America?s Irreplaceable Dance Treasures: The First 100 Alvin Ailey (1931-1989) Born in Roger?s Texas Began training in LA with Lester Horton Broadway debut in 1954 House of Flowers Choreographed: Blues Suite (childhood memories in Texas) Revelations (modern dance classic) Masekela Language Cry (Judith Jamison; set to soul music) Favorite composer: Duke Ellington Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater (founded in 1958) Died due to AIDS American Ballet Theater (Ballet Theater until 1957) Founded in 1940 by Lucia Chase and Richard Pleasant Produced modern works Anthony Tudor?s Pillar of Fire Agnes de Mille?s Fall River Legend Jerome Robbin?s Fancy Free Full length Swan Lake (1966 staged by David Blair) Erik Bruhn restaged La Sylphide Stars: Cynthia Gregory, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Gelsey Kirkland, and Natalia Makarova Postmodern Push Comes to Shove by Twyla Tharp 1890s (Baryshnikov served as artistic director) The Sleeping Beauty Romeo and Juliet (Kenneth MacMillan) Successor ? Kevin McKenzie American Bandstand~ Televised locally and nationally for 37 years Dick Clark Late afternoon television dance party Show originated as Bandstand in 1952 in Philadelphia Bob Horn (host) joined by Dick Clark (August 5, 1957) ABC-TV showed Monday-Friday viewed by millions of teenagers Assimilated fads in dance and music Twist early 1960s Disco during the 1970s Presented young singers In Guinness Book of World Records for longest running show Off air by September 1989 (MTV started August 1, 1981) The American Dance Festival Clive Barnes heralded its greatness in New York Post Anna Kisselgoff praised in New York Times Since 1934 it has presented over 535 premieres and commissions Creative laboratory for choreographers, dancers, students, teachers, critics, musicians, and scholars. Among the oldest training ground for professionals and young modern dancers International and national programs Humanities projects, community outreach, educations programs and classes, preservation efforts, archives, and media projects. Fred Astaire~ (1899-1987) Dancer and choreographer on vaudeville and Broadway stages Shaped standards for filming dance as a star on Hollywood musicals Began vaudeville career at age 6 with sister made 150$ week Top hat and cane signature hallmarks The Astaire?s made 10 Broadway shows between 1917-1932 Lady be Good (1924) Funny Face (1927) The Band Wagon (1931) First Solo Gay Divorce by Cole Porter Movies Dancing Lady with Joan Crawford Flying Down to Rio (assured position in Hollywood) 212 musical numbers on film The camera follow choreographic flow, while sustaining dance continuality Established a mode for using the medium in the service of art Charles ?Cholly? Atkins~ (1913-) Career began as a singing waiter Formed a vaudeville act known as ?Rhythm Pals? with William Porter Atkins then joined Cotton Club Boys (appearing w/ Bill Bojangles Robinson) The class act formed with Honi Cole lasted through the 1950s Choreographer for Motown Records Temptations, Supremes, Cadillacs and Aretha Franklin Work become known as ?vocal choreography? Atkins won a tony in 1989 for Black and Blue (tap) In 1993 he received a three-year NEA choreographer fellowship to record his memories? George Balanchine (1904-1983) Born in Saint Petersburg, Russia Foremost choreographer of the 20th century Architect of classical ballet in America Influenced Technique, choreography style, music, costume, lighting, and stage design Far reaching Heir to 2 great legacies Marius Petipa and Saint Petersburg Imperial Ballet Serge Diaghilev Served his apprenticeship 1993 settled in NY Choreographed hundreds of ballets Some modern, some traditional With Igor Stravinsky Apollo (1928), Orpheus (1948), Agon (1957) Balasaraswati ~ (1918-1984) Native of Madras Personified the Tanjore interpretation of bharata natyam (classical dance style from Southern India) Debut at 7 years old Admired for abhinaya (expressive