early asylum. Which of the following treatments was she least likely to receive?
Moral treatment of the mentally disordered was abandoned because
individual attention was impossible in large, medically oriented institutions
The York Retreat was an early mental hospital. A recent evaluation of records there showed
fewer than one-third of patients improved
Dorothea Dix is famous for
overseeing the creation of over thirty state hospitals for the mentally ill
In comparison to early asylums, present-day mental hospitals
are primarily custodial
developed a classification system of mental disorders
The current classification system for mental illness was heavily influenced by which of the following individuals?
When a group of symptoms typically co-occur, they are called
General paresis is best described as
a deterioration of mental and physical health in association with syphilis
The germ theory of disease, which states that disease is caused by infection of the body by tiny organisms, was put forth by
The discovery of the cause of syphilis was important to the field of mental illness for which reason?
It increased interest in determining biological causes for mental illness
Psychopathology has been dominated by biological hypotheses because of the
discovery of the link between general paresis and syphilis
The germ theory of disease
shows the link between syphilis and mental illness
proposed that the disease is due to an infection from minute organisms
An adherent for biological approaches would suggest which of the following treatments for depression?
Biological causes for mental illness were strengthened by the discovery of
the cause of general paresis
The eugenics movement
sought to cleanse a society of people with undesirable characteristics
Early work in behavior genetics led to
forced sterilization of mental patients
Which of the following is true about ECT?
It is used today in rare instances to treat patients with schizophrenia and severe depression
Hypnosis, as originally used by Mesmer, was used for
The reasoning behind hypnosis as developed by Mesmer was
that changing magnetic fields in his patients would result in symptom reduction
Esther was a patient of Mesmer's, who was treating her for blindness. What was the likely scenario when she entered his treatment room?
a stock of chemical-filled rods, with Mesmer presiding over the room in a purple robe
Breuer observed an association between recalling past traumatic events and expression of the original emotion in hysterics. This resulted in
Dr. Jones encourages her clients, under hypnosis, to recall childhood traumas and the emotions associated with them. This technique was developed by
Which is TRUE regarding catharsis?
It encourages the release of emotional tension
If you went to Josef Breuer for treatment of hysterical paralysis, which treatment would you probably NOT receive?
The cathartic method was created by
The main reason for the abandonment of prefrontal lobotomies in medical settings was
introduction of new drugs
The psychoanalytic theory rests upon the assumption that psychopathology is the result of
The id, ego, and superego are
structures of the mind
The ego operates according to the _______ principle
The basic energy source for the psyche is the
When you feel hungry and immediately seek out food, this is an example of the ______ acting
According to Freud's theory, the superego develops from the
Dealing with reality is the primary role of the
Which structure has some unconscious activity?
All (id, ego, superego) have some unconscious activity
While studying for an exam, Greg worked for 15 minutes before becoming tired. He decided that it would be better to work for another 30 minutes before taking a break. His behavior is being guided by which part of his personality?
While Steve was studying for an exam, he suddenly realized that his favorite television show was on. He stopped his work and hurried to watch. His behavior was guided by which part of his personality?
When one refers to their conscience, they are also describing their
The superego allows us to
know right from wrong
Very strict parents might create a very strong _______ in their children
Carol is trying to decide whether to drink alcohol, knowing that her parents are strongly opposed to drinking. According to Freudian theory, Carol's struggle is between her ________, which makes her want to drink, and her _______, which discourages her from drinking.
Psychoanalytic theory specifically refers to
the assumption that psychopathology results from unconscious conflicts
According to Freud, what is the most important determinant of behavior?
The ego uses ______ to protect itself from anxiety
Sheila makes plans to go to a party, even though she has an exam the next day and knows she needs to study. Which of the following is guiding her decision to go to the party?
Jane always donates to charities, even though she has very little money. According to Freudian theory, which aspect of her unconscious is guiding her charitable behavior?
Tim's behavior in class caused his teacher to suggest that he has "absolutely no superego." If this was true, Tim
did not learn right and wrong when instructed
Sarah's parents were very permissive when she was growing up. Which aspect of her unconscious is likely to be most developed in adulthood?
Owen would like to go out with his friends. However, he knows that if he goes out he will not be able to study enough for his history exam the next day. If he goes out, then his _______ prevailed; if he studies, then his _______ won out in determining his behavior.
Monica's typical work day is twelve hours. Anytime she feels like taking a break, she quickly reminds herself that her parents emphasized hard work and dedication for success. Her ______ is most in control of her behavior.
Conflicts from a particular stage of development, according to Freud, will
continue to affect development
Fixation at a particular stage, according to Freud, results in
regression to that stage when stressed later in life
Frank has an unresolved Oedipus complex. This suggests that he did not complete the ______ stage of development
Defense mechanisms aid in
protecting the ego from anxiety
Marcia states confidently "I never get angry. In fact, I never recall feeling angry." Marcia is exhibiting
After going to a party, James explains to himself that this was more important than studying because "I needed a break from all the stress," even though he has not studied at all yet. This would be an example of
Lindsey begins to yell at her husband as soon as he walks in the house: "I don't know why you are so angry with me." However, her husband has not yet said anything to her, and even greeted her with a smile and flowers when she got home. Lindsey is exhibiting
Sam is angry at his boss for passing over him for a promotion. Instead, he goes home and argues with his wife. This is an illustration of
Which of the following pairs are correctly matched?
Jung: collective unconscious
Dr. Smith argues that the desire to hunt is built into all men dating back to the times of cave men. Dr. Smith is relying on the concept of
Adler developed a theory of psychoanalytic thought oriented towards
striving for superiority
As part of therapy, you are asked to lie on a couch and say anything that comes to mind. This is called
When engaging in free association, you begin to screen your thoughts and do not report everything that comes to mind. You are
You begin to regard your therapist in a similar way to your sister so you begin to treat the therapist as you treat your sister. This is referred to as
Behaviorists advocate that
abnormal behavior is learned
As part of the behaviorism movement in psychology, there was a movement away from _______ techniques, and a movement towards _______ techniques for studying behavior
introspection; direct observation
The earliest experimental work on classical conditioning was conducted by
Anne experienced extreme pain at the dentist as a child. Now, she goes to a different dentist, but feels her heart race when she arrives, and go down when she leaves. Her heart racing whenever she goes to teh dentist is due to _____, and the calming feeling when she leaves is due to ________.
classical conditioning, operant conditioning
Fiona faints when her doctor begins to draw blood. What is the unconditioned response?
When you attempt to buy a soda from a machine, you only do so if the lights are on. According to Skinner, the lights on the soda machine are
This type of response to behavior results in an increased probability of the behavior occurring again
both a and b (positive and negative reinforcement)
A class conducted an experiment with their professor. The students only paid attention as a group when she was to the left of the blackboard. After this was established, they only paid attention when she was three feet from the blackboard, further to the left. This is an illustration of
Sally is currently in a hospital where she earns tokens for specified behaviors. These tokens are later exchanged for goods, such as food and cigarettes. This token economy is based on what behavioral principles?
