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What Are the main parts of the criminal justice system, in the contemporary view
law enforcement, judiciary, corrections, and victims services
What Are the two major schools of thought in criminology
classical and positivist
Alex had never engaged in delinquent acts prior to age 14. At age 14, however, Alex started to
hang out with new group of kids. These kids used drugs and stole from the local corner store.
Alex witnessed them having money and having a good time while engaging in these activities. He
also noticed that they never seemed to get caught or suffer any negative consequences for these
actions. After watching these activities, Alex began to engage in them too. What theory best
explains Alex's behavior
According to neutralization theory, which technique deals with rejecting blame and claiming
oneself as the real victim?
denial of responsibility
________ Are laws enacted by Congress and the state legislatures
________ are less serious than misdemeanors
________ are more serious than misdemeanors.
Which amendment protects against double jeopardy
________ allows officers to act in a manner they judge most appropriate in a given situation.
The ________ allows for illegally obtained evidence to be admissible if police officers would have
discovered it anyway had they used the proper procedures.
inevitable discovery exception
_______ allows evidence to be admissible if its discovery was separate from any improper
search or seizure
The independent source exception
The ________ Amendment states that no person "shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself."
The ________ Amendment means that criminal defendants are entitled to the help of an attorney
determine whether legal errors were made at trial.
All of the following are examples of hearsay evidence, except
"I saw the defendant, Johnny, kill his wife."
The Auburn system differed from the Pennsylvania system in that inmates were
permitted to congregate during the day to work together in silence.
.The ________ abolished parole for offenders sentenced for federal crimes.
Sentencing Reform Act of 1984
Aaron is fifteen years old. He is arrested for rape. According to the state that Aaron lives in, there is a law that categorically excludes 15-year-olds who commit rape from juvenile court jurisdiction. This is an example of
After the In re Winship decision, what was the standard of proof required in a juvenile case?
beyond a reasonable doubt
In adult criminal cases offenders are found guilty. In juvenile crime cases offenders are
Bifurcated trials are required in
Bill and Tom are both on probation. Bill has committed a felony and must report monthly to his probation officer. Tom, on the other hand, committed a misdemeanor and does not have to report monthly. He simply has to send a form in by mail each month notifying his probation officer of any change in his address, employment, or school. Bill is under ________ supervision.
The criminal justice system is set into motion when ________ is violated.
a legal norm
The crime control model is mainly focused on
Efficient arrest and processing of alleged offenders
________ is the criminal intent or mental state of the defendant at the time of the crime
Criminal sanctions include all of the following EXCEPT
Chief Smith believes that his officers should patrol the city streets and maintain a visible
presence in the community. This type of policing is known as
The ________ is the chief federal law enforcement department.
Department of Justice
Which constitutional amendment does NOT place restraints upon what the police may do?
Which constitutional amendment states that excessive bail shall not be required?
Which constitutional amendments contain the due process clause
Fifth and Fourteenth
In the case of ________, the U.S. Supreme Court held that the specific laws determining how the death penalty would be administered were unconstitutional.
Furman v. Georgia
Convicts who were transported from Britain to American colonies to be sold to private
individuals to act as servants for a period of time were
________ is considered to be the first penitentiary
Walnut Street Jail
Chris has been convicted of embezzling $150,000 from his employer. Part of his sentence is
to pay back the money that he embezzled. Chris has been sentenced to pay
Chris has been convicted of embezzling $150,000 from his employer. With this money, he purchased a boat, a motorcycle, and several pieces of expensive jewelry for his girlfriend. As part of his sentence, the judge allows law enforcement authorities to confiscate any property that Chris purchased with the embezzled money. The ability of law enforcement to confiscate Chris' property that was purchased with embezzled money is referred to as
Which crime are juveniles most likely to be arrested for
Which case decided that people younger than 18 could no longer receive the death penalty as
a possible punishment?
Roper v. Simmons
A court record that is destroyed or made legally unavailable is
A court record that is made inaccessible is
The "dark figure of crime" refers to
the portion of crime that we do not know about because it is unreported.
Determinism is the idea that
Which defense is also known as the "lesser of two evils" defense
Which defense is viewed as an effort to deter police misconduct
When does a defendant NOT have the right to an attorney
at her habeas corpus proceedings
Defendants in which jurisdiction are always entitled to a grand jury
Debbie is a probationer in Los Angeles County whose probation was revoked because she failed to find and keep a job and check in with her probation officer weekly as required. Her probation is being revoked because
she committed a technical violation.