mime) Seventh generation in family to be associated with classical dance and music Trained by eminent Kandappa Pillia Went on tour for bharata natyam first in Tokyo (1961) Then to North America (1962) Performed at Jacobs Pillow, & Edinburg Festival Associated with American universities Balasaraswati School of Music and Dance in Berkley Received Exemplary Golden Lotus at home Colonel Wassily de Basil?s Ballets Russes and Sergei Denham?s Ballet Russe, American Tours Caused the American Romance with ballet of 1930s and boom of 1940s Began as Colonel Wassily de Basil?s Ballets Russes Split and changed names, first tour in 1934 Stars Alexandra Danilova, ?Baby Ballerinas? Irina Baronova, Tatiana Riabouchinska, and Tmara Toumanova Ballets of Leonide Massine dominated in 1930s George Balanchine became artistic director in 1944 American Dancers Maria Tallchief Last dance 1962 Mikhail Baryshnikov (1948-) Born in Latvia Studied at Leningrad?s Vaganova unger Alexander Pushkin 1967 debut with the Kirov Ballet Technical Mastery of a danseur noble 1974 joined American Ballet Theater Partnership with Gelsey Kirkland Starred in Twyla Tharp?s Push Come to Shove 1980 brief stunt with New York City Ballet Became artistic director of ABT Tenure lasted until 1989 Commissioned works from Mark Morris and Choo San Goh 1990 formed White Oak Dance Project A concert group with modern dance works Greatest dancer of his time Starred in movies and TV specials Busby Berkley ~(1895-1976) Training in army Entertainment officer in 1917 1930 ? 20 Broadway musicals and film debut Whoopee with Eddie Cantor 1st hit movie 42nd Street with Ruby Keeler, Dick Powell, and Ginger Rogers Other works Gold Diggers of 1933, Footlight Parade, Dames, Fashions of 1934, Wonder Bar, In Caliente, Gold Diggers of 1935, Gold Diggers of 1937, Varsity Show, and Hollywood Hotel Invented cinema techniques, created unusual camera angles, and incorporated rolling platforms, mirrors, and wide angle lens Stage Finale ? 1971 No, No Nanette! Staring Ruby Keeler Adolf Bolm (1884-1951) Studied at Saint Petersburg?s Imperial Ballet School First danced with the corps, then as a soloist Partner Anna Pavlova on her 1st European Tour 1909 joined Diaghilev?s Ballet Russes Created a furor as chief warrior in Polovtsian Dances Settled in US and career blossomed 1st US production of Le Coq d?Or Jazz performance of Krazy Kat Created numerous ballets for Chicago Allied Arts World Premier of Igor Stravinsky?s Apollon Musagete Served as Ballet Master of San Fransisco Works at the Hollywood Bowl Choreographed for American Ballet Theater Michael Bennet~(1943-1987) Director and choreographer Created musical genre-verite (integrates realistic concept and theatrical magic) Winner of 7 Tony awards for choreography and direction Success with A Chorus Line (1975) won a Pulitzer Prize Leading creative force on broadway Productions: A Joyful Noise (1966), The world of Henry Orient (1967) Other productions: Promises, Coco, Company, Follies, Twigs, Seesaw, Ballroom, and Dreamgirls Benngington School of Dance 1st center for the study of modern dance Founded by Martha Hill, Mary Josephine Shelly, amd Robert DevoreLeigh The ?Big Four? of modern dance ? Martha Graham, Doris Humphrey, Hanya Holm, and Charles Weidman (core faculty) 42 dancers premiered: Merce Cunningham, Anna Sokolow, Jose Limon, Alwin Nikolais, Anna Halprin, Erick Hawkins, Bessie Schonberg Trisha Brown ~ (1936-) Founding member of Judson Dance Theater and Grand Union Choreographs dances that defy gravity Idea of levitating ? Trillium (1962) Trisha Brown Company established in 1970 Experimented Pieces: Roof Piece (1971), Accumulation, then became Accumulation with Taking plus Water Motor, If You Couldn?t See Me, You Can See US (1996) Collaborations: Glacial Decoy (1979) with Robert Rauschenberg, Opal Loop (1980) with Fujiko Nakaya?s fog sculpture Commissioned scores such composers: Laurie Anderson, Peter Zummo, and Richard