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Psychopathology, or abnormal behavior, results primarily from ____.
When psychologists talk about modifying abnormal behavior, they are referring to ____.
Which of the following defines therapy most accurately?
Criterion for determining abnormal behavior can be extremely subjective. Which of the following behaviors would be LEAST likely to be considered abnormal, or statistically deviant, behavior in the United States?
Anita went to the mall. Suddenly she looked around and had no idea where she was, whether it was day or night, or even what day it was. Anita was experiencing ____.
Juanita visits a mental health center. She complains that her fatigue, anxiety, and inability to sleep keep her from enjoying life. If her symptoms are considered a form of abnormal behavior, it is because she is showing ____.
Sensory misperceptions, which may include hearing voices others do not hear or seeing things other do not see, are called ____.
Jack carries on conversations with creatures only he can see in a language that no one else can understand. Jack says the creatures instruct him to crush insects that only Jack can see. Jack is experiencing ____.
Teresa, normally an energetic mother of three small children, is suddenly unable to go shopping, prepare meals, or even dress her children. Teresa's behavior illustrates the practical definition of abnormality called ____.
According to Thomas Szasz, ____.
A researcher who investigates the onset or occurrence of a psychological disorder over specific periods of time is studying the ____ of the disorder.
Research shows that in the United States, adolescents are more likely than adults to have problems with ____.
Which of the following mental disorders is the most common in the United States?
Many psychological problems stem from situations that are not under an individual's control. This fact counters the myth that ____.
In some non-Western societies today, headaches, depression, and seizures are all believed to be caused by offended ancestral spirits or by evil forces that possess the sufferer. This type of explanation is called ____.
During what period of time would a behavior disorder most likely be treated with the surgical method called trephining?
The first naturalistic explanation of abnormal behavior can be traced to ____.
Hippocrates in ancient Greece
The early Christian Church believed that ____.
many behaviors we call mental disorders were the result of supernatural forces
Imagine that half the clerical employees in one building of a school begin to have headaches, feel agitated, scratch themselves furiously, feel numbness in their fingers, and faint. There is no biological explanation. This incident would most likely be seen by psychologists as an example of ____.
Historians of the witchcraft age concluded that ____.
Humanism is the ____.
philosophical movement that emphasizes human welfare and individual uniqueness
The humanistic movement of the Renaissance ____.
challenged the notion of demonic possession
Who ordered the chains to be removed from inmates at a mental asylum and is considered a founder of the moral treatment movement?
Imagine that we travel back in time and meet two Americans. The first says, “I am sometimes called the father of U.S. psychiatry. I used bloodletting to treat my mental patients, but I insisted they be treated with respect.” The second says, “Although I was only a schoolteacher, when I saw the deplorable conditions under which mental patients were living, I devoted my life to establishing suitable mental hospitals.” The first person was ____; the second was ____.
According to Kraepelin, mental disorders can be seen in terms of symptom clusters that have their own cause, course, and outcome, which are considered ____ in origin.
Imagine that you are in Paris in 1775. People tell you their physical and mental health is remarkably improved when they experience a strange sleeplike trance. Later you hear that the man who performed these remarkable cures was investigated and forced to leave Paris. What forerunner of hypnosis were the people of Paris talking about?
Catharsis assumes that ____.
reliving forgotten emotions reduces suffering
The advent of psychiatric drugs in the 1950s was considered a major revolution in the treatment of mental disorders. Which of the following is NOT considered an outcome of this revolution?
The use of medications revised the strong belief in the psychological basis of mental illness.
____ is the industrialization of health care through which large organizations determine what type and duration of treatment clients can have.
Social conditioning, sociopolitical influences, and bias in diagnosis are factors that help explain ____.
ethnic and gender differences in mental health
Models are often utilized by scientists to ____.
help conceptualize the cause of a phenomenon
Which of the following would be a biological explanation of psychopathology?
An assumption of the multipath model of abnormality is that ____.
different individuals exposed to different factors may develop similar mental disorders
Forebrain is to ____ as hindbrain is to ____.
The function of neural dendrites is to ____.
receive signals from other neurons
Dopamine is related to several mental disorders. An excess of dopamine may be related to ____.
Autonomic nervous system reactivity in humans appears to be ____.
The scientific field that studies the effects of drugs on the mind and behavior is called ____.
Which drug is most likely to be prescribed for a patient suffering from a mood disorder?
Joseph, a student in the abnormal psychology class, says, "Why are we studying Freud? All he ever talked about was sex and his theory is totally outdated!" What would a valid response from his professor be?
According to Freud, the two most important instincts in people are ____.
According to the psychodynamic model, people use unconscious strategies to protect their egos from anxieties. These strategies are called ____.
