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She was very important in the women’s right movement. She and Elizabeth Cady Stanton attended an anti-slavery conference and were told to sit in the balcony and not participate because they were women. They wanted to start a women’s rights conference in America. They organized the Seneca Falls convention to call for women's rights using the Declaration of Sentiments . They asked for these rights in 1848. Women didn’t get to vote until 1920.
An exslave also known as "black moses" who got to freedom and then came back at least 19 times to rescue other slaves. She knew that people knew that she was illiterate and had an iron shaped scar and would sometimes pretend to read and disguise herself. She was a spy for the north during the civil war.
Sarah and Angelina Grimke were southern abolitionists. They were raised on a farm with slaves.
Angelina saw her friend force a slave woman to work with a spike collar on and was horrified that she anyone would ever do that to another human. She fled to the North. There were “slave breakers” who were hired to work or punish problematic slaves. Sarah Grimke walked in on a slave being “broken” and was disgusted. She fled from the South and joined her older sister in the North. The Grimke sisters discovered that their brother had children with one of his slaves. They took in their two black nephews. They were prominent in both abolition and women's rights movements.
The Dred Scott decision was able to be worked around for those who feared the expansion of slavery. Stephen Douglas called to the northerners to move to the empty territories and pass constitutions that don’t acknowledge slavery. Without any slave codes in the law, it would make maintaining control over slaves difficult for slave owners.
Catherine Beecher wrote the Treatise on the Domestic Economy in 1841. It gave women advice on how to live. Beecher also promoted female teachers.
He was a Mexican-American War veteran and a West Point graduate. He quit the army, but failed at running business. The war started and gave him another chance. He was given control of the Union forces in the west. His task was to deny the South access to the Mississippi river. Over time Grant found sympathy for slaves. He was a terrific general. He did things directly and concisely rather than passing on orders. He was elected president in 1868.
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us -- that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion -- that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
Antietam was fought in Maryland in 1862. Lincoln had been waiting for this battle for a year. He hoped for a union win on northern ground. There were more dead in that battle than even Shiloh. After the battle, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation
Henry Beecher, the brother of the Beecher sisters, sent guns to people in Kansas, but he labeled them as bibles to be discreet. This was believable because he was a pastor. These packages of guns become known as the “Beecher bibles.”
Wade was furious with Lincoln and the emancipation. He was upset that more wasn’t done on the behalf of slaves. He felt that it was nothing more than a strategic political move. He was one of the proposers of the Wade-Davis bill.
Stephen Douglas proposed the Kansa Nebraska Act in order to secure the transcontinental railroad for the north. This act said that the territories of Kansas and Nebraska would organize under popular sovereignty. He needed these territories to become states to support the northern railroad. Nebraska was pretty much ensured to become a free state, but Kansas was surrounded by slave states. People from both the north and south fled to Kansas, resulting in what became known as "Bleeding Kansas."
Lee was asked to fight for the union, but ultimately couldn’t bring himself to fight against Virginia. He was a southern gentleman somewhat above the politics of it all. His men admired him greatly. He surrendered to save the south. His troops were starving and he knew they would never surrender themselves.
Missionaries moved to Oregon and reported back to friends and family about the great soil. Northern farmers fled there. Many took "short cuts." The Donner Party bought a short cut to Oregon, and got into the mountains just before the biggest snowfall. They ate anything; eventually each other. Some survived. Oregon wanted to enter the union as a state in 1844 (an election year) but Oregon was technically still split between America and Britain. “54’ 40, or fight” 54’40 was the boundary they wanted for Oregon.
Men did manufacturing and farming work and women took care of the home. Men occupied the public sphere and women occupied the private sphere which was represented be domesticity, submissiveness, purity, and piety; the “Cult of true womanhood.”
Garrison was a white man in the North who believes that abolition is the only thing anyone should be talking about. He published many adamant anti-slavery articles in his newspaper called “The Liberator.” He was never a popular man. Even in Boston, a center of antislavery sentiment, he was hooted and pelted with stones when he spoke in public. His workplace was burnt to the ground.
