Unfocused temper tantrums decrease during the preschool year, although directed anger (acts as retaliation) increases. Authoritarian families- high on being parent centered Bullying- has morphed from ?the tough guy? that liked to fight. Moral Development -Kohlberg?s theory of moral development -Moral thinking. Moral behavior and the role of parents Kohlberg?s basis of moral development -Level 1 moral value resides in external, quasi-physical happenings, in bad acts or in quasi-physical needs rather than in persons and standards Preconventional -stage 1 obedience and punishment orientation. Egocentric deference to superior power or prestige of a trouble avoiding set. Objective responsibility -Stage 2- naively egotistic orientation. Right action is that instrumentally satisfying the self?s needs and occasionally others. Awareness of relativism and value to each actor?s needs and perspective. Na´ve egalitarianism and orientation to exchange and reciprocity Level 2 moral values reside in performing good or right roles, in maintaining the conventional order and expectancies of others. Conventional -Stage 4: Authority-and-social-order-maintaining orientation. Orientation to ?doing duty? and to showing respect for authority and maintain the given social order for its own sake. Regard for earned expectation of others. -Stage 3: Good-boy orientation. Orientation to approval and to pleasing and helping others. Conformity to stereotypical images of majority or natural role behavior, and judgment by intentions. Level III moral value resides in conformity by the self to shared or sharable standards, rights or duties. -Stage 6: Conscience or principle orientation. Orientation not only to actually ordained social rules, but to principles of choice involving appeal to logical universality and consistency. Orientation to conscience as a directing agent and to mutual respect and trust. -Stage 5: Contractual legalistic orientation. Recognition of an arbitrary element or starting point in rules or expectations for the sake of agreement. Duty defined in terms of contract, general avoidance of violation of the will or rights of others, and majority will and welfare. Biological development: physical and sexual change -general physical maturation -the growth spurt -changes in primary and secondary sex characteristics -variations in the timing and rate of puberty -the psychological impact of puberty; and ecological perspective Facts! Girls develop faster than boys (approx. 2 years faster) For both boys and girls that rate of development is different for individuals The sequence of physical changes in males and females Females Skeletal growth Breast development Straight pigmented pubic hair Maximum adolescent growth spurt (speed or ?tempo? of growth is fastest). Kinky pigmented pubic hair Menstruation (the first menstruation is called the menarche). Appearance of hair in underarms and on forearms Males Skeletal growth Enlargement of testes Straight pigmented pubic hair. Early voice changes (e.g., voice ?cracks?). Ejaculations (e.g., nocturnal emissions or ?wet dreams?) Kinky pigmented pubic hair Maximum adolescent growth spurt Appearance of downy facial hair Appearance of hair in underarms and on forearms Late voice change Appearance of coarse pigmented facial hair and chest hair -Variations in the timing and rate of puberty- there is considerable variation, particularly in the middle school (7th and 8th grade) years. Genetic and environmental factors make a difference in this. Eating Disorders -Anorexia nervosa- a disorder that results primarily from a disturbed and inaccurate body image. Typically females are affected; middle class ages 12-20, a morbid fear of becoming fat Amenoria - ?sensation of menstruation? Psychological factors- low self esteem, low self esteem related to sexual matters, difficulty dealing with problems
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