Psychiatrists differ from clinical psychologists in that psychiatrists
Which profession requires a research dissertation as a prerequisite for an advanced degree?
The doctor of a psychology degree (Psy D) emphasizes
clinical training and research training
Ernie is struggling with hallucinations. He visits a doctor, who prescribed medication for his symptoms. He most likely visited
Clinical psychologists, counseling psychologists, and social workers are likely to be involved in
There has recently been a debate regarding whether clinical psychologists should be allowed to
Paradigms in the study of abnormal behavior
enable us to gather knowledge in a systematic manner
When one chooses a paradigm to understand abnormal behavior, it
specifies problems scientists will investigate and how they will go about investigating them
Contemporary views on genetic and environmental factors in behavior emphasize that
both factors influence each other
Psychopathology is polygenic which means that
there are several different paradigms operating at different times during development that influence genetic vulnerability
If the heritability of ADHD is around .70 then
In a given population, variation in ADHD is attributed approximately 70% to genes and 30% to environment
Which of the following statements is false?
Heritability is the extent to which variability in a particular behavior in a population can be accounted for by environmental factors
Research suggests that
the effect of nonshared environmental events on siblings is what matters most for understanding genetic variability among siblings
One's inherited genes are referred to as
One's observable characteristics are called
A genotype is illustrated by which of the following?
none of these (panic disorder, depression, schizophrenia)
A phenotype is illustrated by which of the following?
Lisa's level of anxiety
The behavior genetic view suggests which of the following relationships between genes and abnormal behavior?
Genetic predispositions increase the likelihood of abnormal behavior
Any measure of intelligence is best viewed as an index of
Turkheimer and colleagues confirmed that
heritability depends upon the environment
Different forms of the same gene are called
A difference in DNA sequence that occurs in a population is called
manipulate specific genes and observe the effects on behavior by "removing" certain genes from mice DNA
Which of the following methods of molecular genetics has been used to identify specific genes on several chromosomes important in Alzheimer's disease?
A good method for studying gene-environment interactions is
Adoption studies are ideal studies for investigating
The study of the pups born to high LG-ABN mothers or LG-ABN mothers and raised by high LG-ABN mothers or low LG-ABN mothers provided support for the idea that
environments influence the expression of genes in psychopathology
Nick was born with a predisposition for aggression and impulsivity which has resulted in frequent trouble with the law. As a result of time spent in jail, Nick has developed alcohol dependence. This is an example of
a reciprocal gene-environment interaction
A reciprocal gene-environment interaction
involved the idea that genes may predispose individuals to seek out certain environments
A major current challenge for researchers within the genetic paradigm is to show the mechanism by which
genes and environments influence each other
The neuroscience paradigm
asserts that mental disorders are linked to aberrant processes in the brain
Neurotransmitters are chemical substances that
allow nerve impulses to reach the next neuron
The small gap between brain cells that is involved in message transmission is called the
deliver nerve impulse information across the synapse
Neurotransmitters are pumped back into the presynaptic cell by
According to the neuroscience paradigm, mental disorders are likely the result of
all of the above are possibilities (an abundance of receptors on the postsynaptic neuron, excesses of different neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, and deficiencies in different neurotransmitters, such as serotonin)
Second messengers play an important role in
helping neurons adjust receptor sensitivity
Which of the following mechanisms adjust the sensitivity of postsynaptic receptors to dopamine, norepinephrine or serotonin?
Dr. Arthur and his colleagues are investigating a new drug that stimulates serotonin's sensitivity. Dr. Arthur is most likely investigating which kind of drug?
Fred is schizophrenic and is taking a medication that works by blocking dopamine receptors. Fred is most likely taking which kind of drug?
The major connection between the two hemispheres in the brain is called
the corpus callosum
The gray matter in the brain is made up of
In right-handed individuals, speech is controlled in this area of the brain
left hemisphere of the cortex
The part of your brain closest to your ears is the ______ lobe
The thalamus is the part of the brain which
relays sensory pathways for hearing and vision
It was found through a brain scan that a man had higher than normal levels of activity in his limbic system. This man probably was having difficulty with
regulation of emotion
The cerebellum is crucial for
The cerebellum is involved in regulating
balance, posture, and equilibrium
In early adulthood, a process known as ______ occurs in which cell connections in the brain are elimina
Which of the following statements are true?
Starting in early adulthood, synaptic connections begin to be eliminated
The autonomic nervous system is divided into two parts:
sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system
The autonomic nervous system
This part of the ANS accelerates the heart, dilates the pupils and initiates smooth muscle and glandular responses that prepare an organism for sudden activity and stress
sympathetic nervous system
Doris is receiving a relaxing massage. She feels her heartbeat decelerate and her pupils constrict. Doris' ______ is at work
parasympathetic nervous system
Which of the following is central to the body's response to stress?
Which of the following would be considered an implication of the neuroscience paradigm?
Using an antidepressant to inhibit the uptake of serotonin
Which of the following statements is false?
In recent decades, neuroscience research on causes and treatment of psychopathology has been proceeding quite slowly
The primary argument against reductionism is that
phenomena may only be understandable at specific levels of analysis
Psychoanalysis was developed by
The psychoanalytic paradigm
does not lend itself easily to empirical scrutiny
focus on the individuals' current environment more so than the historical causes of one's behavior
Which approach emphasizes each person's ability to manage their current environment in order to select the best way of satisfying basic needs?
Dr. Gregor is a psychologist who believes that ego functions are primarily conscious and are capable of controlling id urge and the external environment. Furthermore, Dr. Gregor contends that ego functions do not depend on the id for energy. Most likely, Dr. Gregor subscribes to
Dr. Timber has just received her Ph.D. and plans to make her career by conducting psychological research. Most likely, the population she will use in her research will be
US college students
Despite criticisms, the psychoanalytic paradigm continues to exert influence on the field of psychopathology through all of the following assumptions EXCEPT
dreams are very important in understanding psychology (meaning childhood experiences do help shape adult personality, there are unconscious influences on behavior, and the causes causes and purposes of human behavior are not always obvious)
Jane is afraid of elevators. Her psychologist teaches her how to relax deeply. He then helps her develop a list of situations with elevators that vary in how frightening or anxiety-producing they are. Eventually she can tolerate imagining these situations. Her psychologist used
Behavioral and cognitive theorists differ in their emphasis on
events versus interpretation of events
Joan tends to see everything on the "bright side." That is, she rarely feels that negative events occur in her life. According to the cognitive perspective, Joan's tendency to see things positively represents her
After the first day of class, Jill (who is always an optimist) decides the class will be fun while Jan (who struggles over grades) decides the class will be hard. Their different reactions illustrate the role of
Nellie sees a set of words printed in different colors on a computer and she must name the color of each word as rapidly as possible. Which of the following best describes the task that Nellie is doing?
