AHS 100 Test 4
Last Modified: 2011-11-08
- means “REBIRTH” and refers to the re-discovery of Classical Greek and Roman ideas
- HUMANISM (God put human beings on the Earth to understand his creation) is the guiding principle of Renaissance artists
- The rise of the MERCHANT CLASS provides a new market for artists outside the Church and other religious patrons
Giotto – Protorenaissance
a. Single light source allows value to show mass (CHIAROSCURO)
b. Transitional because it depicts PHYSICAL as well as SPIRITUAL reality.
Renaissance Periods / Styles
a. Italian Renaissance
- Early Renaissance
- High Renaissance
- Late Renaissance
b. Northern Renaissance
Use of a single light source for shadows
- steps toward Classical Greek ideals of realism, naturalism, and illusionary space.
- Mastery of “drapery” as a visual form.
- Development of Linear Perspective to create depth and define visual space.
- Return of the NUDE figure as a natural and accepted subject
- Pagen imagery
Use of LINEAR PERSPECTIVE to create a sense of illusionary depth by creating consistent FORESHORTENING
Massacio was an early renaissance artist
Donatello. (early renaissance artist)
a. MARY MAGDALEN c. 1455 Carved Wood
b. DAVID. c. 1425-1430. Cast Bronze.
Return of the CONTRAPPOSTO pose.
Return of the NUDE as a natural subject.
Sandro Botticelli. (early renaissance artist)
BIRTH OF VENUS. C. 1480. Tempera on Canvas
a. Pagan Imagery to express universal ideals of beauty, truth, innocence
Savonarola --- “Bonfire of the Vanities” Artworks destroyed (Botticelli destroys his own work). Books burned Savonarola himself burned at the same location a year later.
- Use of scientific methods to accurately represent subjects.
- Figurative art reaches a new level of realism and naturalism
Greatest works are done in the cities of FLORENCE, ROME, and VENICE.
- Age of ‘celebrity artists
Leonardo da Vinci (artist of high renaissance)
Dissected corpses (human, animal, plant) to learn internal structures.
- “RENAISSANCE MAN” (good at many things) accomplished painter, sculptor, architect, town planner, writer, musician, scientist, anatomist, engineer and inventor.
a. SFUMATO Style: Creating blurred or “smoky” edges.
b. CHIAROSCURO: Use of dramatic values to create 3D forms.
Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan. c. 1495-1498
Experimental paint on plaster (NOT FRESCO).
Michelangelo di Buonarroti
- Known as “the greatest sculptor since the Greeks.”
- Completes “DAVID” when he is only 29.
- Competed with Leonardo da Vinci in his youth for major commissions and projects.
- Forced by Pope Julius II to abandon his life’s dream sculpture project to PAINT a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
- Saw human beings as being almost god-like, defined by the turmoil of their souls within the confines of their bodies.
Michelangelo. DAVID. c. 1501-1504. Carved Marbel.
Michelangelo. THE PIETA. 1490. Carved Marble.
Raphael. MADONNA OF THE MEADOWS. c. 1505. Oil on Panel.
THE SCHOOL OF ATHENS. c.1511 Fresco on Plaster. Popes Chambers.
- Use of OIL PAINT allows for brilliant colors
- Northern figures retain a “Gothic” sort of appearance.
Development of book illustrations and printmaking.
- Emphasis on ICONOGRAPHY.
Fewer Pagan images, but emphasis on GENRE.
Madonna and Child with the Chancellor Rolin, 1434.. Oil on wood.
Return of the Hunters (1565) Oil on Panel.
The Limbourg Brothers.
FEBRUARY, From LES TRES RICHES HEURES DU DUC DE BERRY. 1413-
1416. Illustrated Book.
The Knight, Death, and the Devil, 1513.
WING OF A ROLLER. 1512. Oil on Panel.
MANNERISM: Keeping the naturalism and realism, but exaggerating form in order to enhance expression and drama. This was the dominant style of painting and sculpture in the mid 1500’s.
Tintoretto. (LATE R ARTIST)
THE LAST SUPPER. 1592-1594. Oil on Canvas.
a. Italian Baroque
b. Northern Baroque
c. Spanish Baroque
a. Describes art made in Europe from 1600 - 1800.
b. Great ENERGY and EXPRESSION.
c. DRAMATIC CHIAROSCURO “Drama in the Dark”: Often has a “spotlight” effect on the
central figure or focus.
i. Italian: CARAVAGGIO BERNINI
ii. Northern: RUBENS REMBRANDT VERMEER
iii. Spanish: VELASQUEZ
Caravaggio. (Italian Baroque artist)
THE CONVERSION OF SAINT PAUL. 1600-1601. Oil on Canvas.
Bernini. (Italian Baroque artist)
DAVID. 1623. Carved Marble.
Bernini. (italian baroque artist)
THE ECSTACY OF SAINT THERESA. 1645-1652. Carved Marble.
Rubens. (northern baroque artist)
THE RAISING OF THE CROSS. 1610-1611. Oil on Canvas.
Velasquez. (spanish baroque artist)
THE MAIDS OF HONOR. 1656, Oil on Canvas
Began making pieces showing everyday life.
a. THE GIRL WITH THE RED HAT. 1665-1666. Oil on Panel.
b. GIRL WITH A PEARL EARRING.
Vermeer. Northern baroque artist
THE KITCHEN MAID. 1658. Oil on Canvas
Rembrandt van Rijn
- was the most celebrated artist of AMSTERDAM at his peak.
- Master of Chiaroscuro Rembrandt’s paintings are considered among the most masterful examples of value to create form.
Also made many INTAGLIO prints.
- Uses an IMPASTO (Thick paint) painting style
Famous for his Self-Portraits.
Rembrandt. (northern baroque artist)
RETURN OF THE PRODIGAL SON. 1606-1609. Oil on Canvas.
THE NIGHT WATCH. 1606-1609. Oil on Canvas.
a. Describes art made in Europe in the late 1700’s. This style of art is usually associated with the aristocracy of France.
b. “Dangerous Liaisons” time period. Marie Antoinette.
c. Overly decorated, fluffy, sugary. Everything guilded, extravagant. ART FOR THE RICH.
d. Your text considers this part of the BAROQUE period.
SALON DE LA PRINCESS Hotel de Soubise. 1732.
Fragonard. THE SWING. 1767. Oil on Canvas.
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