Free Soil Party supported “free soil, free labor, free speech, and free men.” They were not abolitionists; they believed the South had a constitutional right to their slaves, but they did not want slavery to spread to the West. They feared it would cripple the Western economy like it had crippled the South.
They were leading abolitionists in the West. Elijah Lovejoy gave an antislavery speech in Illinois. A mob broke into the house and killed him. His brother, Owen Lovejoy continued to work for the Underground Railroad.
The 2nd Seminole war lasted 7 years, from 1835 – 1842. Americans chased the Seminoles through the swamps in Florida, catching diseases and becoming frustrated. The US called a truce, and when the Seminoles approached they captured Oseola, the leader, and paid the rest of the Indians to leave.
A story in 1851 about a runaway slave that made it to Boston and worked as a waiter until a slave catcher came to take him back. An angry mob tried to save Sims. The slave catcher holed up in a jail with Sims and chained it up so they would stay away.
Nat Turner’s Rebellion resulted in harsher slave laws. Nat Turner had been a house slave, so he knew how to read. On the night of August 21, 1831, armed with little more than farm tools, his band swept across Southampton county, killing sixty whites and recruiting supporters from among their slaves.
Women were not recommended to work, especially not in the gore of medicine, but women like Clara Barton made nursing a viable job for women. She would figure out what kind of medicines soldiers needed and bring it to the troops. She founded the red cross.
An abolitionist who wanted to open a school for girls in Connecticut and allow a young free African American girl. The government objected. They passed a law that nobody living outside the city limits could attend the school, which excluded the young African American.
In 1862, early in the war, bread prices escalated because of the worthless money. So women broke into the stores to steal bread to feed their starving families, but they ended up taking more than just bread. Jefferson Davis threatened to shoot women who did not stop. Several were jailed.
When Union troops raided the southern cities they stole many things from southern homes and ships. There were prize cases in the Supreme Court over whether it was legal for Northerners to keep things they captured from Southerners.
Because of the Kansas Nebraska Act, extremist antislavery and proslavery people fled to Kansas to claim the state for their cause. Both sides would forge extra signatures and send in fraudulent constitutions. The proslavery and antislavery groups on Kansas fought. John Brown, an abolitionist, killed several proslavery people in Kansas.
Clay proposed the Compromise of 1850. California would come in as a free state, New Mexico and Utah would organize under popular sovereignty, New Mexico and Texas would settle their border dispute, and there'd be no more slave trade in Washington DC. The government forgot Texas' war debts in return for the piece of land taken from them. The fugitive slave law was enhanced, forcing citizens to assist in the catching of a slave if asked. Douglas had to urge the compromises through congress individually.
The Know-Nothing’s were anti-Catholics that were trying to preserve jobs for the average American worker. They did not like foreigners and Catholics who were competing for their jobs.state. It was
a highly secret organization. Members were instructed to respond to questions about the Order by saying, “I Know Nothing.”
At the battle at Shiloh, Grant was afraid that if his front line retreated the battle would be lost. He spent the entire first day running between his lines, moving guys up as necessary, slowly overpowering the South. Before the battle he did not know the strength of the Confederacy. Shiloh resulted in 10,000 casualties; the bloodiest battle in America to date.
Abolitionists who drove for liberty.
Hysteria symptoms: inexplicable sadness, happiness, anti socialness, of flirtatiousness. Often occurred in woman between the ages of 14 and 45. It was thought that once a month blood would flow from their brains making them unpredictable and un-trustable. If women were hysterical they would bleed them with a leech. (They put it where the problem was, which was assumed to be the uterus) If that failed, they would inject hot tea or oil into your cervix. Men with these symptoms were sent on a vacation to Europe.
Jackson signed 94 Indian removal territories during his presidency, breaking quite a few previous treaties.
In 1830, Jackson signs the Indian Removal Act - the president had the authority to remove Indian tribes.
Some tribes immediately agreed and left willingly. Most did not. The Cherokees fought the removal legally in court.
