Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
Why was Leroy Percy tolerant toward African Americans and treat them fairly prior to the flood?
He thought that was the best way to keep African Americans in the delta. He felt that decency was a part of southern honor.
How did the personalities of Leroy and Will Percy differ?
Leroy was commanding and efficient. Will was gentle and introspective. While Leroy hunted, Will was a poet. (Will was also gay.)
What stereotypes (besides Black men as a threat to White womanhood) offended Percy?
Other stereotypes that offended Percy included prejudice against Catholics and antisemitism.
How did Percy challenge the Klan?
Percy challenged the Klan first by mocking them. However, he then pleaded for members of the KKK to come back to the community and stop threatening blacks.
When the 1927 Flood hit and threatened Percy and other planters' cotton fields, what did they do with African-American workers?
African American workers were enlisted to help improve the levies. When the flood happened, African Americans were forced at gun point to continue reinforcing the levies even though they knew it would not work.
The Flood broke through the levee and flooded the equivalent of four Northeastern states. While Whites were evacuated, how were African Americans treated? What role did the planters and Leroy Percy play in the decision not to evacuate Blacks? What motivated their decision?
African Americans were not evacuated. Blacks were deposited on the levee between the river and the floodwaters. The planters did not want to move blacks out because they were afraid they would never come back. Their need for labor motivated this decision.
What were the “tent cities” and what were the experiences of African Americans there?
Tent cities were places of refuge. These cities were patrolled by the national guard. Beatings and rapes by the national guard were rampant. African Americans were also required to be tagged. Dead and dying animals were kept in the same place.
How were Leroy Percy's views changed from the Fatal Flood?
Leroy was simply tired out by the flood. It put a great amount of stress on him and he died a year and a half after the flood.
How were Will Percy's views changed from the Fatal Flood?
Because Will was humiliated, he took it out on the black men and women. Will was realizing that to keep power over the blacks, he could not be nice about it. He became harsher, more like his father. He eventually rebuilt the plantation and never wrote poetry again.
What is a “share cropper” and why is this significant to the “Great Migration”?
A share cropper is a person who worked for a land owner, farming crops on the land owner's property. The financial gain for this was minimal if anything, so blacks were not motivated to stay in the South.
Why was the black children's school year different from that of the southern white children?
The school year for black children accommodated the needs of the farm, whereas white children were in school all the time. For example, black children might only be in school on rainy days when they couldn't work in the fields.
When did the two great waves of black migration take place?
They took place between 1915 and the 1960s; the second beginning in the 1940s.
By 1929 how many blacks had left the South? Why did they leave?
By 1929, 1.5 million blacks had left the South. They left due to poverty, racism, and the boll weevil infestation.
Many black travelers came cross white-only hotels and had little money. What helped ease their burden? (Family?)
Family members housed incoming blacks. They also often shared vehicles. Blacks who were already in Chicago would assist their family in moving up, then those who had moved would help other family members. It was a cycle.
What new technology pushed blacks out of the South?
The mechanical cotton reapers pushed blacks out of the South. These machines were much more effective than doing the work by hand, so demand for labor decreased, causing blacks to seek work elsewhere.
Why did many blacks want to go to Chicago? What influenced their respective decisions?
Many blacks wanted to go to Chicago in pursuit of simply a better life. Some wanted a better life for their children, too.
What were the origins and destinations of some of the other migrant streams of African Americans from the South?
Blacks from Georgia went to Washington, DC, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Jersey, and New York. Blacks from Alabama went to Detroit.
Besides the steel mills and stockyards, what else did Chicago have that provided migrants with opportunities to make a living?
There were jobs in service industries, hotels, and even entrepreneurs. Other examples include jobs in electric companies, house cleaning, and working in mail rooms.
In what region of Chicago was the neighborhood of Bronzeville located?
Bronzeville was located on the south side.
What is Bronzeville? Describe it as a symbol, place and landscape.
Bronzeville represented the way of life of southside Chicago. It was a predominantly black community. Blacks were able to feel accepted, hopeful, and proud. They had a sense of community.
What was the name of the black-owned newspaper in Chicago and why was it so important?
The Chicago Defender was important because it allowed black people to read about success stories, etc. that were otherwise left out of the White media.
What was a kitchenette? What is its significance?
A kitchenette was a small room made out of other buildings. It was basically a one-room apartment. It was a lower standard of living and realtors charged more money due to fire-hazards.
What growth did the Southside of Chicago experience during WW II?
The population doubled after WW II. Blacks were also looking for new places to live outside of the black ghetto, however, they were largely unsuccessful.
