Ageism and Sexism ? Chapter 8 Theories of Aging ? Disengagement theory o As we get older we disengage in society? But its good? Sustaining society? ? Activity Theory o Shift in activities as we get older. Pick up others. ? Continuity theory o Things we grew up with we try to hold on to when we grow older ? Subculture of Aging ? Minority group hypothesis Important Definitions ? Sex ? biological differences between men and women ? Gender - The social meanings attached to these differences Women?s Historical Participation ? Ancient Greece ? Colonial Times ? Victorian England ? Industrialization ? First monthly magazine? The sports dyke magazine Women?s collegiate sports did not follow these trends ? Intercollegiate competitions for women were reduced o Telegraph meets ? play at your own field? o Play days ? they come to your campus and?..? ? Women?s division Platform o Sport should be for as many women as possible o Women?s sport should be a modified version of men?s sport The Relationship between Sport and Gender ? Gender Socialization made female sport participation an anomaly ? Women who participated in sports could experience o Role conflict o Stigma ? Lesbian Stereotypes ? Cultural images base on medical ?beliefs? Structural Discrimination ? Sport was organized for unequal treatment between men and women ? Women had o Less funding o Inferior funding o Less and outdated equipment o Poorer training ? Another symbiotic relationship than reinforced perceptions about gender ? The experience of African American women aren?t the same ? Gender stratification crosscuts economic and racial stratification ? Black women have excelled in nontraditional sports but not elite sports. Why? o Unable to afford private lessons for sports like golf and tennis o Overt racial discrimination o Cultural role of femininity historically defined for white women ? So black women have often broken new ground for women in sports The simple male-female dichotomy is insufficient ? Heterosexual masculinity ? Gay males ? Lesbians ? Bisexuals/transsexuals Big Changes in Women?s Sports Since the 1970s ? Title IX ? Increased funding and participation ? Professional opportunities (or lack thereof) ? Many issues remain to be resolved Title IX ? 1972 amendment to the Civil Rights Act o It declared that ?No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded form participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any educational program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.? ? It was supposed to go into effect in July, 1975 o But there were legal challenges o 1984 Supreme Court decision Professional Sport Opportunities for Women ? Golf and Tennis well-established ? Women?s pro team sports has an uneven history ? At the collegiate level we need to understand the history o Run by the Association of Intercollegiate Athletics for Woman (AIAW) o 1981 power struggle between NCAA and AIAW o AIAW Lost Why have female coaches and administrators declines? (Text 253) ? Men use an ?old-boy? network ? Women don?t have strategic connections ? Search and evaluation criteria favor men ? No support systems for women ? Cultures in sport organized around male values ? Sports organization are not family friendly ? Sexual Harassment more likely for women in sport Thorny issues about equality in sport ? Integrate or separate but equal o Women can be outer performed in male-defined sports vs. o With equal training and socialization differences will disappear ? What form should women?s sports take o Critical perspective: Don?t participation in things that have historically excluded women o Assimilationists perspective: Work women into existing sports structures for access to what we new value How to achieve equality under Title IX ? Under strict definitions, equity is achieved through equal slots for participation and equal expenditures ? ?Three pronged? solution o Sport participation is proportional +/- o Expanding opportunities for underrepresented sex o Demonstrate that interests and abilities of underrepresented sex have been met These gains for women in sport are real, but? ? Budget cuts and privatization ? Resistance to legislation ? Backlash from those threatened ? Underrepresentation in decision-making positions ? Emphasis on ?cosmetic fitness? ? Trivialization of women?s sports ? Homophobia and the lesbian label Symbiotic relationship between sports and women? Sports reinforces in the general society. Monnica Farag Microsoft Word - Document14
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