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University of Tennessee - Knoxville
African Studies Test 1
African Studies Test 1
University of Tennessee - Knoxville
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The most revolutionary change that came with the major cognitive change (that added modern behaviors to their modern anatomy) of early Africans.
foraged for food.
For most of human history, people...
Similarity of past foragers with modern foragers.
How the world of foragers was reconstructed...
the east and south Africa
the earliest evidence of their cognitive change comes from
killing animals/butchering fish
most of the stone and bone tools they had seemed to be intended for
west and south Africa
Niger-congo speakers are currently found in much of..
wild yams and nuts of the oil palm
forager style emphasized...
what kind of languages relate to types of ancient environments?
What is a crucial piece of technology for people engaged in fishing or hunting?
Most critically, the early Africans gave us...
Language helped allow a group of pioneers to take their simple boats across the straits at the southern end of the Red Sea and to the...
By when were the descendants of the original 150 African pioneers in the process of occupying the temperate regions of Asia and Europe?
Who did they have competition with in Asia?
Who lived in Europe, were bigger and stronger than modern humans, had inventiveness, adaptability, and sociability.
Who did they have competition with in Europe?
About how old is agriculture?
Blombos Cave in South Africa
The earliest evidence of cave art that we know of occurring in Africa is located at the...
Foraging societies are forned by bands of...
Upper Paleolithic social groups were similar to...
hunters, not gatherers
When looking at ancient social groups in Africa, one would think that they were solely...
It is believed that ancient social groups were mostly
Archaeology and Linguistics
Africans of the Upper Paleolithic period looked at through the two disciplines of...
languages change at a predictable rate
Glottochronology maintains that...
Many linguists who study periods earlier than 10,000 years ago think that languages change
identify movements of modern humans out of Africa.
Linguists who work on language reconstruction are trying to...
Scholars divided African languages into ____ families.
Which African family uses clicking sounds?
West and Southern Africa
The Niger-Congo speakers are currently found in...
middle Nile River, inland delta of Niger-Congo, and central Sahara.
Nilo-Saharan speakers live along the...
Linguistic and Archaeological evidence suggests that Nilo-Saharan speakers developed an...
It is suspected that candidates for the first modern humans to leave Africa and begin the occupation of tropical Asia were...
The first modern humans to cross into Asia crossed from the...
The pioneers who ventured into temperate regions of Eurasia and the Americas could be descendants of...
By 10,000 BP, the Afro-Asiatic language family was living off of...
By 10,000 BP, the Niger-Congo language family was living off of...
Populate the planet.
By 50,000 BP, the descendants of African pioneers who crossed the Red Sea and when to the Arabian peninsula helped to...
By 15,000 BP, virtually every climate zone that could support human habitation had been occupied by the descendants of...
the entire Africa.
By 10,000 BP, humans had occupied...
nurturing both individual and stands of plants.
When foragers are tending they are...
sticks and small flakes of stone.
Sickles were made from...
1. social demand (feast and prestige) 2. climate change
The two reasons why foragers started to produce food were...
Farming and _______ emerged as being linked...
the Middle East.
The first farming producers lived in...
between the Nile and the Red Sea.
The earliest grain gatherers we know of lived in...
The _____ language family first began intensive gathering.
Nile Valley Region
The African Farmers that used the same basic crop repertoire as in the Middle EAst came from...
wheat, barley, lentils, and flax
The Earliest African farmers used the same crop repertoire as that in the Middle East which was
climates vary across a broad swath.
Africa is based on a north-south axis and this means...
1. Sahel: Sorghum and millet 2. Ethiopia: t'eff, noog, etc and 3. West Africa: yams and oil palm
In Africa there are at least three loci for crop domestication and they are:
Millet is a..
Glaberrima rice is a type of rice grown in only a few regions of...
yam and oil palm.
The two crops that formed the core of the forest crop repertoire were
what animal was without a doubt domesticated in Africa
the N'Dama is a
population density and infectious diseases.
As farming communities evolved the following two things happen:
plow and hoe.
Which tools were used by African farmers?
slashing and burning the land.
Shifting cultivation involved...
Most of the farm work was done by
Early African farming societies practiced
social organizations based on stages of maturation.
Age grades are...
the prefix "ba" in the word Bantu means
Bantu is one minor branch of what African language group...
Which African language speakers used to live where Bantu African language speakers now live.
Cameroun and Nigeria.
The proto-Bantu group in 3000 BCE lived between
exhausted their lands and populations increased
The Bantu expansion occurred because farmers had.
Ironworking technology resulted in...
Austronesian language family expansion led to populate...
Bananas were introduced to the forest zone of ______ and added to their crop repertoire.
no professional political class.
Some ancient African peoples formed stateless societies and these stateless societies had
What ancient African peoples were considered a stateless society?
Ancient African stateless societies were known to be
Indigenous African religions are
In the Yoruba religion Ogun is the god of
creation of the world.
In the Yoruba religion, Olodumare is the god of
as not being in conflict between good and evil.
African religions tend to see the past and future
In the Yoruba religion, Orishas are
the same as specialized deities.
In African religions, ancestral spirits are
The African had less nutrients in the soil.
The differences between the African and Eurasian axises is that
Jared Diamond argues that it takes ____ of years before "farmer power" leads people to create urban civilization.
creating complex societies.
From 3600 to 3300 BCE, the settlements along the Upper Nile began the process of
Sister of Isis
God of lower Egypt
God of upper Egypt
Unification of the Nile Valley and creation of the Ancient Egypt State
One of the most remarkable events in early world history is
3100 to 2575
What period is referred to as the Archaic period
Era in which the ruling classes established complete authority over the Nile Valley
a change in the religious identity of the pharaohs
what did the pyramids represent
Nile River Valley
The annual flood brings fertile silts from the Ethiopian highlands to the plains along the.....
Evidence suggests that inhabitants of the upper nile region were harvesting wild barley as early as...
Permanent agricultural settlements had been established both in the upper and lower Nile regions as early as...
the early Nile settlers may have come to the river valley to escape a savannah that was turning into a desert.
Pottery found at the early Nile sites suggests that
developing a specialization of labor and moving toward more hierarchical political and economic systems.
Complex societies along the upper nile valley were created by
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