The Stroop task was developed for researchers to study
The Stroop task has been modified to focus on emotion. Research findings from this modified Stroop have been used
as evidence of an attention bias towards threatening information in people with anxiety disorders
Rational-emotive therapy primarily focuses on
changing irrational beliefs
What paradigm was used by this therapist? Joan was fired from her job, and her therapist attempts to help her see that this is not terrible, and that being fired may not mean she is a bad person.
Ted is a "workaholic;" he works 15 hours a day and never has time to spend with his family or on things he enjoys. Which of the following is a cognitive explanation of Ted's behavior?
Ted believes he must excel in everything he does
What would a cognitive behavior therapist most likely say to Joe who comes in for therapy reporting that, "I'm a terrible student. I flunked another test today."?
"What did you say to yourself after the test?"
The difference between emotion and moods are
emotions are fairly short-lived states, while moods tend to last for longer periods of time
Lindsey opened a letter saying that she got into her top choice medical school. She felt a rush of joy and began to jump up and down with excitement. Which of the following best describes Lindsey's state in the moment after opening the letter?
Linsey is experiencing happy emotions
Generally speaking, cultural and ethnic factors in psychopathology need to be examined more closely. Which of the following areas have been fairly well studied?
whether disorders diagnosed and treated in the US are observed in other parts of the world
The diathesis-stress paradigm emphasizes that abnormality results from
biology and stress
Which of the following is not an example of a diathesis?
Delusions often found in people with schizophrenia
According do the diathesis-stress model, if Linda inherited a predisposition that places her at high risk for schizophrenia,
given a certain amount of stress, it is likely she will develop schizophrenia
Generally all diathes
Which of the following statements are TRUE about paradigms?
Data gathered by researchers subscribing to different paradigms are not necessarily incompatible with one another
Diagnostic systems allow clinicians and scientists to
communicate accurately with one another about cases and research
Jim was given an intelligence test in March and re-administered the same test one year later. His score both times was the same. This indicates that the intelligence test has
high test-retest reliability
Generally it is impossible for measures to be
valid but not reliable
Britney was taking a test to measure levels of depression. All of the items covered typical symptoms of depression. This inventory would be said to have
high content validity
Jackson appears to have social phobia. This diagnosis was made by looking at his scores on a particular measure of social fear. Scores like his have been shown to be related to social phobia and other related factors. The measure Jackson took would be said to have
high construct validity
In 1994, the DSM-IV was published by the
In 2000, the DSM-IV-TR was published
to clarify issues surrounding prevalence rates, cour
The letters in the abbreviation DSM refers to
Diagnostic and Statistical Me
The DSM-IV-TR provides diagnoses along 5 areas. These areas are called
Axes I and II are separated
to distinguish longstanding disturbances from acute problems
In DSM-IV-TR, long-standing diagnoses such as personality disoders are identified on
only Axis II
Axis V is included to
provide a current rating of functioning
The purpose of Axis IV is to
evaluate environmental and psychosocial problems
Without Axis IV, which of the following would not be included in the DSM-IV-TR diagnosis?
Jose has major depression and has multiple sclerosis. He would be diagnosed on
Axis I: major depression and Axis III: multiple sclerosis
Sheila was recently robbed and subsequently developed an acute stress disorder. She was blinded during the robbery and is now unable to find work because of her loss of sight. Using DSM-IV, how would Sheila's problems be diagnosed?
Axis V of the DSM-IV-TR considers all but which of the following?
psychosocial problems experienced
The multiaxal approach in DSM-IV-TR encourages clinicians to make assessment judgments
considering a wide range of information
Major improvements since the DSM-III include all of the following EXCEPT
decrease in diagnostic categories
Previous editions of the DSM were criticized for their
lack of attention to cultural and ethnic variations in psychopathology
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Culture can have a large influence on which symptoms of a given disorder are expressed
Culture bound syndromes
are listed in the appendix of the DSM
A dissociative episode found primarily among men that involves brooding followed by violent episodes is called
In the DSM-IV, anxiety about the penis receding into the body is termed
Studies of psychopathology in other cultures suggest that
people diagnosed with a culture-bound syndrome may also meet DSM criteria for a specific disorder
The DSM-IV-TR includes approximately ______ different diagnostic categories
Some critics of the DSM-IV-TR believe that
the DSM-IV-TR has pathologized too many problems without good justification
Comobidity refers to
the presence of a second diagnosis
The DSM-IV-TR is an example of which approach to classification?
Which of the following is a dimensional classification system?
grade point average
Dr. Kline classifed her patients according to hair color. Some were classified as blonde, some brunette, some red-haired. This is an example of a
You are relying on a dimensional classification scheme and work with individuals who struggle with delusions. Your diagnoses are going to be based upon ______ of delusions.
The fact that SSRI's often relieve symptoms of anxiety as well as depression suggest to some clinicians and researchers that
anxiety and depression should be part of the same diagnostic category
What is one reason categorical systems are popular?
They define a certain threshold for treatment
Caleb went to see two different psychologists about his depressive symptoms. One told him that he suffered from major depressive disorder and the other told him that he had bipolar disorder. This is an example of a problem with
When Dr. Smith diagnoses a patient with schizophrenia and Dr. Jones diagnoses that same patient with obsessive compulsive disorder, we would say that Dr. Smith and Dr. Jones have
In order to study the reliability of a diagnostic category, we would study whether
diagnosticians apply it consistently
Reliability, as used in diagnosis, is the same as
If a diagnosis helps clinicians make good predictions and informs them of the likely course of the disorder, psychologists would say that the diagnosis has
Which of the following situations is most similar to the concept of reliability in making psychiatric diagnoses?
After watching a new TV show, you and a friend independently decide that it is lousy
A line judge in a football game calls a player for holding. The head linesman disagrees, but instead calls a player for unnecessary roughness. These referees have a problem with
A valid classification system is one that
leads to accurate predictions ands tat
Just before he died, several physicians were treating Joe for a stroke; an autopsy showed he had Alzheimer's disease. Joe's physicians showed
neither reliability nor validity
Construct validity of a diagnosis refers to
an inference regarding a diagnosis on the basis of a set of observed symptoms
Unlike most conversations with a friend, a clinical interviewer would focus on
how the person responds
In clinical interviews, most clinicians pay particular attention to
Clinical interviewers typically
highlight the importance of rapport
Which of the following is true regarding the clinical interview?
It enables one to obtain vast amounts of information
Which of the following guides a clinical interview?
paradigm used by interviewer
Which of the following is a structured interview?
Which of the following is not a measure of psychological stress?
Social Readjustment Rating Scale
Why has the Social Readjustment Scale been criticized?