A direct file is the same thing as a
Emile Durkheim's term to describe feelings of alienation or a condition that renders a person hopeless, rootless, cut off, alienated, disillusioned, and frustrated is
The earliest known record of written law is
Which era of policing used organized residents to punish people deemed outlaws?
The exclusionary rule states that
evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment cannot be used against a suspect in a criminal trial.
An example of a court of limited jurisdiction is
Eyewitness testimony and videotape documentation are examples of ________ evidence
Evidence that an offender is the victim of abuse, has a mental illness, or is a first-time offender
are examples of
Eventually, correctional philosophy shifted from punishment to ________, characterized by
changing individuals from offenders into law-abiding citizens.
Early forms of confinement in England and other European countries were often much different than our contemporary prisons and jails. One of the first methods of confinement was a facility where a wide range of people were sent to work; most of these people were not hardened criminals, but were guilty of not paying their debts. Another form of confinement was exporting criminals to other lands, such as the American colonies and Australia. As the American Revolution began, however, England had to find something else to do with their criminals. As a result, they reconfigured abandoned ships to hold criminals on the riverbanks. The other lands that English criminals were often exported to are referred to as
Who is a female most likely to be stalked by
Which of the following is NOT one of Beccaria's criteria for punishment
Which of the following is a disorder of personality revealed by a lifelong pattern of antisocial behavior about which an individual has no remorse
Which of the following is NOT a part of the brain, according to Freud?
A football player who tackles and injures his opponent can escape criminal liability by using
the defense of ________ because the victim actually gave permission to engage in the act.
Which of the following is NOT a principal role of policing?
detaining defendants awaiting trial
Which of the following would be considered a private place according to Fourth Amendment standards
a person's home
Which of the following offenses would likely result in an inmate being placed in a supermax prison
raping and severely assaulting another inmate while incarcerated
Which of the following is an example of a dependency case
when a child's parents cannot or will not care for him or her properly
A group of youths see a neighbor on their block carrying the new iPod.
Greg walks into a convenience store with a gun. He points the gun at the cashier and
low levels of cortisol.
If the grand jury finds that probable cause exists, it issues a(n
Henry is employed at the CIA. In the course of his work activities, he has access to confidential government information. The government of another country offers to pay him for some of the information. Henry agrees and provides them with copies of confidential files. What specific crime did Henry commit?
How is the neoclassical school different from the classical school
the neoclassical school assumes that some people (e.g., children and the insane) cannot reason.
How is criminal law distinguished from civil law?
Criminal defendants are found guilty and civil defendants are found liable
________ handle real and reported police misconduct
________ is the habitual relapse into criminal behavior.
The In re Gault decision entitled juveniles to all of the following rights EXCEPT the right to
Intake officers are usually
Johnny Smith pulled the trigger on a gun and as a result shot and killed his wife. This is an
Jack works for the government and represents indigent defendants. Jack is
a public defender
if the judge in a preliminary hearing finds that probable cause exists, the prosecutor produces
John Smith has been convicted of a nonviolent drug crime and has been sentenced to 18 to 24 months in prison. He does not have a prior record and is considered a low security risk. John will most likely be held in a ________ prison.
Jack is incarcerated in the Southwest State Prison. He has been there for the past 12 years and has over 30 years left on his sentence. While incarcerated, his communication with his family has been restricted; most notably,
Jane has served all of the time allowed by law of her 19-year prison sentence for voluntary manslaughter.
Jim has been convicted of a non-violent offense and has been sentenced by the judge to spend 100 unpaid hours working in a local playground that is being painted and rebuilt. Jim has been sentenced to
ohn is fourteen years old. He is arrested for robbery. The prosecutor and probation officer recommend that he is tried as an adult. The juvenile judge decides that John should be dealt with by the adult criminal court jurisdiction. This is an example of
Julia was arrested and charged with burglary. At her disposition hearing the judge decided that Julia did not need a secure custodial setting but that she could not return home. Julia could be placed in a
________ law is the foundation of the legal system in the United States
________ is literally "the body of the offense."
Larry's fingerprints were found on the murder weapon that was used in the murder of his wife, Jennifer. This is ________ evidence.
Mala in se crimes are
wrong in and of themselves.
A man breaks into a home during the night. Although there is currently a family living in the home, they are away
What is the most common form of victimization in the United States?
A(n) ________ may result in a death sentence.
