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Protests by African business-owners, lawyers, teachers and clerks in British and French colonies began as protests for independence instead of protests for a greater share in self-government and an end to racial discrimination in economic and social life of the colonies. T or F
He emerged as a powerful spokesman against colonialism when he publicly condemned British troops for opening fire on a peaceful protest of military veterans. He quickly realized that masses in the countryside as well as the city were mobilized by the demand for independence.
In a show of anti-colonial sentiment, he took control of the Suez Canal from the British and reasserted Egypt's control over the important waterway. French and British troops were forced to retreat, ending the overt domination of the Egyptian economy by western Europe.
As a poet and philosopher of the Negritude cultural movement which emphasized Africans equality with Europeans, he warned of the dangers of Africans becoming assimilated into French culture. However, as a politician, he was resistant to the idea of complete independence from France unlike Sekou Toure of Guinea.
Which of the phrases below is used in association with the year 1960?
In 1954, ____________ gave up its claim to authority in the Sudan, a claim which dated back to the pre-colonial conquests of Muhammad Ali.
Gamal ‘Abd al-Nasir major national development plan involved altering the Aswan Dam in order to increase the amount of irrigable land in the lower Nile Valley. T or F
In the late 1940s, colonial powers had no intention of developing African self-reliance in preparation for economic and political independence from Europe. T or F
The anti-colonial nationalist movements in Africa had different outcomes and markedly different patterns. Which of the following is not one of the patterns discussed?
Which of the following was not an issue for African states immediately after gaining formal political independence?
Euro-American lack of interest and involvement in the political economy of the newly independent African states
Colonial post-war economic initiatives were mainly concerned with ordering and instructing rather than consulting and supporting local African initiatives. They were focused on developing Africa as an exporter of raw materials and an importer of manufactured good. T or F
In 1947 a number of prosperous businessmen and lawyers from Accra formed which of the following political organizations to revise the 1946 constitution in order to increase the number of elected rather than nominated African members of government?
When Nigeria became independent in 1960, the Muslim northerners were afraid of being dominated by the culturally ‘Europeanized’ southerners.
The French used a form of _________ to govern Morocco, ruling the country as a _______ in the name of the sultan.
In 1948, colonial police opened fire on a peaceful demonstration by Ghanaian ex-servicemen protesting at the rapidly rising cost of living sparking mass demonstrations for immediate independence. T or F
The political leader associated with the establishment of charismatic populism in Ghana was
For centuries, Europeans dominated the African continent. The white man arrogated to himself the right to rule and to be obeyed by the non- white; his mission, he claimed, was to “civilize” Africa. Under this cloak, the Europeans robbed the continent of vast riches and inflicted unimaginable suffering on the African people. It is clear that we must find an African solution to our problems, and that this can only be found in African unity. Divided we are weak; united, Africa could become one of the greatest forces for good in the world. Although most Africans are poor, our continent is potentially extremely rich.… Which of the following leaders most likely made this statement in a speech given 1961?
No African leaders have seriously suggested altering the unnatural boundaries established in the colonial era. T or F
"African States should pursue in their international
policy principles which will expedite and accelerate
the independence and sovereignty of all dependent and colonial
This quotation describes the position of
During the 1960s and 1970s, which of the following contributed to the establishment and continuation of authoritarian governments in the developing world?
After seizing control of Egypt, what larger policy was promoted by Gamal Nasser in order to strengthen his position internationally?
Which of the following was a common result after independence was achieved in an African nation?
Which of the following was NOT an aspect of the colonial struggle for independence between Algeria and France?
Direct intervention by the Soviet Union in assistance to the Algerian rebels
What formed the support base of most of the political parties in the open elections in the Congo?
Which one of the following foreign powers was not directly involved in the permanent removal of democratically-elected Prime Minister Lumumba?
Which of the following international actors orchestrated the Katanga secession, destabilizing a democratically-elected regime?
The Belgians quick and sudden move to grant Congo independence was motivated by___________________________
their intent to covertly continue to control the new African government
How did the Untied Nations (UN) respond to Lumumba's request for help against Belgian's troops on Congo's territory?
The United Nations troops enforced the Belgium backed Katanga secession.
He took control of the Congo government through a bloodless coup d’etat.
Which of the following international political actors is responsible for transforming 'Hutu' and 'Tutsi' from largely flexible social and economic terms to rigid ethnic identities?
While there was initially some cooperation between Hutu and Tutsi within Burundi's UPRONA political party, the Tutsi leadership eventually purged Hutus from the party on the eve of gaining independence. T or F
What international conference held in Accra in December 1958 propelled African political leaders to agitate for more political freedom?
The SPUP pushed for independence in which British colony?
Under whose leadership did Mauritius gain independence in 1968?
What has been described as a Belgian-sponsored revolution?