Patients in psychoanalysis unconsciously attempt to impede their treatment by preventing exposure of repressed material. This process is referred to as ____.
Which model of psychopathology considers unconscious influences to be the motivation for behavior?
Classical conditioning is a form of associative learning. What exactly is associated?
A neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus
Classical conditioning has been useful in the field of abnormal psychology primarily by ____.
Unlike behaviors in classical conditioning, operant behaviors are ____.
In classical conditioning, behaviors are controlled by events that ____ the response, whereas in operant conditioning, they are controlled by events that ____ the response.
According to operant conditioning, self-injurious behavior may be learned through the use of ____.
Unlike operant or classical conditioning, in observational learning, ____.
new behaviors are primarily learned by watching others
A depressed person hears this from his therapist: "Your interpretation of the events in your life brings on the depression. If you can see yourself as less of a failure and more of a success, the depression will lift." The therapist probably supports which approach to abnormal behavior?
Cognitive theorists emphasize that disturbed individuals ____.
Who developed the A-B-C theory of personality and irrational beliefs?
The humanistic approach and the ____ approach emphasize the subjective world of the individual. Both were developed as a reaction against the deterministic and mechanistic quality of early models of psychopathology.
According to Rogers, behavior disorders are the result of ____.
incongruence between self-concept and potential
According to Rogers, which of the following would be most important in a therapeutic relationship?
Which of the following techniques is consistent with person-centered therapy?
Express and communicate respect.
Humanistic therapists ____.
Which of the following approaches would be most likely to emphasize how other people, especially significant others, influence our behavior?
Before contemporary multicultural models were developed, racial differences in rates of mental disorder were often explained in terms of ____.
A psychologist who supports the multicultural model would most likely say that ____.
What is the role of replication in psychological research?
Replication reduces the chances that findings are due to experimenter bias, methodological flaws, or sampling errors.
Which of the following is a hallmark of the scientific method?
The best way to test the relationship between two variables is with a(n) ____.
Which statement about the Halstead-Reitan neuropsychological battery is accurate?
With magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ____.
both the brain structures and changes in blood flow in different brain regions can be observed
If the results of a study are due to factors other than those included in the research investigation, the study is said to have ____.
By definition, reliable measures ____; valid measures ____.
are consistent; measure what they are supposed to
What led to the development of the dimensional system in the DSM-5?
The co-occurrence of different disorders, whereby individuals who have one mental disorder also suffer from another is identified by the DSM as ____.
A positive feature of the DSM-5 is that it ____.
A continued criticism of the DSM-5 and its predecessors is that ____.
the DSM classification system is a deficit model and does not focus on the positive attributes or involve an assessment of a client’s strengths.
Which of the following is a criticism regarding the decisions concerning diagnostic categories DSM-5?
Decisions may medicalize behavioral problems.
A major criticism of classification systems is that they ____.
Which of the following is not a characteristic of correlational studies?
They help researchers understand cause and effect.
Analogue studies are used when researchers ____.
The primary method for gathering data in a field study is ____.
through observation in the natural environment
Which type of study is especially valuable for studying rare phenomena and for evaluating the course of a disorder and its treatment?
Measurable heritable characteristics (e.g., cognitive functioning, anatomical, or chemical differences in the brain) that give clues about specific genes involved in psychological disorders are called ____.
Fifty survivors of an airplane crash are given questionnaires to fill out two weeks, six weeks, and thirty weeks after the crash. This study combines what types of research?
A psychologist gives the same test to a client twice. The testings are separated by six days. If the test results are quite dissimilar, we could say that the test has weak ____.
What is the best description of assessment?
Making conclusions based on comprehensive information
Gathering information on brain chemistry most likely includes which of the following assessments?
A psychologist simply looking for any unusual behaviors when interacting with a client is utilizing ____.
A widely used interview procedure is the ____ because it is a useful diagnostic tool that helps clinicians evaluate the cognitive, psychological and behavioral functioning by means of questions, observations and tasks posed to the client.
Which of the following is a self-report inventory?
The goal of projective tests is to ____.
The TAT, a projective personality test, asks subjects to ____.
Most clinicians agree that the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is best used to ____.
IQ scores reflect an individual's ____.
A major criticism of IQ tests is that they ____.
Which of the following tests are typically used to assess brain damage?
Which statement concerning stressors and stress is accurate?
Ramon saw a therapist because he was reliving a traumatic experience and trying to avoid reminders of it for two weeks. The onset of his problem occurred three weeks after he was brutally assaulted and robbed. The therapist would most likely diagnose Ramon with which disorder?
Lifetime prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highest among ____.