What are some specific examples of the barriers the black population faced when trying to move away from ghettos and into white neighborhoods in Chicago?
Whites resisted blacks moving into their neighborhoods. It was difficult for blacks to acquire a mortgage. White flight occurred and realtors used blockbusting to take advantage of this. Restrictive deeds also prevented blacks from moving into white neighborhoods.
What were restrictive deeds?
Certain deeds involved a specific clause that prohibited the sale of homes to anyone who was not caucasian.
What was a “blockbuster”? How did real estate agents exploit this?
A blckbuster was the first black person to move in to a white neighborhood. Real estate agents would then buy the homes from scared whites below market value and sell them to blacks at market value.
What was the experience of the first blacks that moved into white neighborhoods in Chicago?
The first blacks in white neighborhoods had a violent experience. They faced whites being outwardly racist. Some whites even tried to prevent blacks from just walking down the sidewalk.
What were the original plans for public housing in Chicago? Why was an alternative sought? What was the alternative?
The original plan was to scatter neighborhoods around the city. However, whites did not want blacks in or near their neighborhoods. Instead, the sites where housing was constructed were made very tall.
What dimmed the dreams of southern black migrants and their children in the 1960s and 1970s? How was this ironic?
The formation of ghettos dimmed the dreams of Southern black migrants. Furthermore, the jobs that had initially brought blacks North were moving south: this is ironic because the blacks had just left the new location of jobs.
Approximately how many manufacturing jobs were lost between 1975 and 1990 in Chicago?
Between 1975 and 1990 Chicago lost approximately half of its manufacturing jobs.
What is the current state of Chicago's public housing projects?
The current state of Chicago's public housing projects involves a lot of crime, unemployment, fear, and violence. It is in general a very crowded, dangerous area.
Though some blacks have attained middle class status in Chicago, what is the single largest factor keeping many from reaching the “American Dream”?
The single largest factor preventing blacks from ahieving the “American Dream” is racist sentiment.
Why are blacks returning to the American South?
Blacks are returning to the American South today because of employment opportunities, wanting to escape the ghettos of the North, cultural ties and sentiment towards the South as “home”.
Until 2000, what was the largest minority group and who were they surpassed by?
Blacks were surpassed by Latinos.
Before 1970, what were black American neighborhoods like in the North? Have things changed since then?
Inner-city neighborhoods were highly segregated. Since then there have been improvements.
Why do blacks migrate?
Some reasons include economic reasons and the motivation to improve.
What are the two important trends in the contemporary African American diaspora?
The two trends are increasing reverse migration and increasing black ethnic diversity.
What was slavery needed for?
Slavery was needed for hard physical labor in tropical/subtropical conditions.
What was the effect of the cotton gin?
The cotton gin increased slavery.
Before 1910, where were most blacks?
Before 1910, most blacks were in the Chesapeake bay area. The #1 location was Virginia and Maryland. The #2 location were the carolinas.
What happened to the black population from 1790-1860? Why?
It dramatically increased due to plantation agriculture.
Where did blacks migrate before 1910? Why?
Most migration was from east to west. Blacks had little control over where they went, even once emancipated there were only minor movements to Kansas and the Northeast.
Immediately following emancipation, where did blacks go?
Most blacks (80%) stayed in rural areas, remaining in agriculture. Some went to small towns and cities.
What was the great migration and when did it occur? Where did the blacks go?
The great migration was a huge shift of African Americans Northward and Westward from 1910-1970.
Why did the great migration happen?
It was driven by the 1920s quota system, and labor shortages from the world wars. Positive information also served as a pull factor from the North. The economy in the South was a push factor.
Why were there no black ghettos in the North at first?
This was not the appropriate social construct for ghettos. Also, there was an absence of “clusters” like those that Eastern Europeans formed. It was also due to the physical characteristics and location of black communities.
What happened when northern city ghettos were formed from 1910-1920?
These ghettos became permanent ghettos.
What happened in to black culture Southern black enclaves?
Black culture flourished in these enclaves.
What happened with black movement during WWI and the Great Depression?
There was limited immigration during this time, but there was lots of black movements.
What happened to black ghettos in the 1920s-1950s?
First generation ghettos grew and expanded.
Why were rural southerners (both blacks and whites) moving to cities in the 1920s-1950s?
They were moving to cities due to rural poverty and repression.
Where did blacks go in the 1940s? Who did they compete with?
During the 1940s, there was growth in the North (due to wartime production) and growth in the West. During this time the blacks were beginning to compete with skilled whites.
In the 1920s-1950s where were new ghettos formed?