It contains items that are both outcomes and antecedents of stre
Ava creates a scale that assesses stress during the first year of college. She plans to administer this scale to graduating seniors. What is a likely criticism of her methods?
She will be collecting retrospective reports which are subject to considerable distortion
The ADE was most helpful in addressing which of the following issues?
An advantage of the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) over other life stress assessments is that
it allows for the evaluation of life events in the context of a person's unique life circumstances
The LEDS was designed to measure stress
in the context of the individual's circumstances
The LEDS has led researchers to conclude that
life events are robust predictors of several psychological and medical symptoms
You have a developed a personality inventory that will be used to match roommates in order to minimize conflict. You are almost ready to market the test, but first must administer it to several hundred individuals to establish normative information. This phase of test development is referred to as
These types of tests have not traditionally been standardized
projective Personality Tests
You decide that you wish to use the MMPI to form a scale within the instrument to distinguish potential professional wrestlers from those without the potential to be wrestlers. Using the same method as that used to develop the MMPI, you would
identify items that distinguish pro wrestlers from non wrestlers
The MMPI is an example of a
One reason for revising the MMPI was to
Which of the following was not a change made in the revised version of the MMPI?
Alter the format for answering questions
Which of the following is a limitation of computer generated scoring of the MMPI?
Competency of the professionals interpreting the score report
The MMPI detects individuals attempting to fake the test by
including special scales to detect lyi
Compared to the original MMPI, the MMPI-2
has a much larger and more diverse standardization sample
Which of the following is an example of an item that might be included in the MMPI lie scale?
"I have never used a foul word."
How does the MMPI attempt to determine if a particular person is responding to the test in a valid way?
By including special validity scales to detect response biases
The projective hypothesis assumes
responses to ambiguous stimuli are influenced by unconscious factors
The projective hypothesis is derived from which paradigm?
Dr. Gallagher was interpreting the results of a Rorschach test, and reported that the client was probably fixated at the anal stage because he saw bathroom items in many of the cards. This is an example of
the projective hypothesis
The stimulus materials in the Thematic Apperception Test are ambiguous
to increase the likelihood that the individual is not giving responses that are consciously mediated
The Rorschach Inkblot Test is an example of a
In an effort to make the Rorschach more objective, researchers have focused
more on how respondents identify from over symbolic content
Under what circumstances are respondents more likely to report engaging in illegal behaviors?
When the exam is computer administered
You are being tested, and the examiner is showing you pictures and you are asked to tell complete stories about the photos. You are probably taking
the Thematic Apperception Test
Brian is taking a test inquiring about high-risk sex behaviors. Under which circumstance will Brian be more likely to give answers endorsing more high-risk sex behaviors?
when the test is computer-administered
Intelligence tests were originally developed for the purpose of
predicting which children have special academic needs
Intelligence tests were originally designed to measure
The construct validity of intelligence tests is limited by
how psychologists define intelligence
Two children are administered the same IQ test. Assuming all factors to be equal except racial differences between the children, what factor has been found to explain any difference in scores between these children?
Average intelligence is associated with a score of approximately
A group of 8th grade boys and a group of 8th grade girls are administered the same math test. According to this phenomenon, the girls might perform more poorly than the boys.
Awareness of stereotypes tends to develop
between ages 6-10
Before taking an IQ test, one group of African American students is told that Af Americans tend to do poorly on IQ tests, while the other group is told nothing. Group A performs significantly worse on the test than Group B. This is likely a result of
Compared to traditional personality assessment, behavioral assessment
focuses on situational determinants rather than traits
Why do behavioral assessors sometimes set up contrived situations in which to observe behavior?
It is often difficult to control the conditions in natural settings
What behavioral assessment procedure creates the most reactivity?
Joe's therapist has him keep a log of everything he eats as part of a weight loss program. This is an example of the behavioral assessment technique of
Miranda is trying to quit smoking. As part of her behavioral assessment, she is asked to maintain a diary and record what occurred before, during and after each time she smoked a cigarette. In order to do this, she had structured record sheets for each day. This type of assessment is referred to as
an ecological momentary assessment
Cognitive assessment measures are usually used to
test theories about how people think
Xavier is recording his thoughts each time he feels depressed. This is also referred to as a ___________ assessment.
Which of the following is an advantage of the Articulated Thoughts in Simulated Situations cognitive assessment procedure, in which subjects talk out loud about their thoughts during a tape-recorded scene?
The subject's thoughts about specific situations can be taped in an immediate way
An example of a self-report cognitive assessment consistent with Beck's theory of depression is
Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale
Which is most similar to an X-ray?
PET and MRI are specific types of
Functional MRI (fMRI) differs from ordinary MRI in that
fMRI records metabolic changes in the brain
PET is to CT scan as
function is to structure
As part of a biological assessment, Emma is asked to provide a urine analysis, which is examined for levels of metabolites of different neurotransmitters. This is a type of
A common method assessing neurotransmitters is
One of the problems with measuring metabolites from blood or urine is that
this type of measuring does not reflect levels of neurotransmitters in the brain
One of the major problems with drawing conclusions from metabolite studies is that
they are correlational
Which of the following is a common way of studying neurotransmitters in the brain?
Measure metabolic byproducts of the urine
To compensate for the correlational problem of metabolite studies, Paul should consider running a study where he
administers drugs that increase or decrease the brain levels of neurotransmitters
Current results from brain imaging studies
are not strong enough for these methods to be used in diagnosing psychopathology
Which kind of assessment is illustrated here? Dr. Lee assesses the possibility that Joe has brain damage by measuring Joe's performance on a number of tasks including copying symbols, remembering numbers, and recognizing nonsense syllables.
Which of the following are designed to measure behavioral disturbances resulting from brain dysfunction?
Which of the following specializes in medical diseases that affect the nervous system?
Amelia went to see a specialist who specifically studies how dysfunctions of the brain affect the way people think, feel and behave. Amelia most likely visited a
The Halstead-Reitan and Luria-Nebraska are specific types of
Two people the same age, Sarah and Carrie, were administered the Luria-Nebraska neuropsychological test battery. Sarah graduated with a Ph.D. while Carrie did not complete high school. Assuming all other factors equal, the scores they receive on the Luria-Nebraska
should not differ since education level is controlled for
Why should we not expect a one-to-one relationship between psychological and physical measures of brain functioning?