The persecution and eventual massacre of Rwandan Tutsis between November 1959 and October 1960
As secretary of the Kikuyu Central Association (KCA), he campaigned for the reform of the colonial system particularly with regard to land, labor and various acts of racial discrimination. The KCA called for the repeal of the Crowns Lands Ordinance of 1915, which had made all African tenants at will of the Crown.
In the process of winning independence in a part of British East Africa, he made use of the language of Kiswahili in order to activate the African roots of the nation and to create a sense of national unity amongst many diverse groups in the region.
Which of the following is not a reason for the Mau Mau freedom struggle?
The British had accepted the principle of African majority rule for a self-governing Kenya.
Which of the following events spurred Tanganyikan nationalists to mass political activity?
In 1951, thousands of Meru farmers were forced to handover their land to white settlers.
Jomo Kenyatta was released from prison in __________ and Kenya finally became independent in _________.
By 1960, the __________ had accepted the principle of African majority rule for a self-governing Kenya.
In Tanzania’s move towards independence during the 1950s, the shared language of Kiswahili amongst the inhabitants of the territory facilitated a sense of national unity. T or F
Why did the Belgians help facilitate Katanga’s succession?
They wanted to ensure continued control of the the Union Muniere copper-mining company and other Belgian business interests in the region.
Which of the following does not explain the calculations behind the Belgian government's sudden move to grant Congo independence?
The Belgians’ transition of power ensured that Congolese nationalists would have ample of time to effectively prepare.
At the Congo’s independence ceremony Belgian King Baudouin, what did he urge in his paternalistic speech that referred to Belgium’s noble ‘civilizing mission’?
He urged the incoming government not to indulge in ‘hasty reforms’ but rather to heed the advice of their Belgian administrators and technocrats.
There was no particular demand for independence from France in Comoros until the violent French suppression of a school strike in what year?
"We are Kenyan and we wish to remain so. We have our own customs and our own traditions. Our immediate goal should be to develop the wealth of our country and improve our standard of living."
After World War II, which action was taken by many inhabitants of African territories?
contesting for equal rights, opportunity and treatment under law
“If we are to remain free, if we are to enjoy the full benefits of Africa’s enormous wealth, we must unite to plan for the full exploitation of our human and material resources in the interest of all our people”
- Kwame Nkrumah
This quotation best expresses one of the major goals of
Where did a brutal massacre of unarmed demonstrators protesting against the apartheid regime in South Africa on March 21 1960 take place?
During 1952 the ANC staged a ________________, deliberately defying apartheid’s segregationist laws and refusing to carry passes
What did the Bantu Education Act (1953) enact?
all of the above
By the 1970s South Africa had a population of _____ million whites who ruled over and dominated a population of up to ____ million blacks.
Who took over leadership of ZANU in 1975 and went on to become the Prime Minister of Zimbabwe at independence in 1980?
Upon independence in 1980, Southern Rhodesia became the state of _______________.
Portugal's disproportionate use of violent to suppress African protest in their colonies made clear that African liberation could only be won through_________________________.
Which of the following was not included in the central African federation formed by white settlers of southern Africa in 1940s-1950s ?
In African territories inhabited by white settlers, liberation struggles were not prolonged affairs as white settlers generally welcomed majority rule. T or F
The colonies of Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland all became a part of the Union of South Africa. T or F
The ultimate aim of apartheid was to make blacks 'foreigners' in _____ per cent of the land of within the borders of the country of South Africa which was for whites only. Hence, black South Africans were restricted to poverty stricken and overcrowded land reserves, the so called 'homelands'.
The principal liberation movement in Angola was the MPLA founded by ____________ among the urban working class of Luanda in ________.
Amilcar Cabral led this liberation movement in which schools, health clinics, roads, agricultural projects and trade were built and maintained in liberated areas.
Partido Africano da Independencia da Guinie e Cabo Verde (PAIGC)
Led by Jonas Savimbi, this movement sought to govern in place of the leaders of the principal liberation movement. Back by international players pursuing their interests, they were more concerned with fighting the other liberation movements in the region than fighting the Portuguese.
Uniao Nacional para a Independencia (UNITA)
Eleven years after its leader Eduardo Mondlane and his deputy Samora Machel declared a war of liberation from Portugual, this unified armed liberation movement declared victory in 1975.
Frente de Libertacao de Mocambique (FRELIMO)
When Ian Smith declared white-ruled ‘Rhodesia’ to be an independent state, who were they freed from in gaining their independence?
Upon gaining independence in 1964, Northern Rhodesia took on what African name for itself?
By 1960, the British government recognized the strength of African protest for equal rights and self governance. British prime minister Harold Macmillan remarks on the 'winds of change' sweeping across Africa in a famous speech to the white South African parliament in Cape Town.T or F
After World War II, which severely weakened state wielded less power in international politics?
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