New ghettos were formed in the South & North.
During the 1920s-1950s what were the push/pull factors for blacks to move to the North?
Pull factors included northern recruiters, push factors included the mechanization of farming (creating a surplus of labor).
What movement continued in the 1950s-1970s? Where did blacks go?
Movement out of the South towards the north and west continued. Blacks preferred first and second generation ghettos.
Where did blacks find jobs in the 1950s-1970s?
Blacks could no longer really find jobs in manufacturing after WW II ended. Most of the jobs went towards the suburbs.
What started happening in the 1960s with racial residential succession?
Blacks started taking over areas where whites used to live. Better quality housing was underway.
When did the southern cities start to ghettoize?
Southern cities started to ghettoize in the 1950s due to pockets of black residential development.
What did whites do during the 1950s-1970s?
Ghettos segregated blacks over time. How was segregation preserved in the north?
Through the Jim Crow Laws and institutional mechanisms like that.
Why were black settlement options restricted in metropolitan centers?
This was due to a continuous flow of black people, white resistance, and codified covenants.
By the civil rights era, how much of the black population was middle class? Why did this happen?
By the civil rights era, 1/5 of the black population was middle class, entailing that they were moving towards middle class status as homeowners in the suburbs.
What objections are there to the truth of the progression of blacks as a middle class?
Just above the poverty line is not the middle class. Also, there is a huge bifurcation between the haves and the have nots. There was also not much growth compared to whites, or even asians and hispanics.
Between 1910-1970, black movement occurred on 3 scales. What were they?
The great migration, rural to urban movement, and some suburbanization (which was overshadowed by white suburbanization).
What were ghettolets?
Suburban black ghettos.
What were the 2 types of suburbanization that blacks pursued?
Spillover and developing vacant land.
What pattern of settlement emerged in the South for blacks?
What happened in the 1960s to suburbanization?
It accelerated, largely due to civil rights lesislation.
What were leapfrog suburbs?
Leapfrog suburbs were when blacks moved into older white housing.
What happened in the 1970s to suburbanization?
What 2 trends became apparent in the 1980s?
Blacks moved to shitty suburban areas and bifurcation happened on class terms economically.
Why were middle class blacks a buffer and what did this mean for them?
Middle class blacks served as a buffer between whites and poor blacks. This meant that there was a negative stereotype for all blacks.
At the end of the great migration, where were blacks?
There were huge black urban populations in the north; the #1 city was Chicago. However, the majority of blacks were still in the south.
Where did blacks go during the reverse migration?
Blacks returned to FL, GA, TX, ML, and NC.
Which social institutions (laws) contributed to increased diversification of the black population?
1965 Hart Celler Act, 1986 Immigration Reform/Control Act, 1990 Immigration Act (diversity). From 1990-2000, foreign born Africans more than doubled from places like the Caribbean, Jamaica, Guyana, Haiti, and Trinidad/Tobago.
Compared to other diasporas (Asians and Hispanics), how does the African diaspora differ?
They are disproportionately segregated and impoverished.
What were the 2 major movements since the great migration?
Suburbanization and reverse migration.
How are suburbs typically classified?
Suburbs are typically classified based on employment type and commercial activities.
What were the working class “home-builders”?
These people built their own homes from scratch out of necessity.
What is the factory-induced black suburb?
These were suburbs surrounding factories where blacks largely worked. They differed greatly in quality.
What was the effect of the decentralization of industry?
This was a magnet for African Americans, especially in midwestern cities.
What did Henry Ford do for African Americans?
He transformed the working class status.
How did the fact of second class soldiers and the civil rights movement affect the status of African Americans?
These both obviously contributed to the rising status of African Americans.
Where did blacks move from 1900-1960 (not geographically, but urban, rural, etc.)?
When did blacks start moving to the suburbs and why?
They started moving in the 70s due to an increase in income.
How did the attitudes of the South and North differ towards blacks after WWII?
The North involved a lot of resistance and many poor neighborhoods; the South perpetuated the attitude of separate but equal, and blacks were located along the edge of cities.
What did restricted deeds, exclusionary zoning regulations, steering, and redlining contribute to? What is an example of a place where this occurred?
How did the FHA manipulate blacks through loan applications?
They created “high-risk” loan applications.
Was white flight just for whites?
No, black flight occurred too – they could not escape the poor classes.
What were the “rustic” patterns in the North?
These were patterns of Southern display in northern homes.
How did blacks stay ethnic even in the white suburbs?
They reached out to black institutions and gave ethnic-cultural meanings to neighborhoods/homes.
From 2000-2010, what happened to traditionally black cities?