Landry Awards: Dance Magazine Award, Lawrence Olivier Award, and Chevalier dans l?Ordre de Arts et des Lettre Named by President Clinton to the National Council on the Arts in 1994 John W. Bubbles~ (1902-1986) Ten years old teamed up with 6 year old ?Buck? Washington Buck and Bubbles ? singing dancing comedy act (half century) Featured in: Ziegfeld Follies (1931) First black artists to play New York?s Radio City Music Hall Best known: Porgy and Bess (1935) by George Gershwin Significant contribution: Jazz into tap dancing, (add heel drops, turns, syncopation) Associated with Hoofers Club in Harlem Appeared in: Varsity Show (1937), Cabin in the Sky (1943) and A Song is Born (1948) Played Palace theater with Judy Garland in 1967 Appeared in Black Broadway (1979) Received the 1980 Life Achievement Award from the American Guild of Variety Artist Irene and Vernon Castle~ (1893-1969 and 1887-1918) Ballroom dancing couple Music arranger Ford T. Dabney and band were black Brought ragtime and jazz based dances Vernon arrived in NY with Lew Fields Married Irene in 1911 First appearance together was at Paris?s theater Olympia dancing to ?Alexander?s ragtime band? Opened Castle House ? a dancing school across from the Ritz hotel Introduced: Tea Dances, the Castle?s Clubs (Sans Souci and Castles in the Air) Stylish renditions: one-step, maxixe, tango, fox trot, Castle Polka, Hesitation Waltz, and Castle Walk 1914 Whirlwind Tour: 32 Cities, in 28 days In Charles Dillingham?s Watch You Step Vernon joined the British Air Force Farewell performance at the New York Hippodrome Vernon died and Irene had a career in film The Story of Vernon and Irene Castle (1939) Charleston ~ First saw it in New York?s Colonial Theater in the Black Musical Runnin? Wild Embraced the dance as a declaration of female emancipation, the victorious outcome of WWI, and embodiment of an image of ?No Restraints? Empowered by ratification of 19th amendment Women voters discarded long skirts and bustles and sported bobs and high kicks and arm swining Charleston a couple dance Crouched position for the interlacing of knees and hands in contrast to the upswing of the ankles and wrists Jazz based music, 4/4 rhythmical beat for flappers (executed a line dance version) Lucia Chase (1907-1986) Driving force behind American Ballet Theater (first 4 decades) Born into wealthy family in Waterbury Connecticut Studies Ballet with Mikail Mordkin in late 1930s Danced leading roles with his company Founding member of Ballet Theater Dramatic dancer in world by Antony Tudor, Agnes de Milles, and Michel Fokine 1945 with designer Oliver Smith named co-director (held position till 1980 Gave money from her private fortune to the company so it could survive In 1980 she received the Presidential Medal of Honor Christiansen Brothers William (1902-2001), Harold (1904-1989), and Lew (1909-1984) Born into a family of Mormon dance and music masters in Utah Established ballet in Western US Early training from family members Made professional debut as a vaudeville act 1934 ? Harold and Lew studies under Balanchine and Lincoln Kristen Lew most gifted danced title role of Balanchine?s Apollo Lew choreographed Filling Station for Kirstein?s Ballet Caravan William began an association with San Francisco Opera Ballet until 1955 Harold artistic director (1943-1975) Lew artistic director (1951-1984) William established a ballet program at Utah University By 1968 the original student company become Ballet West Jack Cole ~ (1911-1974) Father of jazz dance Began Career with Denishawn Appearing first time in August 1930 at Lewisohn Stadium Early training with Cecchetti Studied with Doris Humphery and Charles Weidman Performing with them on Broadway (School for Husbands in 1953) Master of bharata natyam (Indian) Broadway works Magdelena (1948), Jamaica (1957) Donnybrook and Kean (1961) Established important dance workshop at Columbia Pictures in Hollywood to train dancers, choreograph