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1) Perhaps the most striking fact about natural disasters in relation to AIS controls is that
A) many companies in one location can be seriously affected at one time by a disaster.
B) losses are absolutely unpreventable.
C) there are a large number of major disasters every year.
D) disaster planning has largely been ignored in the literature.
2) Which of the following best describes lapping?
A) Applying cash receipts to a different customer's account in an attempt to conceal previous thefts of cash receipts.
B) Inflating bank balances by transferring money among different bank accounts.
C) Increasing expenses to conceal that an asset was stolen.
D) Stealing small amounts of cash, many times over a period of time.
3) Which of the following is the greatest risk to information systems and causes the greatest dollar losses?
A) human errors and omissions
B) physical threats such as natural disasters
C) dishonest employees
D) fraud and embezzlement
4) All of the following could lead to computer fraud except
A) allowing computer operators full access to the computer room.
B) releasing data to unauthorized users.
C) allowing computer users to test software upgrades.
D) storing backup tapes in a location where they can be quickly accessed.
5) Which of the following is not an example of the fraud triangle characteristic concerned with easing a fraudster's conscience?
A) Revenge against the company
B) Sense of entitlement as compensation for receiving a lower than average raise
C) Intent to repay "borrowed" funds in the future
D) Belief that the company won't suffer because an insurance company will reimburse losses
6) Most fraud perpetrators are insiders because
A) insiders are more dishonest than outsiders.
B) insiders know more about the system and its weaknesses than outsiders.
C) outsiders are more likely to get caught than insiders.
D) insiders have more need for money than outsiders.
7) Most frauds are detected by
A) external auditors.
B) internal auditors.
D) hotline tip.
9) Perpetrators of theft of company assets typically exhibit all the following characteristics except that they
A) attempt to return or pay back stolen amounts soon after the initial theft, but find they are unable to make full restitution.
B) use trickery or lies to gain the confidence and trust of others at the organization they defraud.
C) become bolder and more greedy the longer the theft remains undetected.
D) begin to rely on stolen amounts as part of their income.
10) "Cooking the books" is typically accomplished by all the following except
A) inflating accounts payable.
B) accelerating recognition of revenue.
C) delaying recording of expenses.
D) overstating inventory.
11) SAS No. 99 requires that auditors
A) plan audits based on an analysis of fraud risk.
B) detect all material fraud.
C) alert the Securities and Exchange Commission of any fraud detected.
D) take all of the above actions.
12) Which of the following is not a management characteristic that increases pressure to commit fraudulent financial reporting?
A) Close relationship with the current audit engagement partner and manager
B) Pay for performance incentives based on short-term performance measures
C) High management and employee turnover
D) Highly optimistic earnings projections
13) Intentional or reckless conduct that results in materially misleading financial statements is called
A) financial fraud.
B) misstatement fraud.
C) fraudulent financial reporting.
D) audit failure fraud.
14) Researchers have compared the psychological and demographic characteristics of white-collar criminals, violent criminals, and the general public. They found that
A) few differences exist between white-collar criminals and the general public.
B) white-collar criminals eventually become violent criminals.
C) most white-collar criminals invest their illegal income rather than spend it.
D) most white-collar criminals are older and not technologically proficient.
15) Which of the following is an opportunity that could contribute to employee fraud?
A) an employee's spouse loses their job
B) an employee suddenly acquires lots of credit cards
C) an employee is upset that he was passed over for a promotion
D) close association with suppliers or customers
16) Which of the following is a financial pressure that could cause an employee to commit fraud?
A) a feeling of not being appreciated
B) failing to receive a deserved promotion
C) believing that their pay is too low relative to others around them
D) having a spouse injured in a car accident and in the hospital for several weeks
17) Opportunity to commit fraud is comprised of three stages. The stage that often takes most time and effort would include
A) stealing inventory from the warehouse.
B) selling stolen inventory to get cash.
C) lapping accounts receivable.
D) creating false journal entries to overstate revenue.
18) In many cases of fraud, the ________ takes more time and effort than the ________.
A) concealment; theft
B) theft; concealment
C) conversion; theft
D) conversion; concealment
19) Which of the following is the best way to hide theft of assets?
A) Creating "cash" through the transfer of money between banks
B) Conversion of stolen assets into cash
C) Stealing cash from customer A and then using customer B's balance to pay customer A's accounts receivable
D) Charging the stolen asset to an expense account
20) In a ________ scheme, customer receipts are stolen and then subsequent payments by other customers are misapplied to cover the theft of the original receipts.
C) bogus expense
21) One fraudulent scheme covers up a theft by creating cash through the transfer of money between banks. This is known as
B) misappropriation of assets.
22) Which characteristic of the fraud triangle often stems from a lack of internal controls within an organization?
23) Which situation below makes it easy for someone to commit a fraud?
A) placing excessive trust in key employees
B) inadequate staffing within the organization
C) unclear company policies
D) All of the above situations make it easy for someone to commit a fraud.
24) What is the most prevalent opportunity within most companies to commit fraud?
A) lack of any internal controls
B) failure to enforce the internal controls
C) loopholes in the design of internal controls
D) management's failure to believe employees would commit fraud
25) Which characteristic of the fraud triangle relates to excuses that perpetrators use to justify their illegal behavior?
26) The US Justice Department defines computer fraud as
A) any crime in which a computer is used.
B) an illegal act in which knowledge of computer technology is essential.
C) any act in which cash is stolen using a computer.
D) an illegal act in which a computer is an integral part of the crime.
27) The most efficient way to conceal asset misappropriation is to
A) write-off a customer receivable as bad debt.
B) alter monthly bank statements before reconciliation.
C) alter monthly physical inventory counts to reconcile to perpetual inventory records.D) record phony payments to vendors
28) Computer fraud is often much more difficult to detect than other types of fraud because
A) perpetrators usually only steal very small amounts of money at a time, thus requiring a long period of time to have elapsed before they're discovered.
B) massive fraud can be committed in only seconds, leaving little or no evidence.
C) most perpetrators invest their illegal income rather than spend it, thus concealing key evidence.
D) most computer criminals are older and are considered to be more cunning when committing such a fraud.
29) Why is computer fraud often more difficult to detect than other types of fraud?
A) Rarely is cash stolen in computer fraud.
B) The fraud may leave little or no evidence it ever happened.
C) Computers provide more opportunities for fraud.
D) Computer fraud perpetrators are just more clever than other types of criminals.
30) Why do many fraud cases go unreported and unprosecuted?
A) Major fraud is a public relations nightmare.
B) Fraud is difficult, costly, and time-consuming to investigate and prosecute.
C) Law enforcement and the courts are often so busy with violent crimes that little time is left for fraud cases.
D) all of the above
31) The fraud that requires the least computer knowledge or skill involves
A) altering or falsifying source data.
B) unauthorized use of computers.
C) tampering with or copying software.
D) forging documents like paychecks.
32) The simplest and most common way to commit a computer fraud is to
A) alter computer input.
B) alter computer output.
C) modify the processing.
D) corrupt the database.
33) Downloading a master list of customers and selling it to a competitor is an example of
A) data fraud.
B) output theft.
C) download fraud.
D) fraudulent financial reporting.
34) Which of the following will not reduce the likelihood of an occurrence of fraud?
A) encryption of data and programs
B) use of forensic accountants
C) adequate insurance coverage
D) required vacations and rotation of duties
37) A simple method for catching or preventing many types of employee fraud is to
A) monitor all employee behavior using video cameras.
B) require all employees to take annual vacations.
C) explain to employees that fraud is illegal and that it will be severely punished.
D) monitor employee bank accounts and net worth.
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