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What is the definition of 'abnormal behavior'?
Any behavior which interferes with the ability of the person to engage in daily tasks in a manner acceptable by society's standards.
How do psychologists function as scientist-practitioners?
They may keep up with the latest scientific developments in their field, therefore use the most current diagnostic and treatment procedures
Scientist-practitioners might conduct research, often in clinics or hospitals; that produces new information.
Discuss the 3 traditions in your text that represent historical conceptions of abnormal behavior
1.The supernatural tradition
2.The psychological tradition
3.The biological tradition
Freudian Structure of the mind
Psychosexual stages (and the Oedipal, Electra complexes)
What are Id, Ego, and Superego?
Id- primal urge,social animal,instinct
Superego- defense mechanisms
What are the defense mechanisms?
Ego loses battle with Id and superego. (denial, repression, displacement, projection, sublimation)
What are the psychosexual stages of development?
Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital stages.
What were the later developments of psychoanalytic thought?
The Neo- freudians
-deemphasized the sexual core of freud's theory
-departures from freudian thought
What are some techniques for Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy? (aka the "talking" cure)
What is transference and counter transference?
T- relates to when they feel to a therapist to a certain way, that they feel to a certain person.
CT- relates to when the therapist is treating the patient the way that the patient is seeing them (ex. their father)
What is the Humanistic Theory?
Humans strive toward self-actualization and that people are basically good. Therapist convey empathy and unconditional positive regard.
Major players in humanistic theory
What is the Behavioral model?
Classical and operant conditioning
Systematic desensitization and shaping
What does prognosis mean?
the likely course of the disease or ailment
What does Etiology mean?
the cause, set of causes, or manner of causation of a disease or condition.
What are the dimensions of the multi-dimensional approach?
Biology, Behavioral, Cognitive, Emotional, Social, Cultural
What are some ways Gene's work?
Genes are long cules of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) at various locations on chromosomes, within the cell nucleus.
Genes interact with the environment to affect our characteristics
They provide boundaries to our development.
Discuss Diathesis-Stress model with gene-environment interactions.
Individuals inherit tendencies to express certain traits or behaviors, which may then be activated under conditions of stress
Genetic vulnerability + Stressor ( Disorder)
What is a neurotransmitter?
The biochemicals that are released from the axon of one neuron and transmit the impulse to the dendrite receptors of another neuron
What are the 5 neurotransmitters?
Norepinephrine (also known as noradrenaline), serotonin, dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glutamate
What are some ways that drugs influence neurotransmitter activity?
Change the flow of the neurotransmitters
Inhibit, block, and deactivate
Most of them act by increasing serotonin activity in one way or another
If you learn you have no control, nothing you do matters, you give up trying. You have made a judgment, a decision.
In presence of stress, you maintain upbeat, optimistic attitude, you function better
We learn by watching others, then make decisions about how those observations will affect our own behavior
Evolution has taught us with learning that will help us live adaptively
Ex. Fear of snakes, spiders
Cognitive appraisal is a part of learning (conditioning). Conditioned learning is not just associative pairing.
What are three components of emotion and how is emotional suppression related to psychopathology?
Three components of emotion
Patterns of acting
Emotional processing may bypass cognition
Appraisals and attributions about our environment
Feeling and thinking overlap but are separate
Activates during potentially life-threatening emergencies is called the flight or fight response
Subjective feeling of arousal an ‘action tendency’ to escape elicited by environmental threat
How you look or sound
On or around
Meaning of Assessment
systematic evaluation and measurement of psychological, biological, and social factors in people with psychiatric disorders
Meaning of Diagnosis
method to determine whether a particular problem meets criteria for psychological disorder
Purposes of Assessment and Diagnosis.
To understand the individual
To predict behavior
To plan treatment
To evaluate treatment outcome
What makes up a clinical interview?
Most common clinical assessment method
Structured or semi-structured
Looks at current and past behaviors, emotions, and attitudes
Detailed hx of individual’s life and presenting problem
What makes up a Mental status exam?
Systematic observation of:
-Appearance and behavior
-Speech and thought processes
-Mood and affect
-Intellectual functioning (above or below normal)
-Sensorium – general awareness of surroundings
The degree to which a measurement is consistent
The degree to which a technique measures what it designed to measure
Application of certain standards to ensure consistency across different measurements
to identify problematic behaviors and the factors that influence them
What is an ABC analysis and its purpose
Antecedent: what happened just before the behavior
Consequences: what happened after the behavior
What is the difference between formal and informal?
Formal: more specific operational behaviors
Informal: allow the clinician to make a preliminary determination of which areas of the patient’s behavior and condition should be assessed in more detail
What are self-monitoring and reactivity?
-People can also observe their own behavior to find patterns, a technique known as self-monitoring or self-observation
-A phenomenon known as reactivity can distort any observational data
What are projective tests? (give examples)
To detect presence and influence of unconscious processes
Person projects personality and unconscious fear
Ex. The Rorschach inkblot test; Thematic Apperception Test
What are objective tests? (give examples)
Test stimuli are less ambiguous
Require minimal clinical inference in scoring
What is the major purpose of Psychophysiological assessment?
Assess structure, function, and activity of the nervous system
the domains are:
Electroencephalogram (EEG) – brain wave activity
Heart rate and respiration – cardio respiratory activity
Electro dermal response and levels – sweat gland activity
Differentiate categorical, dimensional, and prototypic approaches to classification and diagnosis.
-Classical or pure – strict categories
-Classification along dimensions
-Combines classical and dimensional views
What are the major changes to DSM- 5?
The DSM-5 is largely unchanged from DSM-IV although some new disorders are introduced and other disorders have been reclassified
Most notable change is the removal of the multiaxial system
What are the lingering criticisms of the DSM-5?
-The presence of one or more additional disorders
2.Emphasize reliability, sometimes at the expense of validity
3.Complexity of categorizing psychopathology
What are some typical research questions?
What problems cause distress or impair function?
Why do people behave in unusual ways?
How can we help them develop more adaptive behaviors?
Educated guess or statement to be supported by data.
Scientific hypotheses must be testable
-Not all hypotheses are…
Define Independent Variable.
The aspect manipulated or thought to influence the change in dependent behavior
Define Dependent Variable.
Some aspect of the phenomenon that is measured and is expected to be changed or influenced by the independent variable
Define Internal Validity.
The extent to which the results of the study can be attributed to the independent variable
Define External Validity.
The extent to which the results of the study can be generalized or applied outside of the immediate study
What are the advantages and limitations of case studies?
What are the advantages of a correlation study?
No manipulated independent variable
Differentiate cross-sectional research from longitudinal research.
-People of different ages viewed at the same time
-Same people followed across time
Why is cross-cultural research needed?
1.Value of cross-sectional research
2.Overcoming ethnocentric views
3.Increases understanding of
What is a trade or brand name of a drug?
Chosen by the drug manufacturers and picked to be simple and rememberable.
-Brand names are capitalized. ex Prozac
What is the Pharmacologic name of a drug?
Generally derived from the chemical structure of the drug.
- the generic name is always lower case and is the name used in scientific literature
If the drug increases/mimics the effects of the neurotransmitter.
If the drug decreases the effect of a neurotransmitter.
What do agonist drugs do?
-stop removal of neurotransmitters from the synapse
-increase production and release of neurotransmitters
What do antagonist drugs do?
-block the receptor sites (post synaptic)
-speed the removal of neurotransmitters from the synapse
- decrease production of neurotransmitters
What is "Other Unspecified"
NOS-not otherwise unspecified.
DSM 5 replaced NOS with Other Unspecified, to reduce reliance of the NOS designation
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