movies, television shows and casino shows Twentieth century fox he coached stars like Marilyn Monroe and Ann Miller Films include: Eadie was a lady (1945), Down to earth (1947), on the Riviera (1951) and Hello Dolly (1969) Protégés: Gwen Verdon, Matt Mattox, Marc Platt, Carol Haney, Rod Alexander Honi Coles ~ (1911-1992) Self-taught tap dancer From Philidephia 1931 joined Miller Brothers Played 1934 opening of Harlem?s Apollo Theater Teamed with Charles ?Cholly? Atkins Toured with big bands of Duke Ellington, Count Basie and Cab Calloway The duo?s soft shoe routine ?Taking a Chance on Love? (class act) CBS-TV ?Camera Three? based on The tap dance kid Broadway: Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1949), Bubblin? Brown Sugar (1979) Won a Tony in 1983 for his role in My One and Only Awarded National Medal of Arts (1991) Aaron Copeland (1900-1990) Dean of Composers Music epitomized spirit of America in 1930s and 1940s Commissioned by Ruth Page Hear Ye! Hear Ye! (1934) First composition to be choreographed Billy the Kid (1939) commissioned by Lincoln Kirstein for Ballet Caravan choreographed by Eugene Loring Used American folk tunes Rodeo (1942) Merce Cunningham (1919-) Born in Centralia, Washington Trained at the Cornish School, Mills College, and the School of American Ballet Danced with Martha Graham Company (1939-1945) Appalachian Spring Founded Merce Cunningham Dance Company Controversial Methods Asadata Dafora ~ (1890-1965) Came to US from Sierra Leona 1929 formed Shogola Oloba to perform dance dramas based off West African myth and lore 1934 Kykunkor (The Witch Woman) Also Created Zunga and Zungure Coauthor with Orson Welles of the radio play Trangama-Fanga His Company became the Federal Theater African Dance Troupe McBeth in Haiti Excelled as a singer, writer, composer, dancer, and choreographer Pearl Primus was inspired by him to incorporate African elements in choreography and performance Dance Notation Bureau DNB Mission is to record dances that will allow them to continue to be preformed Produces dance scores using (labanotation) Dance Scores provide a blue print of the work to which the performers add their artistry DNB collects production information, music scores, tapes, videotapes, photographs, etc. Archive has more than 650 dances by 160 choreographers Founded in 1940 by Ann Hutchinson Guest, Helen Priest Rogers, Eve Gentry, Jane price Only American Institution of its kind Dance Theater of Harlem Founded in 1969 by former New York City Ballet principal Arthur Mitchell Oldest black classical company Works include: Creole Giselle, Les Biches (Bronislava Nijinsky), Fall River Legend (Agnes de Milles) Leading ballerina ? Virginia Johnson Black Choreographer- Geoffrey Holder, Louis Johnson, Alvin Ailey, Alonzo King, Robert Garland, Arthur Mitchell Dance Theater Workshop ~ DTW Performing art center and producer Founded in 1965 by Jeff Duncan, Art Bauman, and Jack Moore Began as a choreographic collective, Has 8 separate programs Visibility, resources and services to independent artists, increased public involvement Home base at Bessie Schonberg Theater in Chelsea Reached locals through Family Matters Enabled an international performers to cross cultural boundaries because of The Suitcase Fund Nearly 1000 emerging and mid-career artists have produced work by DTW DTW won the 1989 Village Choice OBIE award for sustained achievement in theater presentation Alexandra Danilova (1903-1997) Studied at the Imperial Ballet School in Saint Petersburg 1920s former Maryinsky Company Danced solo and participated in Balanchine?s Young Ballet 1924 left Soviet Union and joined Diaghilev?s Ballet Russes 1933 joined Colonel de Basil?s Ballet Russes Became the Prima Ballerina of the Ballet Russes de Monte Carlo 1946 collaborated with Balanchin to produce Raymonda and created the role of the Sleepwalker in Night Shadow 1951 She formed her own concert group 1957 in Tokyo she preformed her farewell