Individuals differ in how well they cope with brain dysfunctions
Psychophysiology is the study of
bodily changes associated with psychologica
Heart rate and skin conductance is preferable as psychophysiological measures as they
do not interfere with other things the person is doing
A problem with some psychophysiological assessments is
the measures do not clearly differentiate between emotional states
Cultural bias is problematic in assessment in that
a lack of awareness of cultural factors can create difficulties in reaching conclusions from assessment
In reviewing cultural and ethnic diversity issues in assessment, the text concludes that
psychology has identified the issue but not the solution
Jose, a Puerto Rican living in New York, was being assessed by Dr. Jones, an American doctor. Jose casually states that he feels there are spirits surrounding him. Dr. Jones may
misdiagnose him as schizophrenic if he fails to take cultural factors into account
If a clinician is informed that a prospective client, who is seeing things that are not actually there, is black and in a lower income bracket, the clinician is more likely to
suggest a diagnosis of schizophrenia
If a Hispanic client is being examined by an assessor from a different cultural background, the examiner should
schedule additional sessions to ensure adequate rapport
The best way for clinicians to avoid bias in the diagnosis of patients from ethnic minority groups is to
learn to consider and test alternative hypotheses when evaluating clients from different ethnic groups
According to the text, scientific theories should be evaluated according to which of the following two criteria?
testability and reliability
"The primary problem is an unconscious anger toward his mother." What makes this statement unscientific?
It is not testable
Dr. Puff discovered that hypnosis enabled smokers to quit, but when Dr. Poof tried the same procedure, it did not work. Dr. Puff's finding was not
all of the above are correct (is derived from hypotheses, is the result of long deliberation by a scientist, and attempts to explain a class of phenomena)
A good theory should
explain cause-effect relationships
Which of the following are generated by theories?
Dr. Lee has been treating someone with an unusual combination of symptoms. He notes that there is no published research on such a combination of symptoms, and considers developing a case study. How would Dr. Lee conduct this study?
Gather detailed historical and biographical information on this single individual
Which research method would be most useful in generating hypotheses about the cause of a newly discovered, rare form of abnormality?
Case studies can be effective for which of the following purposes?
Generating research hypotheses
A theorist proposed that anorexia was caused by early childhood sexual abuse. Dr. Firestorm demonstrated that her anorexic patient had never been sexually abused. This is an example of one important use of which method?
Case studies are not useful in
providing the means for ruling out alternative hypotheses
Which of the following are valid criticisms of the case study method?
All of the above choices are correct (It does not provide the means for ruling out alternative hypotheses, it is unable to provide satisfactory evidence for cause-effect relationships, and the results of a case study are influenced by many factors unique to the subject and the context of the case study)
The case, The Three Faces of Eve, was controversial because
the individual in the case offered a different account of her treatment than her doctors
In order to study phenomena and be able to draw broad conclusions, the design with the lowest value in accomplishing this goal is the
case study method
Dr. Bradley has been conducting a case study of Brenda, a woman with dissociative identity disorder. Which of the following statements by Dr. Bradley is a misuse of the case study method?
"Brenda, a woman with dissociative identity disorder, was sexually abused as a child. Therefore, all individuals with multiple personality disorder must have been abuse victims."
Which of the following research methods
Professor Merrick wishes to study the percentage of men from various social classes who drop out of school. Which of the following methods would be most useful?
Correlational research differs from experimental research in that correlational research
does not involve manipulation of variables
Correlational data would allow one to make which of the following statements?
"Depression is associated with higher weight."
The more intelligent a person is the higher grades he or she receives in school. Most likely, this finding comes from which type of research?
Professor Jones has observed a correlation between students sitting in the front of the room and getting better grades in her classes. In order to conduct an "experiment" on this, Professor Jones could
assign students randomly to seats
There is no relationship between social class and schizophrenia. What types of research would most likely lead to such a conclusion?
epidemiological and correlational
If a researcher were to compare the relationship between school grades and conduct problems, then this would b
What research design is illustrated by the following? A therapist gathers data showing that, repeatedly, a patient is better on days his wife visits and worse on days when she does not.
Men and women were compared for their levels of disgust reactions to a gross photograph. This would be a ______ study.
A correlation coefficient can range in value from
-1 to +1
Which of the following correlations might have resulted from a study which compared grade point average to hours per week spent partying and which concluded that students who party more get poorer grades?
Which of the following correlation coefficients is plausible for a study which showed that the weight of people's clothing increases as the temperature decreases?
r = -.20
Which of the following would likely produce a negative correlation?
family income and living in th
A correlation of .98 between X and Y would indicate
a strong positive relationship between X and Y
If the correlation between two variables is zero,
there is no relationship between them
Dr. Klein found that the correlation between anxiety and an IQ test was exactly zero. This means that
there was no relationship between IQ and anxiety
Dr. Hauser hypothesized that depression is related to stress, such that people who are more depressed are also more stressed. Which of the following correlations between depression and stress would best confirm her hypothesis?
When examining a scatter diagram, the _____ degree of scatter of the points, the _____ the correlation.
Statistical significance in research suggests the results are
not due to chance
Saying that a research result is "statistically significant" means that it probably
did not occur by chance
Which of the following correlation coefficients are most likely to be statistically significant?
Statistical significance is used to evaluate
the likelihood of repeating research results
The standard for suggesting that a result it statistically significant is if the chances are less than _____ in 100 that it occurred by chance
Dr. Samuelson finds that the relation between level of hopelessness and suicide is 0.35, and there is less than 5 in 100 probability that this was found by chance alone. What would be concluded about this correlation?
It is statistically significant
Which of the following findings is most likely to be statistically significant?
correlation = .30; sample size = 350
If a correlation between depressive symptoms and active treatment is clinically significant this means
the effect is large enough to provide meaningful information in predicting or treating depression
Psychopathologists rely upon correlational research since
many of the variables they wish to study cannot be manipulated
Correlational methods are often used in psychopathology research because psychopathological diagnoses
cannot be manipulated
Which statement is TRUE regarding correlation?
Correlation does not imply causation
Dr. Fiedler found that people with schizophrenia are more likely to have low socioeconomic status than those who do not have schizophrenia. What can you conclude from this study?
Schizophrenia and poverty are related
Several studies have found a correlation between schizophrenia and family conflict. Which of the following explanations illustrates the directionality problem?
Family conflict may cause schizophrenia, or schizophrenia may cause family conflict
In correlational studies, it can be hard to show which variable led to a change in the other variable. This is a problem with
Professor Misha collects data showing a correlation between grades and happiness. He concludes that being happy helps students to get better grades. Which of the following illustrates the "directionality problem" in Professor X's conclusion?
Good grades may produce happiness
Dr. Less concluded from a study that depressives had withdrawn from nondepressives because of their condition. Later research showed that depressives had not interacted with nondepressives before they became depressed. Dr. Less failed to consider _____ problems.
Directionability is best addressed by
using a longitudinal design
You hypothesize that low social class causes poor school grades. You find that the correlation between low social class and school grades is .01. What can you conclude?
Your hypothesis has not been tested, because a correlational study cannot answer questions about cause and effect.