Mary decides to rob a bank. She obtains a gun, drives to the bank, enters, points the gun at the teller and demands the money in the vault. Before the teller can respond, an off-duty police officer tackles Mary, disarms her, and places her under arrest. Mary could be charged with
A man forces his way into the home of an elderly couple. He holds a gun to the husband's head and tells the wife that he will kill her husband unless she comes with him to help him rob a liquor store down the street.
Michelle and her husband Dan went on a camping trip. Dan disappeared from the campsite. A search party was launched and Dan was never found.
________ means there is a lack of coordination among law enforcement agencies.
________ is the misuse of authority for personal gain.
________ is moral principles and professional standards that help officers resist the temptation to abuse their rights and privileges.
Michelle Jones is a suspect in a murder. Michelle hired an attorney and turned herself in to the police department, where she was formally arrested upon arrival.
Most criminal cases are prosecuted in ________ court.
Many states require judges to sentence certain offenders (often drug offenders or those who use a firearm in the commission of their crime) to a specific minimum sentence, referred to as a(
statutory minimum sentence or mandatory minimum sentence
Most inmates are serving sentences for ________ crimes
The most common formal sanction for criminal behavior is
Most parole failures occur during the first ________ after release.
A new non-profit organization is developed to help juvenile delinquents. The program is mostly
Which is NOT a component of SARA, a model of problem-oriented policing
Nancy is sixteen years old. She is arrested for assault. According the state that Nancy lives in, the prosecutor can choose whether to bring the case to juvenile or adult court. This is an example of
In order for a behavior to be considered a crime it must be
defined by society as a crime
Offenders who commit street crimes (e.g., muggings, burglaries) are typically sentenced to
There is unequal distribution of wealth and power between the two groups.
Which of the following is NOT a phase of rape trauma syndrome?
Which of the following is a mission of preventive patrol
maintaining a visible presence in the community
Officer Ray became a police officer because she wanted to improve policing and reduce corruption in policing. She was hired because of her merit and was properly trained. Officer Ray was hired during which policing era
In order for an act to be a search or seizure, the target of the act must have a(n) ________ expection of privacy
Once prosecutors file a complaint, the individual arrested becomes a
One of the duties of probation officers is to complete a ________, which contains information that judges use when sentencing defenders.
presentence investigation report
One of the most commonly used penal colonies during the late 1700s and early through mid- 1800s was
One of the main goals of community corrections is
One of the biggest issues with sex offender registers is that
they do not make distinctions among different types of sex offenders.
Which perspective argues that laws are made to serve to represent the interest of the public
What is the primary cause of the great increase of females incarcerated in the United States?
Which psychological disorder leaves individuals out of touch with reality and unable to cope with their surrondings
Which part of the brain according to Freud is associated with seeking pleasure and instant gratification
Which part of the brain, according to Freud, is associated with internally judging one's actions
Which player in the courtroom must prove that mens rea exists in a criminal case?
The ________ places loyalty to fellow officers above all other values
Police occupational subculture is a set of beliefs held by
________ is a policing strategy based on conducting specific and detailed research on a
community's problems to discover the underlying dynamics of crime.
Who performs the bulk of police work
Police illegally entered Matthew's home to search for drugs. They find evidence that Kristina is involved in a money-laundering scheme. Kristina does not live in the home. The evidence can be used against Kristina because she does not have
The process of both legal parties in a criminal case requesting opposing counsel's evidence or
information is known as
A preliminary hearing is held to
determine if there is probable cause to take the defendant to trial.
People who feel that we should "lock criminals up and throw away the key" are promoting
A punishment that involved no torture or corporal punishment for offenders and focused on
reforming their behavior is based on ________ principles.
Private prisons have gained popularity in the United States because of
The policy of parens patriae gives the ________ authority to make decisions about children.
Rewards for good behavior and punishments for bad behavior are
The requirement that police must obtain a search warrant before searching a suspect's
Rick is a juvenile charged with aggravated assault and possession of marijuana. The judge in the case believes that Rick needs strict military training and behavior modification to command the attention of his out-of-control delinquent behavior. The judge sentences Rick to a
What system does the U.S. Supreme Court belong to?
Self-report data shows that among the general population
Which school of thought argues that criminals have free will, are rational, and choose to be criminal
Sobriety check points are traffic stops in which police officers stop cars at random to see if the
rational choice theory
Studies that examine brain scans find that impulse murderers have
Sally is a good student and does not get into trouble. One day her father is killed in a car accident.
Statutes are to state government as ________ are to city government.
preponderance of the evidence.