performance 1964 she joined the School of American Ballet faculty Died in NY Chuck Davis (1937-) Performer and artistic director After college graduation he began appearing with Olantunji Dance Company and with Afro-Cuban ensembles of Eleo Pomare and Bernice Johnson Pursued African themes Founded his dance company in 1964 Took troupe to Nigeria in 1977 1980 American Dance Festivals (ADF) invited Davis to be a residence in ADF?s Community Service Program in Durham ?Peace, love, respect for everybody? Mantra Agnes de Mille (1905-1993) Born in New York City Father was a playwright Inspired by Anna Palova took first ballet lessons from Theodore Koslov Attended UCLA ? received a degree in English Solo Debut in 1928 Dances she took part in: The Black Crook (1929), Antony Tudors Dark Elegies (1937), Rodeo, Choreographed for the Ballet Russes de Monte Carlo (1942) Broadway musical Oklahoma! 1940s she created a number of works for Ballet Theatre Formed Agnes de Mille Heritage Dance Theatre in the 1970s Gifted writer (Biography of Martha Graham) Edwin Denby (1903-1983) Born in Tianjin China, son of American Diplomat Most influential American critic of his era Educated at Hotchkiss and Harvard Attended the Dalcroze-based Hellerau-Laxenburg school Danced at the state Theater in Darmstadt Partnered with Clare Eckstein in Berlin Wrote first criticism in 1936 for Modern Music 1942-1945 took over dance column of the New York Harold Tribune Isadora Duncan (1877-1927) Founding mother of American modern dance Born in San Francisco Self-taught First recital in 1898 Duncan discarded the corsets, slippers, tutu and adopted tunics that freed the body Used music by Beethoven, Chopin, Gluck, Wagner Essence of dance as movement Last US tour ended in Scandal Dramatic death (scarf caught in tire and broke neck) Katherine Dunham (1909-2006) Grande dame of African-American Dance Born in Glen Ellyn, Illinois Studied with Mark Turbyfill, Ruth Page, and Ladmilla Speranzeva University of Chicago (anthropology) 1935-1936 spent 18 months studying the dance culture of the Caribbean Settled in NY she appeared at the 92 street and Y Company took part in Balanchine?s Cabin in the Sky Her technique drew on movements from the Pacific as well as Africa and the Caribbean Settled in East Saint Louis (Southern Illinois University) Suzanne Ferrell (1945-) Great muse of Balanchine?s last decade New York City Ballet Star from the 1960s-1980s Early training in Cincinnati, Ohio (born) Attended School of American Ballet of a Ford Foundation scholarship 1961 joined the New York City Ballet Leading Roles: Don Quixote, Brahms-Schoenberg Quartet, Diamonds, Chaconne, Robert Schumann?s Davidsbundlertanze, and Mozartiana Guest Artist with the National Ballet of Canada Danced with Maurice Bejarts Ballet of the 20th century from 1970-1974 Retired from NY city Ballet in 1988 Founder and artistic director of Suzanne Farrell Ballet Federal Arts Programs in Dance/ The Federal Dance Project~ (1936-1939) Represented New Deal Notable leadership by Helen Tamiris, and Doris Humphrey Provide employment during the great depression Dancers were hired in four categories Ballet, modern dance, vaudeville, teaching First performance was Gluck Sandor?s The Eternal Prodigal (1936) @ NY Ritz Theater Six cities participated New York ?modern dacne Chicago ? classical and modern dance combo Los Angeles- Americana Tampa- Spanish Portland- native American The NEA Dance Program~ An Expression of President Lyndon B Johnson?s ?Great Society? was established in 1965 First attempt at regular federal contributions to art and funding For 30 years (until the 104th Congress cut money) NEA supported new dancers and choreographers The Dance Touring Program Took dance to smaller towns Bob Fosse~ (1927-1987) Prolific director and choreographer for musicals and films Dancing in nightclubs at 13 WWII he served as a naval entertainment officer 1953 Fosse traveled to Hollywood to perform in: Kiss Me Kate, The Affairs of Dobie Gillis, and Give a girl a Break, My Sister Eileen (1955) Broadway: Pajama Game, Damn Yankees, Sweet Charity, New Girl in Town (1957), Redhead (1959) Also- How to Succeed in Business with out even trying, Little Me, Pippin, Chicago, Dancin?, and Cabaret Won a Tony for best musical in 1999 Martha Graham (1894-1991) Foremost American Choreographers of the 20th century Pioneer of the modern dance movement Creator of an important technique for training dancers Born in Allegheny, Pennsylvania Studied at the Denishawn School in Los Angeles with Ted Shawn as her mentor Settled in NY First independent concert in 1926 Formed an all female group Appalachian Spring (1944) Speech and poetry showed up in her dances Postwar works- Night Journey (1947), Clytemnestra (1958) Retired from the stage in 1968 Continued to direct Martha Graham Dance Company till 1991 (death) Savion Glover ~(1973-) ?Man Who Saved Tap Dancing? Integrated styles of the grand masters, rap and hip-hop At 12 made Broadway debut The Tap Dance Kid (1986) Black and Blue (Tony Nomination) Movies: Tap (1988) Broadway: Jelly?s Last Jam (1989), Bring in Da Noise, Bring in Da Funk (1996- won Tony) Appeared on Sesame Street for 5 seasons Choreographed and exec. Producer for ABC-TV ?Savion Glover?s Nu York? Starred in Showtime?s The Wall Choreographed the Rat Pack for HBO Glover performs with his own ensemble (Not Your Ordinary Tappers) Dances and Choreographed Bamboozled (2000) by Spike Lee Jose Greco ~(1919) Brought mass audiences to Spanish Dance Italian by birth, immigrated when he was 9 Dance lessons from Helen Veola Educated in NY?s Leonardo de Vinci High School of Art Debut in 1935 in NY Hippodrome Carmen and La Traviata Partnered in La Argentinita with his sister, Pilar Lopez Founded Ballet y Balies de Espana de Jose Greco Sponsored by Lee Shubert, Greco?s ensemble completed a 1951 US tour Films: Manolete, Sombrero, Around the World in Eighty Days, Holiday for Lovers, Ship of Fools, and The Proud and the Damned Maintains two schools New York?s Jose Greco Foundation for Hispanic Dance La Campana-Centro de Arte Espanol in Marbella, Spain Anna Halprin (1920-) Experimentalist 1950s-1960s Dance as a healing technique Born in Winnetka Illinois Studied with Margaret H?Doubler at the University of Wisconsin School of Design at Harvard Danced in Sing Out, Sweet Land in NY in 1945 Settled in Bay Area Teach and founded Dancers? Workshop in 1955 Influenced a number of Johnson Choreographers: Yvonne Rainer and Trisha Brown 1970s, diagnosed with cancer and developed ?psychokinetic visualization process? Gave workshops for people living with cancer, AIDS, etc Erick Hawkins (1909-1994) Modern dance choreographer with an independent approach to kinesthetic response Born in Trinidad CO Received BA from Harvard Took classes from Harald Kreutberg Enrolled at the School of American Ballet where he studied until 1938 Danced in Balanchine?s American Ballet and Lincoln Kristein?s Ballet Caravan Choreographed first work Showpiece (1937) 1938 joined Martha Graham Company becoming the 1st male member Partner in numerous works: Appalachian Spring (1944) Drew from native American motifs, Daoist theory and Asian forms Collaborate with composer Lucia Dlugoszewski Celebrated natural phenomenon, masks, free floating technique Margaret H?Doubler (1889-1982) Pioneer of dance education (1st to make it part of college curriculum) Born in Beloit Kansas Student of biology, chemistry, and philosophy 1910 began career as a physical education teacher at University of Wisconsin 1917 after a year of Teaching College, Columbia University she developed a student performing program (Orchesis) Inspired schools to do the same Developed a sophisticated method and philosophy of dance education Based on scientific principal Each student has potential creative abilities is nurtured Author of influential books: Dance and It?s Place in education (1925) and Dance: A Creative Art Experience (1940) Martha Hill (1900-1995) Teacher and educator of dancers and choreographers Developed first college-level programs offering professional training in modern dance Born in East Palestine, Ohio Studied at Kellogg School of Physical Education BS from Teachers College, Columbia University Danced with Martha Graham from 1929-1931 1930 director of dance at NY University (21 years) 1932-1951 she chaired department of dance at Bennington College Founded with Mary Josephine Shelly, summer school 1948 ? founding director of the American Dance Festival 3 years later she founded Julliard School of Dance Directed until 1985 Gregory Hines ~ (1946-) Dancing toddler Professional at 5 Appearing with brother as the Hines Kids Trained by tap master ? Henry Le Tang Toured for more than 2 decades Braodway: Eubie (1978), Comin? Uptown (1979), Sophisticated Ladies (1981), and Jelly?s Last Jam (1992- Tony for best Actor in a Musical) TV ?Motown Returns for Apollo? Hosted Showtime?s Dance of the Decades Guest Star for ?Tap Dance with America? and Steven Spielberg?s Amazing Stories First dance film The Cotton Club (1984), White Nights w/ Mikhail Baryshnikov (1985) and Tap (1988) Bojangles Hip-Hop ~ South Bronx block-party entertainment in the 1970s Spread through music videos 1980s Maintained impact in 1990s Hip-hop draws on a range of styles from African Diaspora, rhythm and blues, disco, salsa, reggae, capoeria, call and response, Hybrid assembled by DJs: Grandmaster Flash, Mr. Bambaataa and Kool DJ Herc Used double turn tables to cut and sample existing songs Break-dancing evolved along with it Major contributors: Public Enemy, Ice-T, Arrested Development, Beastie Boys, Salt n Pepa Graffiti artists: Phase 2, Tracy 168, Lady Pink, Toxic Fashion Designers: Tommy Hilfiger and (For Us By Us) FUBU Hanya Holm (1893-1992) Legendary pioneers of American modern dance 1930s Born in Germany and studied at the Dolcroze Institute in Hellerau Studied with Mary Wigman in Dresden in 1920s Became a member of her company and chief instructor at her school 1931 she settled in NY to direct the Wigman Institute then in 1936 name changed to Hanya Holm School of Dance Served on faculty at Bennington School of the Dance Produced her most ambitious choreography: Trend 1948 Broadway hit with her dances Kiss Me, Kate (1948), My Fair Lady (1956) and Camelot (1960) Lester Horton ~ (1906-1953) Pioneer for modern dance Brought dance to the west coast Studied at the Denishawn School and with Michio Ito The Lester Horton Dance Group first appeared in 1932 Works: 6 versions of Oscar Wilde?s erotic Salome, Le Sacre du Printemps, To Jose Clemente Orozco, the Beloved, Conquest, Art Patrons and Flight from Reality Excelled as a costume and set designer Choreographed commercial projects and dances for 19 Hollywood films Opened Dance Theater in 1948, a teaching academy that was converted into an evening performing arena Doris Humphrey (1885-1958) Pioneer of modern dance A choreographic master Theoretician Creator of technique ?fall and recovery? Born in Oak Park, Illinois Studied with Mary Wood Hinman in Chicago and at the Denishwan school in LA 1928 gave first independent concert with Charles Weidman Works: New Dance Trilogy (1930) greatest work of that time 1946 retired from the stage and became artistic director of Jose Limon?s new company Taught at Julliard, Connecticut College and 92nd Street YM-YWHA Theory in book form- The Art of Making Dance (1959) Sol Hurok (1888-1974) Self-made Born in Ukraine 1906 immigrated to US, settling in Brooklyn Began managerial career by arranging concerts for labor organizations Met Ana Pavlova in 1916 (managed) Managed: Uday Shankar, Katherine Dunham, Mary Wigman, Vicente Escudero, and Martha Graham Best remembered for his promotion of the Ballet Russe during 1930s-1940s Also for Soviet attractions: Bolshoi, Kirov, and Moiseyev Companies
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