Charles Finney was a big participant in the 2nd great awakening. He stayed and did nightly revivals in Rochester for 6 months. Called people to renew their relationships with God and call their neighbors to do the same. He wanted to create a millennial moment, where if everybody had a public conversion moment, and everyone became Christian, than Christianity would reign in America for 1000 years.
Osceola was the leader of the Seminoles, who disappeared into Florida while running away from the US military. The US called a truce, and when the Seminoles approached they captured Osceola and paid the rest of the Indians to leave.
The 2nd BUS was supposed to live from 1816 to 1836. Jackson served from 1828 to 1836. The vote for the charter for the BUS was moved up to 1832. Biddle, the president of the BUS, thought Jackson would ignore it or try to fight it and be resented by the general pubic. Jackson vetoed it. It still remained until 1836, so he drew money from the BUS and placed it in state “pet” banks. During Van Buren’s presidency, after the end of the BUS, the American economy declined drastically.
In 1819 America bought Florida for $5 million. Established Spain’s version of the Texas/Louisiana boarder.
In New York in the 1820’s Joseph Smith had angels come to him. He was directed to find golden tablets buried in the hills of New York that were the further word of God. He was told not to show them to anyone. He dictated what was on the tablets for someone to write down, and then they disappeared. Beginning of the Mormon Church. Polygamy was allowed in the Mormon Church until the late nineteenth century.
He entered college at 10 and graduated at 13 but wasn’t given degree because he was too young. He continued to Princeton and was Valedictorian at 15. He travelled the world. He was named president of the BUS at age 37. Jackson hated him.
A small piece of land purchased in 1853 in the interests of a southern transcontinental railroad. It was needed to get around the mountains.
Proposed at the end of the war. Suggested how to let the South back in to the Union. They wanted to remove voting and leading rights from confederate leaders and take the land of slave owners and give it to ex-slaves. Lincoln vetoed it.
The Anti-Masons were mostly catholic. They believed that Masons were anti-Catholic because they did not enforce catholic beliefs.
Clay's proposal: California would come in as a free state, New Mexico and Utah would organize under popular sovereignty, the border dispute between New Mexico and Texas would be settled, the government would forget Texas' war debts in exchange for the piece of land taken from them, slave trade would end in Washington D.C., and a stricter fugitive slave act (citizens obligated to assist in capture of slave if asked) would be enforced. Douglas had to urge the compromise through congress in pieces.
The author of Godey’s Lady’s Book, a magazine that revealed all of the things women were supposed to do and idealize.
Polk was elected in 1845 and immediately allowed Texas in as a state. In 1846, war was declared between the US and Mexico.
The Second Great Awakening occurred in the North in huge cities fueled by industry. Religion provided an answer for people in towns experiencing rapid growth. Women often spread the word during the second Great Awakening, but they would not have a high place in the church later. Wanted to create a millennial moment, where if everybody had a public conversion, and everyone became Christian, than Christianity would reign in America for 1000 years.
Served as democratic president in 1824. John Quincy Adams called attention to the fact that there was nothing in the Constitution allowing the acceptance of another country as a state. He died as he was arguing against the war on Mexico. He often read abolitionist papers in congress in violation of the gag rule.
187 Texans vs. 3,000 Mexicans led by Santa Anna. Travis, the leader of the Alamo, wrote to Houston asking for support from the rangers. The rangers refused to come. The Texans still didn’t surrender. The battle lasted 13 days. All of the Texans died.
Aaron Ogden held a monopoly on steamboat navigation on the Hudson River granted by the New York state legislature. Thomas Gibbons had a federal license to run steamboats across the Hudson between New York and New Jersey. Ogden tried to stop him. Marshall ruled that Gibbons’s federal license trumped Ogden’s state granted monopoly. Stated that states couldn’t regulate interstate commerce.
anaconda plan. A plan to squeeze the South, and cut them off until they whither.
Moses Austin was one of first Americans to move to Texas followed by about 500 others. So many people moved to Texas with their slaves to grow cotton that Santa Anna eventually forbade slavery and passed import duties, so Americans had to pay import taxes on anything that they brought into the country. Steven Austin, Moses' son, went to Mexico City to protest his leadership. He was captured and Lorenzo de Zavala helped him.
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