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American inventor credited with the invention of the phonograph, motion picture camera, and light bulb
scientist, inventor, and engineer who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone.
American oil driller, popularly credited with being the first to drill for oil in the US in Titusville, PA
-Developed by Henry Bessemer and William Kelly around 1850
-Involved injecting air into molten iron to remove the carbon and other impurities
-Mass production of steel
first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel
1,907 mile contiguous railroad line constructed between 1863 and 1869 to connect the Pacific coast to the existing Eastern U.S. rail network
location where the Central Pacific lines and the Union Pacific lines met on May 10, 1869
area of high ground most famous for the point of completion of the transcontinental railroad on May 10, 1869
-Proposed by Professor C. F. Dowd
-Divided the earth's surface into 24 time zones, one for each hour
-U.S. contained 4 time zones : Pacific, Mountain, Central, Eastern
-In 1880, he built a factory for manufacturing sleepers and other railroad cars on the Illinois prairie.
-The town of Pullman provided for almost all of workers' basic needs.
-The town was firmly under company control.
-He refused to lower rents after cutting his employees' pay --> a violent strike in 1894
an American engineer and industrialist who designed and manufactured the Pullman sleeping car and founded a company town, Pullman, for the workers who manufactured it
A Scottish immigrant who witnessed the Bessemer process and later dominated the steel industry
a company’s taking over its suppliers and distributors and transportation systems to gain total control over the quality and cost of its product.
a process in which Carnegie tried to buy out competing steel producers and limit his competition. In this process, companies producing similar products merge.
an economic and social philosophy that a system of unrestrained competition will ensure the survival of the fittest.
-A philosophy that grew out of Charles Darwin's theory of biological evolution.
-It says that some individuals of a species flourish and pass their traits along to the next generation, while others do not.
-It suggested that success and failure in business were governed by natural law, and no one had the right to intervene.
-Established the Standard Oil Company
-It joined with competing companies in trust agreements.
-Workshops in tenements rather than in factories where workers had little choice but to endure the squalid conditions.
-Sweatshop employment was often the only avenue open to women and children.
-a Jewish immigrant who led the Cigar Makers' International Union to join other craft unions in 1886
-the president of AFL
An economic and political system based on government control of business and property and equal distribution of wealth.
law that regulated railroads and the rates they charged farmers
-Many immigrants came to think of themselves as "hyphenated" Americans
-As hard as tried to fit in, they felt increasing friction with native-born people
-A mixture of people of different cultures and races who blended together by abandoning their native languages and customs
-1907 - 1908
-President Theodore Roosevelt
-Japan's government agreed to limit emigration of unskilled workers to the U. S. in exchange for the repeal of the San Francisco segregation order.
Became head of Tammany Hall in 1868 and led the Tweed ring
A landscape architect who spearheaded the movement for planned urban parks.
In 1857, he and Calvert Vaux helped draw up a plan for "Greensward," which was selected to become Central Park in New York City.
-Experimented with new engines powerful enough to keep a craft that was heavier than air aloft.
-At first, they built a glider.
-Their first successful flight happened on December 17, 1903, at Kitty Hawk, NC.
-the great potential of flight-By 1920, the U.S. government established the first transcontinental airmail service.
A prominent African American educator who believed that racism would end once blacks obtained useful labor skills and proved their economic value to society.
-Graduated from Virginia's Hampton Intitute.
-By 1881, he headed the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in AL.
-Was founded in 1905 by Du Bois.
-Insisted that blacks should seek a liberal arts education so that the African-American community would have well-educated leaders.
Consisted of amateurs from sandlots of the city’s Hill district, later became most dominating team of mid-1930s, won 1935 Negro National League championship, and had five future Hall of Famers.
A professional Negro league baseball team based in Homestead, PA
It was formed by Cumberland Posey in 1912.
A professional Negro league baseball team based in Homestead, PA. It was formed by Cumberland Posey in 1912.
He was a progressive Republican leader who made Wisconsin lead the way in regulating big business.