They lost blacks to suburbs and south.
What happened to Queens?
Queens became suburbanized and attracted European and African immigrants. (This involved Black and white Corona, St. Albans)
What was East Elmhurst to blacks?
Socioeconomically speaking, where do blacks stand in relation to whites and hispanics?
They make less than whites but more than hispanics. (Typically.) There are similar trends in categories of education, homeownership, and occupation.
Why is the reverse migration occurring?
Social ties, setting, family, retirement, economic instability in the north, urban ills, and the desire to “rebuild.”
What do blacks know about the racial attitudes of the South?
Blacks know that the new south does not entail new attitudes, but are willing to struggle to change this.
Where is the reverse migration taking place?
Blacks are largely going to Atlanta and DC, mostly from the Northeast (#1) and Midwest (#2).
How is migration a selective process?
Preference is given to the educated, skilled, young, etc.
What is place utility?
The collective attraction of a location.
Are different nativities attracted to different locations?
Which 3 cities have the greatest migrant flow with NYC?
Atlanta, Miami, & Houston.
Why do Caribbeans move to NYC?
This is due to the fact that NYC is a gateway, and because of ethnic networks.
What geographical settlement is the Caribbean settlement comparable to?
Jamaicans in NYC and South Florida.
Which of the 2 waves of Caribbean migration was more diverse?
The 2nd wave was; it also had a higher SES.
Which ethnicity of blacks has been the number one migrant since 1965?
West Indians. (Jamaicans have been the #1 within this.)
What contributes to an ethnic invisibility with African Americans?
Neighborhoods and shared culture (some).
What are the primary cultural featuers of Jamaican culture?
Conservative attitudes and family values. Food and transnational ties also define them.
How do distinctions differ in Jamaica and America?
In Jamaica, there are class distinctions; in America, there are color distinctions.
What kinds of jobs do Jamaicans do? What does this say about their incomes?
In order from highest to lowest: managerial, financial, service, sales/office, construction, maintainence, production/transportation/material handling. There are also gender niches, such as women in healthcare. Their income is diverse.
How does the SES of Jamaicans compare to blacks and hispanics?
Overall it is higher.
What is triple layering?
Geographical structures based on racial, ethnic, and class relationships.
Why do Jamaicans prefer black neighborhoods?
Racial discrimination, they can compete with the SES of most African Americans, market opportunity, and socio-ethnic networks.
What kinds of tensions exist between Jamaicans and African Americans in general?
Jamaicans are offended by the stereotype of African Americans, and see themselves as better. African Americans retaliate by saying that Jamaicans never had to deal with the Jim Crow laws, etc, and thus do not have a right to their gains. There are feelings of separation, like that the African Americans have no culture. In general, their cultures are simply very different historically.
Where is Broward County?
It is in Florida, in the everglades.
How is Broward County largely employed?
Most are privately employed in educational healtha nd retail trade.
Is Broward County affluent?
Yes, and increasingly so.
Where are most of the poor located in the Broward County region?
What happened from 1990-2000 in Broward County? Who is the #1 minority? Are new migrants wealthy?
A rapid increase in diversity. Blacks are the #1 minority. Within this, West Indians are the #1 ancestry. Within this, Haitans and Jamaicans are the largest immigrant group. New migrants have assets.
Where do the blacks of Broward County reside?
Mostly in the central/southern municipalities. They are dispersed despite their concentration.
What is Jam Hill?
Jam Hill is the center of Jamaican activity in Broward County. It provides economic opportunity and serves as a pull factor for blacks.
Where do Jamaicans stand in SES compared to other minority groups?
They are much worse off than whites, but make more than blacks, and slightly less than hispanics and west indians in general. However, they are still affluent within Broward County, despite being younger and less-educated than the national Jamaican average.
Where are the blacks from Miami-Dade going? How does this other county differ? How are they similar?
Broward County; which attracts more foreign blacks of higher SES. They are similar in that they both attract families with children.
Why do migrants select South Florida as a destination?
Economic reasons, education, love and marriage, culture and weather, places/symbols, Lauderhill cricket stadium, Unite-A-Fest (which is a 3 day caribbean celebration), and political influence.
How do black communities expand from 1970-2009 in Broward County? How does the SES of blacks in this region affect this?
They expanded outward towards majority white communities. SES permits locational choice. 3 factors influence the location: culture, SES, and quality of neighborhood.
How is heterolocalism maintained in Suburban Broward County?
Pastors maintain this. The majority also do not want to be in a black enclave; professionals just leave.
How does the black experience compare to other minorities?