Ava wants to design a study in which the causes and effects are measured at the same point in time because it is more cost-efficient. This type of study design is called
Farrah is working on a study that selected a group of teenage girls diagnosed with an eating disorder and plans to measure risk variables in this sample repeatedly for the next 25 years. Farrah is most likely working on a study with a
When studying the relationship between social class and anxiety disorders, Dr. Stewart follows 50 children whose parents were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder from birth to age 30. This is an example of:
the high-risk method
Dr. Hall found a positive correlation between depression and child abuse; depressed mothers were more likely to abuse their children. Which of the following explanations illustrates the third-variable problem?
Poverty may cause both depression and child abuse
The research team found that men who did not exercise had a higher rate of heart disease. Which one of the following explanations illustrates the third-variable problem?
Smoking might cause both heart disease and reluctance to exercise
A group of researchers identify and study children who are considered more likely to develop anxiety disorders in adulthood. This method is
the high-risk method
Epidemiology is the study of
the rates and correlates of disorders in a population
About 2% of adults have obsessive-compulsive disorder." This is a statement about the ______ of schizophrenia.
Incidence refers to
the number of people who contract a disorder in a given time period
Approximately 1500 new cases of AIDS were diagnoses in 1988 in San Fransisco. This is an estimate of the ______ of AIDS
A risk factor may be best defined as
a characteristic that increases the likelihood of developing a disorder
Because Graciela's mother has schizophrenia, Graciela is more likely to develop schizophrenia herself. This is an example of
Researchers went door to door conducting structured diagnostic interviews to determine how common particular psychiatric diagnoses were. Which type of research was this?
"The lifetime prevalence rate of panic disorder is 3.5%." This statement indicates that
of individuals interviewed, 3.5% had experienced panic disorder at some point in their life
Epidemiological research is helpful for
planning for health care needs of communities
Which research method is useful for providing clues to the causes of different disorders?
What type of research enabled psychopathologists to discover that ADHD is more common in boys than in girls?
What is a common problem in epidemiological studies?
They are not representative of the population being studied
An investigator finds that the concordance rate for bipolar disorder is higher among monozygotic twins than among dizygotic twins. Which would be an incorrect conclusion on the basis of this finding?
Genetics play no role in bipolar disorder
Concordance for disorders should be greater for ________ than ________ if there is a genetic predisposition for the condition.
monozygotic; dizygotic pairs
In research using the twin method, a disorder is heritable if the concordance is ______ in DZ compared to MZ twins is
The best evidence supporting a genetic component to different disorders stems from
The family method refers to
comparing the incidence of disorders in other members of a family
Which of the following is another term for an index case?
A genetic explanation of schizophrenia would be supported by which of the following choices?
All of these support a genetic explanation
In this method, children are adopted and reared with adopted parents who have a particular disorder
Shannon is five and was adopted at birth. Her adopted mother is bipolar and some psychologists in the area are studying Shannon's development over time, as well as a number of children in the same situation. Shannon is most likely in what kind of study?
Causal relationships are best identified by which design?
Experiments are more effective than correlational methods for studying
In the field of psychology, what is the most common use of the experiment?
evaluating the effects of therapies
Dr. Adams believes that increased alcohol consumption diminishes grade point average in college freshman. This is an example of
an experimental hypothesis
Professor McMurrich believes that when people try to block certain thoughts, the thoughts are more intrusive. She randomly assigns subjects into 2 groups; one that must try to prevent thoughts and the other that can think anything they want. What is the IV in the experiment?
assignment to prevent thought or think of anything groups
Dr. Wilhelm randomly assigned 50 depressed patients to two groups of treatment. One group received medication and the other group received cognitive therapy. Rating of depression level was taken before and after treatment. The rating of depression level is the
In the study described above, the type of treatment received (medication vs. cognitive therapy) is the
Persons with schizophrenia are randomly assigned to either an attention-training or social skills training group. Scores on a measure of thought disorder, a prominent symptom of schizo, were examined after the end of the training sessions. What is the IV?
treatment groups (attention or social skills)
In the study described above (schizo patients put in attention or social skills training groups), which is the DV?
thought disorder scores
In a study of 100 people with panic disorder, 50 were treated with psychotherapy and 50 with medication. At the end of 12 weeks treatment, the psychotherapy group had an avg score of 25 for panic severity, while the medication group's avg score was 75. The difference is called the
In an experiment, control groups and random assignment are used in order to
In an experimental design, the control group is the group that
does not receive the experimental treatment
In an experiment, the control group does not receive the
Dr. Hyper treated 20 patients using a new therapeutic procedure. An observer rated the kids' activity level on a lab task before and after the treatment. 80% of kids decreased their activity level after treatment and Dr. Hyper concluded procedure was highly effective. What is the major problem?
lack of control group
In Dr. Hyper's experiment, what is the DV?
The children's activity level
In Dr. Hyper's experiment, what is the IV?
The new therapeutic procedure
When an experimenter can confidently state that the findings from an experiment are due to the IV and due to other uncontrolled factors, the research is called
The inclusion of a control group
is part of the criteria for a design to be considered an experiment
is part of the criteria for a design to be considered an experiment
Chris is suffering from a migraine headache. His mom gives him a small white pill to take and tells him that it is a new medication specifically for migraines. After taking the pill, Chris reports feeling a bit better. The pill was actually a breath mint. This is an example of
the placebo effect
can be increased with enthusiasm
Lenny is enrolled in a study examining the psychological treatment of phobias. He sees a therapist weekly and receives support and encouragement, but no gradual exposure. Lenny is most likely in the
placebo control group
When conducting a study on the effects of different medications in the treatment of depression, if the individual dispensing the medication does not know which medication he/she is giving and the patient is unaware of which medication is being received, the study is called
Dr. Moore conducted a study of children with ADD. He found that a new medication was significantly better than placebo in treating ADD. In addition, he found that this effect was not replicated in a sample of adults. Dr. Moore's study has ______ internal validity and _____ external validity.
To test the impact of therapy on depression, a researcher falsely tells half of his subjs that they failed an exam. He then conducts an hour of therapy with these "failed" subjects. A week later, these subjs are no more depressed than the other subjs. What type of research is this an example of?
an analogue study
In the study with the "failure subjects," which of the following steps would improve its external validity?
Use clinically depressed patients
Dr. Brown developed a psychological test to measure anxiety. She then conducted several additional studies showing that college students and people with anxiety disorders have higher scores. The additional studies demonstrate the ______ of her test.
Whether a study is considered an analogue experiment depends on
the implications that are drawn
Dr. Smart conducted a study that examined the reactions of rats to sounds of an alarm clock. This study is an example of
none of the above are correct (an analogue experiment, a correlational design, or an experimental design)
Mary, who has chronic hair pulling, is using an ABAB design to see if she pulls more hair while watching TV. She pulled ten or more hairs a day for 4 weeks while watching TV with dinner and then one hair/day for 4 weeks without watching TV. In the next step of this design, Mary should
turn the TV back on for 4 weeks
In a single-subject ABAB design, ABAB refers to
repeatedly introducing and removing the treatment
The single subject ABAB design cannot be used to study behaviors that
do not return to baseline
In single-subject ABAB designs, the letter A and B refer to different
Which of the following was not mentioned in the text as a weakness of the ABAB design?
