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The Albany plan- The idea of the colonies joining to create a larger government.
The French and Indian war (7 year war) 1750’s Preceded the American Revolutionary war by a couple decades. The French were trying to expanding and trying to make strengthen there territory. The British and the Colonies did not like this.
The Currency Act is the name of several acts of the Parliament of Great Britain that regulated paper money issued by the colonies of British America. The acts sought to protect British merchants and creditors from being paid in depreciated colonial currency. The policy created tension between the colonies and Great Britain, and was cited as a grievance by colonists early in the American Revolution.
John Locke’s ideas inspired the first paragraph of the Declaration of Independence.
The Gaspée Affair was a significant event in the lead-up to the American Revolution. HMS Gaspée, a British revenue schooner that had been enforcing unpopular trade regulations, ran aground in shallow water on June 9, 1772, near what is now known as Gaspee Point in the city of Warwick, Rhode Island, while chasing the packet boat Hannah. In a notorious act of defiance, American patriots led by Abraham Whipple and John Brown attacked, boarded, looted, and torched the ship.
Also known as the Coercive Acts; a series of British measures passed in 1774 and designed to punish the Massachusetts colonists for the Boston Tea Party. For example, one of the laws closed the port of Boston until the colonists paid for the tea that they had destroyed. Although the acts were intended to check colonial opposition to Britain, they only inflamed it.
In this plan proposed by Lord North and adopted by the House of Commons in February 1775, Parliament would forbear taxation of Americans in colonies whose assemblies imposed taxes considered satisfactory by the British govenrment. The Continental Congress rejected this plan on July 31, 1775.
John Dickinson drafted the Olive Branch Petition, which was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 5 and submitted to King George on July 8, 1775. It was an attempt to assert the rights of the colonists while maintaining their loyalty to the British crown. King George refused to read the petition and on August 23 proclaimed that the colonists had "proceeded to open and avowed rebellion."
Some people did not want to separate from England because they had military doubts. They were worried about economic problems, and they believed the Britain is their mother country.
During their southern campaign in 1780, the British aimed to alarm the Colonists by inciting massive slave revolts. Lord Dunmore, as Royal Governor of Virginia, sought to disrupt the efforts of the patriots by promising freedom to their slaves in exchange for military service with the royal army. Not only would this create civil unrest, but it could potentially cripple the nation's slave driven economy.
A major battle of the Revolutionary War, fought in 1777 in northern New York state. Benedict Arnold, who had not yet turned traitor, was a leader of the American offensive, which forced the surrender of British troops under General John Burgoyne. The Battle of Saratoga is often called the turning point of the war, because it increased the confidence of the French government in the American forces; France began sending aid the next year.
A valley in eastern Pennsylvania that served as quarters for the American army in one winter (1777–1778) of the Revolutionary War. George Washington, who was commanding the army, had been forced to leave Philadelphia, and his troops suffered from the cold and from lack of supplies. Though many deserted, Washington managed to maintain the morale of the rest. He was aided by Baron von Steuben, a German officer on his staff, who trained the men in the soldiering practices of Europe.
- Met a couple weeks after Lexington and Concord.
- Supported war and wanted to break away from Great Britain
- Formed the Continental Army with George Washington as commander
- Created Declaration of Independence\\
- Coordinators of war efforts
- sent a letter to the British asking them to give the Colonists the rights of english man, because the colonists tried to stop the war from becoming a war but the British would not compromise.
- British were 32,000 strong and controlling NYC
- Washington could only gather 19,000 weak soldiers
- British gave option not to fight, but Washington would not give up and deccided to fight
- British caused Americans to retreat all the way to Pennsylvania
Battles of Princeton and Trenton
Washington could not sit still after NYC campaigns
- Washington crossed over the Deleware to fight again and surprise the British on Christmas night
- scattered Hessions and british all over the place
- drove British force from base in Princeton
- However, in the end he was unable to hold Princeton or Trenton
- captured Fort Ticonderoga
- invaded Quebec
- Created America's first navy at St. Johns
- delayed British on Lake Champlain
- key figure in Battle of Saratoga
- Obtained command of West Point
Why France supported the American Cause
France was eager to see Britain lose a crucial part of its empire
- informally supported war by providing supplies
- officially supported war after the Battle at Saratoga was won
***French loved Ben Franklin
- Felt he was treated unfairly
- Didn't receive proper recognition
- Rumors were spread about him abusing power
- Accused of stealing money
- Embarrassed, humiliated, and angry Arnold left the colonies and helped the British durrong the rest of the war
The intellectual movement that dominated the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Europe. Believing that the universe operated through natural laws that human beings, using their powers of reason, could understand, "enlightened" thinkers argued that once these laws were understood, people could devise means of living within them.
Valued the idea of:
2. individual freedom
3. popular sovereneity
- lack of coordination with Saratoga
- different type of warfare
- not properly following through on war plans (Howe)
- allowing Washington to retreat and regroup
- nicknamed The Swamp Fox because he was always able to elude Banastre Tarleton by taking swamp paths
- father of guerrilla warfare
British moved to the South because the Loyalists were strongest in this region
However, British overestimated the Loyalists' setiment. Loyalists would not aid British
- "Revolutionary" because it had the effect of mobilizing and politicizing large groups of the population who had previously remained aloof from the struggle. With the war expanding into previously isolated communites, many civilians forced to involve themselves whether they liked it or not. Supported independence
***Read conclusion on page 160
A combination of luck, brilliance, determination, and timely aid from abroad allowed the Patriots to make full use of the advantages of fighting on their own U.S. soil and to frustrate British designs time and again.
- aid from abroad
- stabolize governments
Loyalists- Became intolerable and many fled to Canada
Quakers- revolution weakend Quakers. Were unpopular because of their pacifism.
Catholics- catholicism became much stronger, especially because of French
Slaves- the war had limited significance for slaves
Women- women gained more responsibilities because husbands left to fight, some women joined, became nurses, women's rights more appearant
- American trade, trade, TRADE!
- prejudice, profits, and priorities
- Felt that slaves were inferior
- very contradicting-- wanted to abolish slavery but at the same time keep slavery for certain "necessities" EX: Thomas Jefferson
Jefferson said this in a quote referring to slavery.
If you are thinking of it as slavery, it means that a slave owner is the person holding the wolf by its ears. Whereas the slave is the wolf. The wolf (slave) is captured and no one is letting it free.
Articles did not make it entirely clear that the Congress was to be a real government. As a result, the new nation had to fight a war for its own survival with a weak and uncertain central government, never sure of its own legitimacy.
Americans signed treaties with Indians for land settlements. However, violence between whites and Indiances reached a crescendo in the early 1790s.
Little Turtle- Miami warrior led confederacy in its wars with the United States in what is now Ohio and Indiana. For a time he was almost invincible.
Causes and Consequences of Shay's Rebellion
demands that included paper money, tax relief, moratorium on debts, relocation of state capital, and abolition of imprisonment for debt
added to the movement to produce a new, national constitution
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