It is suspected that the prevalence of ASD is underestimated because ____.
individuals with the symptoms may not seek treatment within the thirty-day period that defines the disorder
Gina was driving on a bridge when it collapsed over a river. Although she was not physically injured, she had to wait in her car for three hours before she was helped off the bridge. Which hormone is most likely to have been released to help her body deal with this dangerous and frightening situation?
What is now known as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was called ____ in World War I.
Thirty years ago, a psychiatrist might have considered peptic ulcers and essential hypertension to be ____, but today the term ____ is used.
Which of the following people has a psychophysiological disorder?
Brenda, whose migraine headaches began several days after a stressful life event
Which of the following is not a recognized characteristic of psychophysiological disorders?
feelings of depression or anxiety
A dominant theme in understanding the manifestation of stress is that ____.
illness results from a complex interaction of biological, psychological, social, and sociocultural factors
Continuing research on stress suggests that ____.
What is the most widely held opinion concerning the effect of mood and attitude on cancer treatment?
Research so far is unable to show conclusively that mood and attitude affect cancer treatment.
____ leads to the death of over 400,000 Americans each year, although its incidence has diminished in recent years. This condition is also related to stress.
Norman Cousins is credited with suggesting that immune functioning is increased by ____.
Which type of headache results from constricting of the cranial arteries followed by dilation of the cerebral blood vessels?
Blood pressure tends to be temporarily higher when people ____.
respond to stressors physiologically
For most cases of hypertension, the cause is ____.
Which system in the human body maintains health by recognizing and destroying pathogens that produce disease?
Which of the following conditions are associated with headaches?
Of the following, which group has the lowest prevalence of asthma?
Which type of headaches are thought to be caused by prolonged contraction of the muscles in the scalp and neck?
What effect do negative emotions have on stress?
Negative emotions can elevate CHD risk.
The body’s reaction to long-lasting stress is associated with ____.
Harry works in a noisy manufacturing plant. According to research, his epinephrine levels and sense of anxiety will be higher if he ____.
believes he cannot control the noise
Racial differences in rates of ____ for women seem to be influenced by the availability of ____.
Recent research suggests that migraine headaches may involve a ____.
Which of the following is a maladaptive, chronic response to stress?
Reduction of stress through relaxation appears to ____.
significantly reduce headaches
In relaxation training, participants ____.
learn to relax their muscles in almost any situation
Which emotion has been particularly implicated in coronary heart disease?
Which of the following is a somatic symptom disorder?
What is the primary difference between factitious disorder and malingering?
The chief difference between complex somatic symptom disorder with somatization features and factitious disorders is whether the condition is ____.
Bethany has spent the past ten years in and out of hospitals. She suffers from numerous physical complaints including severe hip, joint, leg, and head pain and frequent bouts of diarrhea and bloating. She often reports breathing problems as well. Although numerous doctors and extensive tests revealed no physical problems, Bethany still reports vague symptoms of physical problems. Bethany's problems would best fit a diagnosis of ____.
SSD with predominately somatic complaints
Worldwide, the most common forms of “SSD with predominately somatic complaints” symptoms are ____.
gastrointestinal complaints and abnormal skin sensations
Functional neurological symptom disorder was formerly known as ____.
Paralysis, glove anesthesia, and impairment in sight or hearing are common complaints in ____.
functional neurological symptom disorder (conversion disorder)
Sharon has caused diarrhea in her three-year-old daughter by feeding her spoiled milk and rotten eggs. When the child is repeatedly hospitalized, Sharon acts like a very worried and caring mother. Because Sharon does not get to play the sick role and gets no obvious reward for her behavior, her appropriate diagnosis is ____.
factitious disorder imposed on another
Barbara was in a car accident and experienced neck pain immediately afterward. Doctors say that any injury to her neck healed within two weeks of the accident. Nine months later, Barbara begins to visit her doctor weekly, saying the pain is still unbearable and she needs stronger pain medication. What is a reasonable diagnosis?
Suppose we interviewed fifty people with illness anxiety disorder. Which of the following quotes do you expect we would hear most often?
"I can notice even the slightest changes in my body."
Research has found that Asian Americans often react to stress by ____.
developing physical complaints
Evidence supporting the biological perspective on patients with illness anxiety disorder includes research showing they ____.
are more sensitive than others to bodily sensations
The most promising treatment for somatic symptom disorders involves which approach?
From a social perspective, somatic complaints reflect ____.
unsatisfying or inadequate social relationships
The approaches that show the most promise for treating somatic symptom disorders are ____.
Dissociative fugue is best described as ____.
a generalized amnesia for one’s identity and life history that may be accompanied by bewildered wandering or purposeless travel.
Which of the following is indicative of a dissociative disorders?