It is both similar and different. They were, after all, enslaved. There is also a huge diversity within African Americans.
What were the slave codes?
Including the Virginia Code of 1705, these codes described blacks as “chattel”, or personal property.
What does racialism mean?
One group is superior to the other.
Which 2 forces changed what had been a modest slave trade? What became the center of the slave trade?
Eli Whitney discovering the cotton gin, and market forces. Plantations near river and ocean ports became the center of the slave trade, stressing social hierarchy and profitability.
What does sectionalism mean?
There were 2 different regions, culturally, economically, and politically.
At first, how did the North and South try to resolve their differences?
They tried to compromise through things like the 1820 Missouri Compromise, establishing the 36'30 line, and 1850 Compromise (popular sovereignty, which angered the north.)
What were the reasons for slavery still being accepted in the South by 1820?
It was considered a part of their economy, and many did not see themselves as responsible for it. Officials even championed for it in congress.
What was the 1854 Douglas Nebraska act?
This abolished the 36' 30 line and resulted in bleeding Kansas.
What was the Dred Scott decision (1857)?
This decision upheld that blacks had no rights in court.
What purpose did Frederick Douglas and Harriett Tubman serve?
They served as powerful voices.
What does “3/5” mean?
This was the 3/5 clause, counting slaves as 3/5 of a person.
What did the Emancipation Proclamation do?
It freed slaves.
What happened to sectionalism during reconstruction? What did new state constitutions have to do?
It was deepened. The South was in debt. The North was occupying the south through local republican governments. However, southern white leaders tried to reassert their power. State constitutions needed to give blacks the right to vote, and ratify the 14th amendment.
Who were the scalawags and carpetbaggers? Were African Americans gaining political office?
Scalawags were the few whites still active in the government after the Civil War. Carpetbaggers took advantage of the situation. African Americans also were starting to gain office.
What was the Freedmen's Bureau?
This helped blacks after the Civil War. They distributed resources, and sold/rented confiscated lands.
What riots occurred in the North and South after the Civil War?
White aggressors went to black neighborhoods. There were the conscription riots, which were ironically about the draft.
Why were people racist?
They decided that black men were out to get white women and there was fear of job competition.
What types of violence occurred after the civil war? What social institutions were formed?
Lynchings, beatings/assaults, and murders. The KKK, black codes, Jim Crowo Laws, were all formed.
Why was the 1896 decision in Plessey v. Furgesen important?
This determined the “separate but equal” doctrine.
Why did the great migration occur?
This occurred due to a decline in the South's labor demand, the boll weevil infestation, mechanization, sharecropping sucking, and jobs in the North.
When did the 2 waves occur from the great migrataion? Where did the blacks go?
1880-1940 and 1940-1970. They went to mostly urban places. Specific blacks from specific places went to specific destinations: for example, Mississippi blacks went to Chicago.
How did Henry Ford change the job outlook for African Americans?
He simplified the work and doubled the daily wage.
During the great migration, what became prominent in the North?
Racialism, and ghettos (which also later became prominent in the south.)
What were Kitchenettes?
Kitchenettes were small apartments in Chicago.
How did the regional settlements in the North and South differ during the great migration?
In the North, it was a sectoral pattern involving residential succession. In the South, it was checkerboards due to accommodation.
How did blacks create their own cultural landscapes within this racial geography?
They created Bronzeville and blacksville, rustic suburbs, and housescapes in cities.
Who suburbanized first among the blacks?
The upper middle class did first, which was followed by the middle class.
How did resistance occur on individual and governmental levels to prevent blacks from escaping their “locked in” position?
Individually, white resistance, flight, and violence occurred. Politically, local and state governments restricted deeds, had local marriage restrictions, upheld racist laws.
What was the US Defense Highway Act?
This created mobility.
What were mortgage tax deductions?
These had good intentions but favored the suburbs and middle class whites at the expense of blacks. This made it extremely difficult for blacks to get loans.
What did private banks and insurance companies do to perpetuate racism throughout the 20th century?
Redlining and blockbusting.
What happened in the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education decision?
This overturned the “separate but equal” idea.
What 1964 act helped blacks?
The 1964 Civil Rights Act.
How did the 1965 HUD and 1968 fair housing law help blacks?
They included affirmative housing, anti-discrimination policies, and inclusive communities.
How many blacks were received in the suburbs from 1960-2000? How many were received by 2010?
9 million. 12 million. This is 1/3 of the black population.
In reverse migration, what is the reasoning for blacks to move? (Is it economic?)
Many are not moving for not-economic reasons including family, parents, weather, etc.
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!