His main target was the railroad industry.
A muckraking journalist whose focus was the human condition in the stockyards of Chicago.
"The Jungle" (1906) accounted for the sickening conditions of the meatpacking industry.
President Theodore Roosevelt invited Sinclair and said the evils would be eradicated.
*National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
*led by W.E.B. DuBois
A wealthy lawyer from Seattle who was appointed the secretary of the interior by Taft
Disapproved of conservationist controls on western lands, removed 1 million acres of forest and mining lands from the reserved list, and returned it to the public domain.
A reform governor of NJ (Southern background), who won the 1912 presidential election and became the 28th president of the U.S. (Democrat)
Claimed progressive ideals and believed in attacking large concentrations of power to give greter freedom to average citizens.
-the 28th President of the U.S.
-presented his plan for world peace
-delivered Fourteen Points speech before Congress
-called for the creation of the League of Nations
A banker who headed United States Steel, which was one of the most successful holding companies. The company bought Carnegie Steel in 1901.
-NLU was the first large-scale national organization of laborers formed in 1866 by William H. Sylvis. It focused on linking existing local unions.
-CNLU was created due to the refusal of some NLU
local chapters to admit African Americans.
-KofL was formed in 1869 by Uriah Stephens, who focused on individual workers. It was open to all workers, regardless of age, gender, and degree of skill.
-AFL was the alliance of trade and craft unions, formed in 1886. It focused on collective bargaining, negotiation between representatives of labor and management, and strikes.
-an organization formed by radical unionists and socialists in Chicago in 1905
-regardless of race
-An organizer in the women's labor movement
-Supported the Great Srike of 1877
-Organized for the United Mine Workers of America (UMW)
-Attempted to end child labor by leading 80 mil children on a march to the home of President Theodore Roosevelt
-A fire that broke out at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory, NY, on March 25, 1911.
-146 women died.
-The public could no longer tolerate conditions in garment factories.
-A jury acquitted the factory owners of manslaughter, and in response, the state of NY set up a task force to study factory working conditions.
fire 146 lives when it quickly consumed oil soaked machinery and piles of cloth.
Fire escapes were locked because they didn't want people to escape on normal days.
the part or accommodations in a passenger ship allotted to the passengers who travel at the cheapest rate.
Often accommodated traveling immigrants.
-The chief immigration station in the U.S. from 1892 to 1924
-for European immigrants arriving on the East Coast
-About 20% of the immigrants at Ellis Island in NY Harbor were detained for a day or more before being inspected, and the inspection was an ordeal that took 5 hours or more. Only about 2% were denied entry.
-physical examination -> government inspector
-for Asians - mostly Chinese - arriving on the West Coast
-in San Francisco Bay
-Immigrants endured harsh questioning and a long detention in filthy, ramshacklke buildings -> in contrast to the procedure at Ellis Island
1. Pass a physical examination by a doctor.
2. Report to a government inspector. -> The inspector questioned immigrants to determine whether they met the legal requirements for entering the U.S. -> no felony, ability to work, some money (at least $25 after 1909)
Pendleton Civil Service Act of 1883
Authorized a bipartisan civil service commission to make appointments to federal jobs through a merit system based on candidates' performance on an examination.
Changes in transportation that allowed cities to spread outward and included electric streetcars, elevated trains, and subways.
-Also called trolley cars
-Ran from outlying neighborhoods to downtown offices and department stores using electricity
Between 1865 and 1895, states pased laws requiring 12 to 16 weeks annually of school attendance by students between the ages of 8 and 14.
The curriculum emphasized reading, writing, and arithmetic.
2/3 -> private schools, no government financial support
majority -> private schools
They were often set up by Catholic communities to give their children a Catholic education.
Catholic communities were concerned because many public schools favored the King James Version of the Bible.
-Now called Tuskegee University
-It aimed to equip African Americans with teaching diplomas and useful skills in agricultural, domestic, or mechanical work.