Pysch Review for Midterm: CHAPTER TWO: - additional notes ? from textbook Consensus: information regarding the extent to which other people behave in the same manner as the person we?re judging Consistency: information regarding the extent to which the person we?re judging acts the same way at other times Distinctiveness: information regarding the extent to which a person behaves in the same manner in other contexts Perceptual Biases: predispositions that people have to misperceive others in various ways. Fundamental Attribution Effect: the tendency to attribute others? actions to internal causes while largely ignoring external factors that also may have influenced behavior Halo Effect: the tendency for our overall impressions of others to affect objective evaluations of their specific traits; perceiving high correlations between characteristics that may be unrelated Team Halo Effect: tendency for people to credit teams for their successes but not to hold them accountable for their failures Similar-to-me effect: the tendency for people to perceive in a positive light others who are believed to be similar to themselves in any of several different ways Selective Perception: the tendency to focus on some aspects of the environment while ignoring others First Impression Error: the tendency to base our judgments on our earlier impressions of them Self Fulfilling Prophecy: the tendency for someone?s expectations about another to cause that person to behave in a manner consistent with those expectations. This can either be positive or negative in nature Pygmalion Effect: a positive instance of the self fulfilling prophecy, in which people holding high expectations of another tend to improve that individuals performance Golem Effect: a negative instance of the self fulfilling prophecy, in which people holding low expectations of another tend to lower that individuals performance Stereotype: a belief that all the members of specific groups share similar traits and are prone to behave the same way Stereotype threat: the uncomfortable feeling that people have when they run the risk of fulfilling a negative stereotype with a group to which they belong Rebound Effect: the tendency to think about something when you try intentionally not to think about it Impression Management: efforts by individuals to improve how they appear to others Performance Appraisal: the process of evaluation employees on various work related dimensions Corporate Image: the impressions people have of an organization Learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior occurring as a result of experience Operant Conditioning: the form of learning in which people associate the consequences of their actions with the actions themselves. Behaviors with positive consequences are acquired, behaviors with negative consequences tend to be eliminated (also known as instrumental conditioning) Law of Effect: the tendency for behaviors leading to desirable consequences to be strengthened and those leading to undesirable consequences to be weakened Positive Reinforcement: the process by which people learn to perform behaviors that lead to the presentation of desired outcomes Negative Reinforcement: the process by which people learn to perform acts that lead to the removal of undesired events Punishment: decreasing undesirable behavior by following it with an undesirable consequence Extinction: the process through which responses that are no longer reinforces tend to gradually diminish in strength Contingencies of Reinforcement: the various relationships between one?s behavior and the consequences of that behavior ? positive/negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction Continuous Reinforcement: a schedule of reinforcement which all desired behaviors are reinforced Intermittent/Partial Reinforcement: a schedule of reinforcement in which only some desired behaviors are reinforced. Fixed Interval: a fixed period of time must elapse between the administration of reinforcements Variable Interval Schedules: a variable period of time (based on some average) must elapse between the administration of reinforcements Fixed Ratio Schedules: a fixed number of responses must occur between the administration of reinforcements Variable Ratio Schedules: schedules of reinforcement in which a variable number of responses (based on some average) must occur between the administration of reinforcements Schedules of Reinforcement: rules governing the timing and frequency of the administration of reinforcement Observational Learning (or modeling): the form of learning in which people acquire new behaviors by systematically observing the rewards and punishments given to others Training: the process of systematically teaching employees to acquire and improve job-related skills and knowledge Classroom Training: the process of teaching people how to do their jobs by explaining various job requirements and how to meet them Apprenticeship Programs: formal training programs involving both on-the-job and classroom training usually over a long period, often used for training people in the skilled trades Cross-Cultural Training (CCT): a systematic way of preparing employees to live and work in another country Corporate Universities: centers devoted to handling a company?s training needs on a full-time basis Executive Training Programs: sessions in which companies systematically attempt to develop their top leaders, either in specific skills or general managerial skills E-training: training based on disseminating information online, such as through the internet or a company?s intranet network Principles of Learning: the set of practices that make training effective Participation: active involvement in the process of learning ? more involvement = more effective learning Repetition: the process of repeatedly performing a task so that I may be learned Transfer of Training: the degree to which the skills learning during training sessions may be applied to performance of one?s job Feedback: knowledge of the results of one?s behavior 360-degree feedback: the practice of collecting performance feedback from multiple sources at a variety of organizational levels Organizational Behavioral Management: the practice of altering behavior in organizations by systematically administering rewards Discipline: the process of systematically administering punishments Progressive Discipline: the practice of gradually increasing the severity of punishments for employees who exhibit unacceptable job behavior
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