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He served as the artist and cartographer
Their exploring lasted from 1804-1806, They traveled up the Missouri River, through the Rockies, and to the mouth of the Columbia River. This exploration bolstered America's claim to western lands as well as opening the west to Indian trade and further exploration
Lewis and Clark's main goal was to explore the Louisiana Purchase and find out about the soil, the size, the topography, and the climate they could determine if it was a good place for people to settle. Also, to find new species such as the prairie dog. Also, to find a water route to the Pacific Ocean. This goal, This goal however, they never achieved. Also, we wanted to encounter and befriend some Native American tribes. They were able to accomplish that with the help of Sacagawea.
An 1807 law that imposed a total ban on foreign trade. Jefferson hoped that an American embargo, or ban on trade, would hurt France and Britain by cutting off needed supplies. He was hoping to avoid war, since he knew the small American fleet was no match for the powerful British navy. The embargo hurt France & Britain but it also hurt Americans too.
Louisiana Purchase (1803), Allowed Alien & Sedition Acts to expire, ended taxes (whiskey tax), Reduced number of Federal employees, Reduced the size of military, Embargo Act of 1807, Marbury v. Madiso
(James Madison President). United States vs. Britain. Occurred because of War Hawks view on losing independence. English and Americans lost and won equally in battles. Meanwhile, there was war with Natives (Creek), which was ended in the Treaty of Fort Jackson. Britain overtook Washington DC and later headed towards New Orleans. Showed other nations the Americans were united and believed in themselves as a country. Many thought this war was a mistake, but others said it was good for the U.S.
It was written by Francis Scott Key. He wrote it while watching the British fail to take over Fort McHenry in Baltimore (the flag was still there.) The British burned the white house and many other things in Washington D.C after the war of 1812, but they could not take down Fort McHenry. After all that, the American flag was still standing tall.
"nothing was settled, nothing was adjusted"
- John Quincy Adams
Shawnee leader who organized an alliance of native peoples along with the help of his brother Tenskwatawa (the profit) to resist white encroachment on Native American lands.
- cotton gin
National Road was built in 1811 and finished in 1818. Later, the road was extended to Illinois.
Under Chief Justice John Marshall, the SC strengthened the power of the FG to promote Ec growth. States have no right to interfere with federal institutions within their borders. This strengthened Fed power. Also allowed the BOTUS to continue. SC also upheld the power of the FG to regulate trade between states. Only the federal government has the power to regulate interstate commerce or trade between different states. This helped the N Eco by making it easier for the govt to regulate trade.
The power of the Supreme Court to decide whether the acts of a President or laws passed by Congress are constitutional.
Marbury vs. Madison
Marbury was a last minute appointed judge by Adams who was appointed on the last night of Adam's presidency. Supreme Court ruled against Marbury. This set up the precedent of judicial review. Court decided against Marbury. Established the doctrine of judicial review, which recognizes the authority of courts to declare statutes unconstitutional.
McCulloch vs. Maryland
An 1819 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that states had no right to interfere with federal institutions within their borders. This strengthened federal power. Also allowed the Bank of the United States to continue, which helped the economy to expand. Congress created a national bank. Some states opposed the bank because it competed with state banks. Maryland imposed a tax on the bank. McCulloch refused to pay the tax and was sued by Maryland.
Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824)
An 1814 case in which the Supreme Court upheld the power of the federal government to regulate commerce. Federal government (not the state governments) had the power to regulate trade between the states.
The idea that the U.S should expand its national boundaries to their highest potential. (Not in other continents, just in North America.
Acquisition of Florida (1819)
In 1818, Jackson again headed to Florida with a force of more than 3000 soldiers. Spain protested but did little else. It was busy fighting rebels in Latin America and could not risk war with the U.S. Spain agreed to peace talks. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams worked out a treaty with Spain. Spain agreed to give Florida to U.S. for $5 million. The Adams-Ones Treaty took effect in 1821. Florida became a state in 1819. In 1818, Andrew Jackson was going to raid the Spanish Florida when Spain made a deal with the USA.
1800's belief that Americans had the right to spread across the continent. It was God's plan for the US to occupy western territory. (The belief or doctrine, that it was the destiny of the U.S. to expand its territory over the whole of North America and to extend and enhance its political, social, and economic influences)
Andrew Jackson, Democrat (1829-1837) 7th President
Extended spoils system (patronage) to federal government. Opposed federally funded internal improvements. Prepared to use force during the nullification crisis in South Carolina over tariff policy (1833). Strongly opposed the Second Bank of the U.S. Supported removal of Native Americans west of the Mississippi River. Awarding government jobs to political supporters and friends. Andrew Jackson placed the spoil system because he believed the public offices should be rotated among party supporters. He believed that performance in these positions required no special intelligence or training. "To the victor belong the spoils".
The People's President
Common Man who did not need or want people of higher authority by his side. People loved him because he acted like a normal person. He was for the common people also.
The Spoil's System
Spoils are profits or benefits. The practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs is known as the spoil system. Jackson replaced many bureaucrats in Washington, and paid back his political supporters with government jobs.
Indian Removal Act (1830)
Law passed in 1830 that forced many Native Americans to move west of the Mississippi River. 1830: Ordered the removal of Indian tribes still residing east of the Mississippi to newly established Indian Territory west of AK and MO. Tribes resisting eviction were forcibly removed by Am. forces, often after prolonged legal or military battles.
Worcester vs. Georgia (1832)
Georgia claimed the right to make laws for the Cherokee nation in 1828. Cherokee case went to the Supreme Court and won. Decision from Supreme Court said that Native Americans were protected by the US Constitution. 1832 Indian Sovereignty is being undercut in practice. The Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the nation was a distinct political community under which "the laws of Georgia have no force". White settlers surround the Cherokee continue to see them as savages no matter where they lived or what they wore. Andrew Jackson would not back the Supreme Court's decision.
Nullification Crisis (1832)
1828. Congress passed the highest tariff in h/o nation. New tariff passed that lowered the rated. Nullification Act was passed by South Carolina declaring the new tariff illegal. S.C. also threatened to secede if challenged. S.C. was not supported by other states so it repealed the Nullification Act, and the Nullification Crisis passed. A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by South Carolina's 1832 Ordinance of Nullification. This ordinance declared by the power of the State that the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of South Carolina.
Economic Depression: a period when business declines and many people lose their job. Lasted 3 years.
Death of the Bank of the United States (B.O.T.U.S.)
National bank that would be funded by both federal government and wealthy investors. The BUS would issue paper money and handle tax receipts and other government funds
*Washington believed that it was a government supported monopoly.* 1836: Bank closed. Jackson believed that only states, not the federal government had the right to charter banks. Jackson also felt that this Bank helped the wealthy at the expense of the common people. Its closing contributed to an economic crisis.
The order of the star spangled banner founded in NY in 1849
Grew into third party known as American Party. AKA known as know-nothing party. Demanded exclusion if immigrants and Catholics from public office and extension of naturalization
Indian Resistance to Westward Migration – Examples
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