Special Agent Santiago currently works for the nation's oldest federal law enforcement agency. He apprehends federal fugitives and also transports federal prisons. Which agency does Special Agent Santiago work for
US. Marshals Service
Samantha is a crime analyst at a local police department. Her duties include all of the
analyzing physical evidence through the use of scientific techniques in a laboratory.
Which statement is FALSE concerning the fourth amendment and warrants
Sometimes juries choose not to apply criminal laws when they feel doing so would be unjust.
This is an example of
Which Supreme Court case ruled that all felony defendants, state and federal, have a right to counsel at trial?
The standard of proof in a criminal case is
beyond a reasonable doubt.
_______ is society's effort to punish and treat those who break the law.
Sally has just finished serving an 8-10 year prison sentence for a drug offense. She has been released, but is not completely free of criminal justice supervision. She must remain under community supervision for 24 months, during which she must find and maintain employment or education, refrain from drug and alcohol use, and receive permission before she moves or leaves her home county. Sally is on
Sally has just finished serving an 8-10 year sentence. She was granted release by a group of people assembled to determine if she is eligible to return to the community. Because this group of people felt that she was no longer a threat to the community, they made the decision to release her from prison. Sally has been released through
Spencer has been convicted of possession of cocaine. His sentence includes 6 months where he is restricted to his home at all times, unless he is working, at school, or attending a treatment program. Spencer has been sentenced to
Which statement is FALSE concerning constitutional rights of juveniles?
juveniles have the right to a jury trial.
There are currently offenders in prison who have been convicted for crimes in which DNA was not tested.
The two courts of the United States dual-court system are the
state and federal.
Which type of crime comes from an ongoing criminal conspiracy that exists to profit from
Which theory emerged in the United States following the turbulent 1960s and its variety of
A Terry stop is permitted when police have ________ to believe that a person is engaged in
The ________ test established by the Supreme Court means that confessions are inadmissible
unless made willingly.
grand juries and preliminary hearings
Use this scenario to answer the question that follows: "You are a football star who was late for practice. You rushed out your door, tripped over your neighbor's cat that was sitting on your porch, and broke your ankle. You consider suing your neighbors." If you choose to sue your neighbor, what type of law would govern this case?
Use this scenario to answer the question that follows: "You are a football star who was late for practice. You rushed out your door, tripped over your neighbor's cat that was sitting on your porch, and broke your ankle. You consider suing your neighbors." Who would be the plaintiff?
In the United States the rule of law means
that the government can punish you only when there are written laws.
U.S. Customs and Border Protection and U.S. Immigration are responsible for all of the following EXCEPT
providing security for federal judges.
Upon entering prison, most inmates go through a process where they learn and adopt the values and norms of the prison. Some of these values and norms include not portraying themselves as weak or needy, not associating with corrections officers, and to always be suspicious of the motives of others. The process of learning these norms and values is called
Upon entering prison, most inmates go through a process where they learn and adopt the values and norms of the prison. Some of these values and norms include not portraying themselves as weak or needy, not associating with corrections officers, and not snitching on others. The norms and values of prisons that inmates learn is referred to as the
Wearing your pajamas to work would be an example of a violation of a
informal social norm
When a police officer fails to provide equal protection they are violating the ________
In which step of the problem-oriented policing model SARA do police identify anything that
may be causing or influencing the problem?
Wilson and Kelling's broken windows theory argues that there is a relationship between higher crime rates and
the level of deterioration of a neighborhood.
________ is when police reasonably believe that the warrant or law authorizing a search or
seizure is legitimate but later it turns out it is not.
the good faith exception
While interrogating a suspect for murder, the police beat and whipped the suspect while in the
interview room. This is a violation of the ________ Amendment.
Who is responsible for the issuance of an arrest warrant?
Who decides whether a suspect is charged with a crime?
A writ of habeas corpus is a
writ requesting a judge determine if a person is being legally detained
Your friend wants to examine changes in the murder rate of the last 10 years. What data
uniform Crime Reports (UCR)
A young man plans to murder his wife. He outlines a plan to shoot her in her sleep and dump
A young woman gets angry and throws a large stone through an office window. The stone hits
A young boy who has never committed a crime is often called "bad" because of his look,
If you are incarcerated and feel that you are being confined illegally, you would file a ________
so that the courts would review the constitutionality of your confinement.
habeas corpus petition
If you have been charged with a crime and denied bail because a judge believes that you are
a flight risk, you can be held on
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