It has low internal validity
What type of research design synthesizes information across studies to arrive at general conclusions?
a method of examining the findings from many studies in a quantitative manner
Meta-analyses compare the different studies through the use of
Which of the following is a common problem in conducting meta-analyses?
comparing studies of varying quality
The difference between anxiety and fear is that
anxiety is apprehension over an anticipated problem, while fear is defined as a response to immediate danger.
Dylan is walking through the jungles of Africa, and he suddenly comes across a ferocious tiger. Which reaction is most adaptive in this scenario?
To improve performance on lab tests, it is best for participants to
experience a small degree of anxiety
Which of the following statements is true about Hannah's performance on her test and her level of anxiety?
Hannah's performance on her algebra test will improve if she experiences a small degree of anxiety
As a group, anxiety disorders
are the most common type of psychiatric diagnosis
Mario was diagnosed with both post-traumatic stress disorder and dysthymic disorder. This is an example of
comorbidity, a common occurence in psychiatric diagnosis
Margaret and Ed have different fears. Margaret is afraid of snakes, whereas Ed is afraid of dogs. Their fears are similar in that
both serve the same adaptive purpose
Why are anxiety disorders often comorbid with other kinds of diseases?
Prolonged anxiety leads to other problems
Ted is fearful of interactions with others and voids eating in public. Ted most likely has
An individual diagnosed with a social phobia
becomes extremely anxious when in certain situations which involve activities done in the presence of other people
Julie has a social phobia. Given this information, it would not be surprising if she also met DSM-IV criteria for
avoidant personality disorder
Which of the following terms have been proposed as a more appropriate label for a social phobia?
social anxiety disorder
Why has the term "social anxiety disorder" been proposed as a more appropriate label for social phobia?
Social phobias tend to be more pervasive and cause more interfence with dailty routines than other phobias.
Ted is fearful of most social situations, whereas Andreas is only fearful of giving speeches. Given this, one could infer
All of the above (that Ted's fear began at an early age, that Ted may be more likely to abuse alcohol, and that Andrea has less impairment)
Ted (who is afraid of social situations in general) would be diagnosed with _____ while Andreas (who is afraid of giving speeches) would be diagnosed with _____
social phobia, generalized type; social phobia, specific type
Depersonalization and derealization are common symptoms for which disorder?
Which of the following is an example of a cued panic attack?
One that occurs in specific situations, such as when the person is driving
Agoraphobia is characterized by a fear of
having a panic attack in places in which escape would be difficult or embarrassing
Edna does not currently have panic disorder. However, she cannot leave her house and required home sessions when she began therapy. It is likely
Edna has agoraphobia, does not meet criteria for panic disorder
Why are agoraphobia and panic disorder discussed together?
Panic disorder often leads to agoraphobia
can occur in people who do not have panic disorder
Tom has symptoms of chronic muscle tension, occasional rapid heart rate, dizziness, and difficulty falling asleep. In addition to these symptoms, if he has Generalized Anxiety Disorder, he also has
The worries of people with GAD
are similar to worries of most people
Intrusive, irrational and unwanted thoughts are called
Oscar feels the urge to turn a light switch on and off 12 times before leaving a room. This would be referred to as
Which of the following is a compulsion? (Persistent fear of getting dirty, Perisistent doubts about whether stove was turned off, Persistent checking for keys, persistent thoughts about harming one's spouse)
checking for keys
Which of the following is an obsession? (Repeatedly checking that the water is turned off, humming a tune over and over, having a recurring fear that you're making others sick when you're not, having excessive worry over finances)
paranoia about making others sick
What diagnosis is most appropriate for Nicole? She is constantly concerned with symmetry and spends hours rearranging items in her room. When she eats, she arranges the items on the plate to be symmetrical. All of this effort interferes with her work.
Sharon, a 5 year old, developed the following symptoms after being sexually molested: difficulty sleeping, nightmares, a tendency to be easily startled, and bedwetting. What's the most likely diagnosis?
Symptoms of PTSD are grouped into which major category?
reexperiencing of a traumatic event, avoidance of stimuli associated with event and symptoms of increased arousal
Iris was in an auto accident. She goes to a psychologist one week after the accident. If she is experiencing nightmares, flashbacks, headache, and is ruminating about the accident, what is her likely diagnosis?
acute stress disorder
is more the rule than the exception with anxiety disorders
The most common disorder comorbig with anxiety disorders is
Women are more likely to be diagnosed with anxiety disorders because they are more
willing to report their symptoms
Research shows that compared with men, women
are at least twice as likely to be diagnosed with an anxiety disorder
According to the text, which of the following is NOT a theory as to why women are more likely to develop anxiety disorders than men? (women more likely to report symptoms, women generally more nervous, men are raised to believe more in personal control, men have more social pressure to face fears)
Women tend to be more nervous in general than men
In relation to objects of anxiety, different cultures appear to
influence what people come to fear
If you live in Taiwan or Japan, you would (more or less likely to have an anxiety disorder)
be less likely to have an anxiety disorder
Heritability estimates tend to be the highest for
Individuals with anxiety disorders (in terms of fear circuits)
have an overactive fear circuit
Josie has panic disorder. She is being shown pics of sad and angry faces. Herbie does not have anxiety disorder and is being shown the same pics. The researchers studying Jose and Herbie's brain while they look at pics will most likely note that
Herbie's amygdala is less active than Josie's
Dana's baby, Sophie, participated in a study that indicated that Sophie had high levels of behavioral inhibition. Compared with babies who demonstrated low levels of behavioral inhibition, Sophie is likely to develop
Behavioral inhibition is defined as
the tendency to become agitated and cry when faced with novel stimuli
Infants with _____ become agitated and cry when faced with novel toys or people are more likely to show anxiety as they get older.
Neuroticism is best defined as
the tendency to react to events with negative affect
Lola is low in neuroticism. Compared with people who have high levels of neuroticism, Lola
is less likely to develop an anxiety disorder
Which of the following puts people at greater risk for developing anxiety disorders?
having a perception that they have no control over their environment
Dr. Francis randomly assigned puppies to two conditions. One group grew up with the ability to choose when they would receive dog biscuits. The other group had no control over this. In this scenario, the group who had no control
were more likely to display high levels of anxiety
A Vietnam veteran with PTSD would be most likely to pay attention to which of the following words?
An individual with a snake phobia would be most likely to pay attention to which of the following words?