Which form of dissociative amnesia involves the inability to remember only certain details of an incident and is quite commonly claimed by individuals charged with homicide?
Repressed memories that surface after many years, often within the context of therapy, are generally believed to involve ____.
Are reports of formerly repressed memories authentic?
At this point in time, it is not clear how many cases of repressed memory are authentic.
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is more prevalent in ____ than in ____.
The hypothesized origin of dissociative identity disorder (DID) is that it is ____.
a defense against intensely painful experiences
The posttraumatic model (PTM) of dissociative disorders is based on which perspective?
According to the sociocognitive model (SCM) of dissociative identity disorder (DID), the disorder develops ____.
by learning about it through the mass media
According to psychodynamically-oriented thinkers, traumatic events alone do not produce multiple personalities. There must also be a ____.
What mental health problem is typically associated with both dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue?
Because the origin of dissociative identity disorder in some cases may stem from the expectations and reinforcements of therapists, the disorder may be considered ____.
What is a particular concern about using hypnosis with clients who have dissociative disorders?
It may create personalities in suggestible clients.
What is the major goal in treating dissociative identity disorder (DID)?
developing healthier ways of dealing with stressors
Anxiety symptoms turn into an anxiety disorder when they ____.
interfere with everyday functioning
Anxiety disorders ____.
More than two-thirds of people with general anxiety disorder have co-occurring disorders such as ____.
Brain structure and genetic influences are the two main ____ factors affecting anxiety disorders.
Which of the following is an anxiety disorder?
Which area of the brain alerts the other brain structures when a threat is present?
What role does inheritance play in the development of anxiety disorders?
Inheritance plays only a modest role.
Which of the following is a cultural factor that contributes to anxiety disorders?
exposure to discrimination and prejudice
Which neurotransmitter appears to have the greatest influence on mood and anxiety disorders?
Research with young monkeys demonstrates that ____ can reduce vulnerability to developing anxiety disorders.
A strong, persistent, and unwarranted fear of some specific object or situation is referred to as ____.
There are three subcategories of phobias:
specific, social, and agoraphobic.
Which of the following disorders is most common in the United States?
Most people who suffer from phobias ____.
Recent research on agoraphobia suggests that ____.
cognitions may play a major causal role
Momoko is Japanese. Because she suffers from Taijin Kyofusho, we would expect her to fear ____.
Tina is afraid of dogs. She has never had a bad experience with dogs, but her father was injured by a dog when he was a young boy. Tina’s father goes to great lengths to avoid contact with dogs. What behavioral theory best explains Tina’s fear of dogs?
Some people fear using public restrooms and eating in public places. This fact diminishes the validity of which explanation to account for all phobias?
Which of the following phobias would be the easiest to eliminate?
Xenophobia is the fear of ____.
What is the first step in treating anxiety disorders?
ruling out possible medical or physical causes
Which childhood experience is commonly related to later development of panic disorder?
Which statement about the prevalence of panic attacks and panic disorder is accurate?
According to the cognitive-behavioral perspective, panic attacks are due to a feedback loop involving ____.
In medical settings worldwide, what is the most frequently diagnosed anxiety disorder?
Laurel has been diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. To meet the criteria for making this diagnosis, she must ____.
have symptoms lasting three months or more
What is the only consistently validated treatment for GAD?
GAD is most likely to occur among which group?
African American females living in poverty
Which anxiety disorder is equally common in both men and women?
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
Cognitive-behaviorists would say that obsessive-compulsives repeat behaviors in order to ____.
Drugs that most successfully treat obsessive-compulsive disorder raise the level of which neurotransmitter in the brain?
How do cultural dimensions affect the expression of obsessive-compulsive disorder?
David has been diagnosed with OCD. It is likely that David ____.
does not trust his memory or his judgment
The two primary aspects of mood disorders are ____, which is characterized by intense sadness, and ____, which is characterized by elevated mood and often results in hyperactivity.
The director of a new mental health center is developing plans to provide treatment for a specific disorder. This disorder is the most common complaint for those who seek mental health care and is called ____.
Mood disorders differ from temporary emotional reactions to life events because they ____.
Shelly is pessimistic about her future. Her disinterest in everything around her, together with her loss of energy and motivation, make it difficult for her to cope with even the most minor of daily events. These symptoms demonstrate which domain of depression?
Professor Wong tells her class that there are four psychological domains that are used to describe depression. These domains include mood, behavioral, cognitive, and ____.
The mood symptoms of depression include ____.
sadness and feelings of worthlessness
The cognitive symptoms of depression include ____.
Which of the following is a behavioral symptom of depression?
slowing down all body movements and speech
Which of the following is a physiological symptom of depression?
lack of interest in eating and weight loss
Which individual best illustrates the symptoms of mania?
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