Brianna Janz AFST 452 February 11, 2010 tribalism- ethnic based politics/policies oppositions became based on ethnicity clientelism- exchanging political favors for support village head who supported president/political party got high government office new school/clinic more recognition for your ethnic group patronage- 1) government contracts for your business tax exemptions (no tax on 1st 4 tons of peanuts) import-export license- be the only one who can import nikes government house or car free education @ state university pyramid scheme of support- Leader of country ? 25 regional governors ? 1500 village chiefs helped some get ahead, but creates dependency, corruption advancement not based on merit ties the country to the leader in power wiped out legitimate opposition parties- sold out for patronage combined with patrimonial rule- turn the leader into a ?father figure? for country personalize a leader's rule with the country leader of political party leader of national university leader of armed forces put their name and face on EVERYTHING (coins, paper money, t-shirts, stamps, big infrastructures like stadiums, universities) national survival built on leader's continued rule- some leaders spread patronage to most/all ethnic groups (Houphoet Boigny, Ahidjo) worst dictators favored only their ethnic group- Macias Nguema in Eq. Guinea (Fang), Idi Amin in Uganda military interventions- grew rapidly during 1960's and 1970's, propped up leaders from 1960-85, there were 70 successful military coups Ghana and Nigeria had 5+ each early 1980's- 2/3 of Africans were under military rule military dealt with rising expectations- HOPE v. REALITY Malawi, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia and Botswana were best able to avoid military coups military regimes in power promised change- performed just as the leaders they had replaced hard to change a system of patronage that everyone was already used to Problems with Clientelism inefficient way to distribute development funds $$ went to where it served the leader best built up bloated government workforce- late 1960's government employees grew @ 7%/year when economy was only growing 2-3%/year by 1970- 60% of salaried workers were government employees not much of a private sector by 1980- half of expenditures were on salaries growth of parastatals (government-run companies) government bought up manufacturers, airlines, banks, stores most were inefficient and lost $$ Where did revenue come from? Some aid from France, USA, UK, USSR raised money by paying farmers below market price for products laws mandate farmers can only sell to government people in rural areas got poorer and poorer turned to Black Market, government revenues drop, people rush to urban areas many capitals tripled in size from 1960-75 (Kinshasa, Zaire, Douala) urban population demands subsidies for food/price capped which hurts rural farmers when rural areas lose population- drops in local food production, country must rely on imports, which means government has to borrow $$, famine and malnutrition result riots when government tried to raise food/fuel prices hard for African farmers to compete with US, Canada, Australia, BRAZIL NEWS 1st Darfur war crimes suspect has charges dropped Good Luck Jonathon gets Nigerian president nod UN and MTV are making show about Nairobians living with HIV Ivoireans may not be able to vote- problems verifying credentials Nairobi- ferrying wildebeasts and zebras to lions in the south Botswana- Khoisan bushmen are angry over water rights Chad and Sudan's leaders meet- joint patrols, stop sponsoring guerilla groups South Africa celebrates the 20th anniversary of Mandela's release from prison UN tribunal looking @ Rwandan genocide Mogadishu- rebel from S. Somalia righting with African Union peacekeepers Jihad against Kenya 126 people were rescued in Gulf of Aden- Somaliland Coast Guard got fisherman to help villagers forced off their land for Madonna's school Sierra Leone- power outage in maternity ward, 4 babies died South Africa- bad orphanage fire that killed 15 in Newcastle South Africa South African National Party put apartheid in place District 6- uprooted 3 million people (blacks, mixed, Indians) built townships (Soweto is most famous, stands for S.W. Township) employment- blacks restricted to manual labor, education restricted 1952- African National Congress- ?pack the prison? 1955- Freedom Charter- blueprint for Multiracial Democracy Verwoerd- Complete separation of races, establish Black Homelands ?Bantustans? Transkei, Bophuhatswana, Qua Qua- divide and conquer, prevent development of black S. African political identity had to get visas to travel to homelands Bantustan land was noncontiguous not recognized by other countries 1960- all blacks over 16 had to carry a ?passbook? said what areas could be in, where you could travel riots in March 1960 in Sharpeville UN Security Council starts questioning S.A. Mandela rises to prominence in ANC, a lawyer saw the role of liberal whites, prompted him to say that there needed to be a multiracial state instead of kicking them all out Umkhonto we Size- Spear of the Nation- Military Wing of ANC attacked military bases and power plants whties became more and more hardline- only 1 opposition member of Parliament S. Rhodesian Government- tried to get independence for white minority government 15 black representatives out of 65 divided black opposition Mugabe (ZANU)- Chinese backed and Nkomo (ZAPU)- USSR backed British refused to grant them independence unilateral declaration of independence (UDI)- basically copied USA D of I, and substituted S.R. for USA president was Ian Smith- former WWII fighter-pilot whites were only 5% of population 220,000 whites in 1960 linked to outside world through Beira (Portugese S. E. Africa) The Birth of Nations expectations were high- nationalism leadership, high commodity prices/ economic boom, abundant rainfall (Lake Chad @ record levels), discovery of earliest humanity (?dear boy?) Cold War Rivalry- USA v. USSR buying friends Organization of African Unity formed in 1963- talk of Political Unity Main Economic Policy- Import-Substitution-Industrialization (ISI) high trade walls- protections for domestic industry small domestic markets African Socialism communal values/ family/ community backlash against colonialism/ foreign ownership of economy China's foot in the door- offered revolutionary ideology, military training Mugabe took them up on it in the 1950's Africa produced 5,000 secondary school graduates, mostly in Ghana and Nigeria (not including S. Africa or North Africa) 75% of government workers are foreigners population tripled from 1950-80- 200 million to 600 million very few large cities @ independence; 36/49 were in N. Africa or South Africa 15 countries are landlocked Kwame Nkrumah cheerleader of OAU Nkrumahism (scientific socialism) son of a goldsmith- middle class life went to Lincoln University in Pennsylvania 1939-1945: lived in poverty, fish-seller went on speaking tour of African-American churches talked about what was going on in Africa became a poli sci professor at Lincoln, professor of the year ASA (African Studies Association) founding member 1948- returned to Gold Coast 1951- elected colonial legislature imprisoned by British for Independence Efforts won election as colonial prime minister from prison March 6, 1957- leader of Ghana @ independence helped to form OAU in 1963 removed by military coup in 1966- out of country visiting China died in exile in 1972
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