Across paradigms, effective psychological treatments for anxiety disorders share this common focus:
Which of the following is NOT a problem with anxiolytics? (often produce neg side effects, very expensive, can be addictive, individuals who take them may experience severe withdrawal symptoms)
they are very expensive
Which of the following is NOT a common problem with medications used to treat anxiety disorders?
slow to take effect
The two-factor model explains why
a man who develops a dog phobia does not lose his fear of dogs
One problem with Mowrer's original two-factor model of phobias is that phobias tend to develop
only with respect to certain stimuli
Greta developed a phobia of snakes after one bit her as a child. Now she avoids all snakes and feels much better as a result. Which behavioral theory best explains this situation?
none of the above (operant conditioning, classical conditioning or two-factor model)
Which of the following has NOT been proposed as a way that conditioning could take place?
What is a reason why typically people do not fear coconuts, flowers or strawberries?
During evolution, exposure to such stimuli was not life-threatening
The evidence for a genetic component to phobias is limited by the fact that
the similarity between parents and children may be due to modeling, not
After viewing tapes of monkeys apparently showing fear of snakes, lambs, and flowers, monkeys who viewed these tapes were only fearful of snakes. This provides only partial support for _____ but better support for ______.
Doug was frightened by a rat coming into his bedroom when he was a child, and now he has a rat phobia. However despite having been shocked by touching an outlet, Martha has no fear of outlets. This inconsistency is explained by the theory of
Ivan reported a traumatic history with dogs, resulting in his fear of dogs. However, Sven also reported a traumatic history with dogs, but does not fear dogs. This provides support for
a diathesis for phobia
Which of the following is an example of a safety behavior?
avoiding eye contact
Why is avoidance behavior so often maintained?
Such behavior reduces the amount of fear a person experiences
Gina has social phobia. Now, in an effort to overcome her social fear, she is awkward, frequently avoids eye contact, and struggles to respond effectively when given compliments. This is an illustration of
social skill deficits in social phobia
Both Lindsay and Nicole just completed a solo in a musical competition. The judges awarded them both 9 out of 10. Lindsay has social phobia and Nicole does not. Based on this information,
Lindsay is more likely to think she sang more poorly than Nicole
Systematic desensitization consists of
having the patient imagine a series of increasingly frightening scenes while deeply relaxed
Based on research of effective treatments for social phobias, a therapist should consider
exposure and cognitive therapy
While a therapist might consider adding cognitive therapy to treatment of ______, research suggest that outcomes are no better when cognitive therapy is added in the treatment of ______.
social phobia; specific phobia
Cognitive theories of social phobias suggest that social phobics
all of the above are correct (attend more to negative stimuli, interpret ambiguous events as negative, and believe negative events will occur again in the future)
Social interactions and role-play situations are used in the treatment of
Despite their common use, research does not indicate that ______ is/are effective in treating social phobia. (paroxetine, gabapentin, beta blockers, or SSRI's)
In regard to panic, the locus ceruleus
shows increased activity
when triggering panic attacks experimentally through the use of drugs, researchers have found that
such drugs produce panic attacks more often in people who already have a history of panic attacks
Panic attacks can be triggered by which of the following? (caffeine, exercise, adrenaline)
all of the above
Classical conditioning of panic attacks in response to bodily sensations is called
Studies of perceived control with respect to panic attacks indicate that perceived control
plays an important role in whether a person develops a panic attack
A major psychological hypothesis regarding the onset of panic involves
a concern with, and misinterpretation of, bodily sensations
The Anxiety Sensitivity Index
all the above are correct (has been important in determining panic-proneness, measures fear of bodily sensations, and allows for tests of the concern with control over bodily symptoms as a hypothesis of panic)
The goal of panic control therapy for panic disorder is to help clients
view their symptoms has harmless and controllable
The primary goal of having clients with panic attacks experience primary symptoms of panic in the therapy room is
to reinterpret physical symptoms from loss of control to harmless physical variations
When one spouse is treated for agoraphobia,
involvement of the other spouse in the therapy is important for treatment success
When people with panic disorder first seek treatment,
they are usually first prescribed medications
What is the main symptom of GAD?
In the cognitive view, which anxiety disorder develops when anxiety is reinforced by distracting people from other, more powerful, negative emotions and images?
generalized anxiety disorder
According to Borkovec and colleagues' cognitive model, why do people worry?
It distracts people from more powerful negative emotions and images
According to Borkevec and colleagues, worry
serves as an avoidance mechanism.
Substantial evidence shows that symptoms of OCD are
related to overactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus and the anterior cingulated
Research shows that some brain areas are overactive in people with OCD. However it is not clear that over activity in these areas causes OCD because
successful psychotherapy normalizes activity in these areas
Behavioral models consider compulsions
to be operantly conditioned responses.
Diane has repetitive thoughts that her house will catch on fire. She repeatedly checks the stove to make sure it is turned off. Diane's compulsive behavior serves to
all the above (provide immediate relief from anxiety associated with repetitive thoughts, reinforce her checking behaviors, and lower her psychophysiological arousal)
According to the text, a cognitive explanation for checking behaviors proposes that
this behavior results from a lack of confidence in memory.
A study of compulsive checkers (people who continually check to see if they have done something such as turning off the stove) found that these individuals
have a memory deficit for actions they have performed.
Most of the cognitive research on obsessions in OCD has focused on
why obsessions persist.
Efforts to inhibit obsessive thoughts
may increase obsessional thinking and negative mood.
A strictly behavioral therapist treating Steve for contamination fear due to OCD would use which of the following interventions?
Have Steve purposely get dirty
The first-line treatment approach for OCD is considered to be
One of the major factors influencing whether a person will develop PTSD is
the severity of the trauma
Brain imaging studies of people with PTSD indicate that
smaller hippocampal volume probably precedes the onset of the disorder.
Neurobiological research indicates that PTSD is associated with
increased sensitivity of receptors to cortisol.
Mark, Bill and John are survivors of political imprisonment in Bosnia. Mark and Bill both developed PTSD, while John didn't. Based on this information, what is one reason why John may not have developed PTSD?
John had a sense of perceived control over the experience.
People who cope with a trauma by avoiding it
are more likely than others to develop PTSD.
According to the behavioral view, the etiology of post-traumatic stress disorder is most similar to
Which of the following is NOT considered to be an important factor in helping trauma victims cope adaptively? (high intelligence, strong social support, dissociation)
Which of the following has been shown useful in treating PTSD? (Training in minimizing emotional outbursts, having the person confront their fears, engaging in prolonged rest, peace and quiet, or firm encouragement to get on with one's life)
Having the person confront their fears
Treatment of acute stress disorder is
important, as it reduces the risk of developing PTSD
Pyschoanalytic theories of anxiety disorders
propose that anxiety results from conflicts between the id and ego.
Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)
is very controversial
A recent approach intended to reduce the harmful effects of trauma is
Critical Incident Stress Debriefing
Critical Incident Stress Debriefing has been criticized as possibly harmful because
the interventions offered may be intrusive.
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